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Articles by M.Y. Wani
Total Records ( 4 ) for M.Y. Wani
  K. Dhama , R.P. Singh , K. Karthik , S. Chakraborty , R. Tiwari , M.Y. Wani and J. Mohan
  Spallanzani’s thought of Artificial Insemination (AI) has revolutionized the animal husbandry field, both in developing and developed countries, by improving the genetic potential of livestock and poultry; minimizing the managemental costs and holding the service of genetically superior males even after their death. AI in domesticated birds especially in turkey shows promising results unlike other domestic and wild animals. The advantages of AI are many which support the wide adaptation of this technique in the poultry industry to augment its growth. Making AI as an integral part of captive breeding programme for non-domesticated birds would facilitate the process of saving various endangered species of wild birds. However, there are various problems involved in case of birds which need to be addressed before implementing AI. Apart from these, AI also poses a risk of possible transmission of various infectious pathogens/diseases of poultry through semen or its contamination or during the process of insemination. Hence, careful and regular screening and monitoring of poultry will help to check the spread of such diseases. Novel methods are adopted to prevent the colonization of contaminant microbes in stored semen thereby minimizing the pathogen transfer. The recent advances in biotechnology and molecular biology need to be explored fully for early and rapid diagnosis of poultry diseases. This would help in formulating appropriate disease prevention and control strategies and thus safeguard poultry health and production. This review describes the salient facts about AI practices in poultry and possible transmission of infectious pathogens during insemination along with suitable prevention and control strategies to be adapted.
  Anjaneya , S.D. Singh , K. Dhama , M.Y. Wani , V. Gowthaman and M.M. Chawak
  Infectious Coryza (IC) is one of the highly infectious and contagious respiratory tract disease of poultry caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. It has emerged as one of the major problem of commercial poultry industry worldwide due to huge economic losses in terms of increased number of culls and significant reduction in egg production (10-40%). Scarce reports are available regarding prevalence of Av. paragallinarum from India. The present study was designed to characterize the Indian Av. paragallinarum serovars at molecular level based on the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S ribosomal gene amplified, amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), sequencing of haemagglutinin antigen (hagA) gene and phylogenetic analysis. Four culture positive isolates of Av. paragallinarum, recovered from different geographical locations of the country, were confirmed by species specific HPG-2 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and other 10 nasal sinus swabs were found positive by direct HPG-2 PCR. ARDRA technique amplified product of 16S ribosomal DNA (r-DNA) showed identical Restriction Enzyme Analysis (REA) pattern for all the isolates indicating presence of similar operons in 16S ribosomal gene. The ‘hagA’ encoding a haemagglutinin antigen of Av. paragallinarum from all the field isolates revealed homology between Australian A and C serovar strain but did not cluster according to Page’s serovar scheme of classification. The present study is first in its nature regarding the molecular characterisation of Indian field isolates of Av. paragallinarum and provides valuable information regarding their genetic nature. Further extensive molecular studies will help both in the identification of field isolates and devising appropriate prevention and control measures for this important pathogen of poultry.
  S.A. Bhat , J.K. Khajuria , R. Katoch , M.Y. Wani and K. Dhama
  Backyard poultry rearing is an important venture and integral part of mixed farming in most of the developing countries of world. Very scarce reports regarding the effects of parasites on free ranging birds are available from India. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of helminth parasites in the backyard poultry farming in the northern, humid and subtropical region of India. A total of 120 gut specimens and 600 faecal samples of backyard poultry were collected from different villages and analysed for parasitic worm loads and different egg/ova types. Furthermore, a random field trial on 40 birds reared in backyard poultry system was carried out to determine the effect of fenbendazole treatment on the parasitic load and production performance. On gut examination, the most common nematodes found were, Ascaridia galli (20%), Heterakis gallinarum (10.83%), Capillaria spp. (5%) and Cheilospirura hamulosa (1.67%) while the cestodes were Raillietina tetragona (9.16%), R. echinbothrida (5%), Hymenolepis spp. (5%), Cotugnia digonopora (3.33%) and R. cesticillus (2.5%). The faecal examination showed higher incidence of A. galli (19.16%), H. gallinarum (9.5%), Capillaria spp. (3.5%), Trichostrongylus tenuis (2.5%), Raillietina spp. (16.16%), Eimeria spp. (5.33%) and mixed infections (6.67%). Treatment with fenbendazole was found to reduce mortality (15%) as compared to untreated (30%) groups. Moreover, fenbendazole treated birds gained significantly steadily weights (r = -0.35) as compared to untreated group (r = -0.019). The study is first in its nature in providing the valuable information regarding prevalence of endoparasites based on faecal examination in backyard poultry from the Jammu region. This information will essentially be helpful for the researchers and local veterinarians to develop strategies for both treatment and control of these endoparasites affecting poultry.
  A. Hansa , R.B. Rai , K. Dhama , M.Y. Wani , M. Saminathan and G.J. Ranganath
  Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) is widespread both in dairy and beef cattle throughout the world. The virus is one of the largest RNA virus and has specific tropism for intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cells. It is responsible for huge economic losses by causing winter dysentery in adult dairy cattle and respiratory and intestinal tract infections leading to pneumo-enteritis in young calves. Isolation of BCoV has been reported to be difficult. Studies regarding epidemiology, virus isolation and molecular detection from India are very few. In the present study Vero cell line was used for isolation of the BCoV from Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) positive samples. Direct florescent antibody technique (dFAT) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to confirm the isolated virus strains at antigenic and genomic levels, respectively. Out of the 15 positive fecal samples, virus from only seven was able to infect vero cell line. Subsequently BCoV got adapted to the vero cell line upto three passages, which was confirmed both at genomic and antigenic levels by dFAT and RT-PCR testing. It can be concluded that vero cell line can be used for isolation of BCoV, however due to the enormous stain diversity of the virus it is possible that many stains can’t grow and get adapt in this cell line. Further studies are required for isolation of different viral strains, finding the susceptible cell lines and also to confirm the variations among the BCoV isolates at antigenic/genomic levels.
 
 
 
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