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Articles by M.T. Kamara
Total Records ( 5 ) for M.T. Kamara
  M.T. Kamara , I. Amadou , Zhu Kexue , M.B. Kelfala Foh and Z. Huiming
  In this study, we examined the influence of Macroporous Adsorption Resin (MAR) in simultaneous desalting and debittering of defatted foxtail millet protein hydrolysate (DFMPH), analyzed their amino acid content, molecular weight distribution, functional and organoleptic properties. The DFMPH were obtained by hydrolysis using Alcalase 2.4 L with a degree of hydrolysis of 27%. MAR DA 201-C was used to desalt the DFMPH. The ash was removed by adsorbing DFMPH onto MAR. Desorption was achieved by washing with alcohol at different concentrations. Ash content of the DFMPH was reduced from 10.11 to 2.11% ranges. The protein content increased from 86.84 to 96.76, 95.74 and 92.31 for the various fractions 30, 55 and 70%, respectively with a significant different (p<0.05). The bitter taste was reduced to slightly detectable levels. The essential amino acids were above the recommended amount of Food Agricultural organization/World Health Organization for humans. The hydrolysates and the fractions have a molecular weight between 60 and 9000 Da, maximum solubility of 91, 97, 93 and 95% at pH 12.0 and were able to form very low viscosity solutions even at high concentrations, for 30, 55 and 70%, respectively. The functional properties studied exhibited good qualities that make them acceptable for use in such applications as hypoallergenic infant formulas, sport nutrition and functional foods. DFMPH and the fractions are potential as functional food ingredient. The functional properties studied exhibited good qualities that make them acceptable for use in such applications as hypoallergenic infant formulas, sport nutrition and functional foods.
  M.T. Kamara , Z. Huiming , Z. Kexue , I. Amadou and F. Tarawalie
  In this study, we examined the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of two varieties defatted foxtail millet flour grown in China. The seeds were obtained, milled and sieved to produce flour. The flours were tagged DFMFW and DFMFY for defatted foxtail millet flour white and defatted foxtail millet flour yellow, respectively. The protein contents of DFMFW and DFMFY were 11.92 and 11.39, respectively. DFMFY had higher mineral elements, ash and fat content than DFMFW. Essential amino acids were above the recommended amount by Food Agricultural organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) for humans. The foxtail millet flours had molecular sizes below 14.4 kDa and above 97.0 kDa. They had similar solubility curves. Water binding capacity was in the range of 1.36 and 1.26 g g-1, while oil absorption capacity ranged between 0.78 and 0.50 g g-1 for both DFMFW and DFMFY, respectively. A low bulk density (0.27 and 0.23 g mL-1) and was also low in total phenolic assay (0.56 and 0.72 mg g-1) was observed for both DFMFW and DFMFY, respectively. Foam capacity was 13.36 mL for DFMFW and 12.32 mL DFMFY. Their infrared falls within (1600 and 600 cm-1) and both samples possessed O-H and C-H compounds. Defatted foxtail millet flour could be used in food formulation with less fear of retrogradation.
  I. Amadou , S. Jin , M.T. Kamara , Y.H. Shi , O.S. Gbadamosi and Le Guo-Wei
  In this study, soybean protein meal was subjected to solid state fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6 either in the presence or absence of a protease. The extracts were investigated for changes in mineral composition, amino acid composition, in vitro trypsin digestibility, DPPH radical scavenging activities and electrophoretic pattern. The amino acid and mineral element compositions showed significant (p<0.001) variations among the samples. The Fermented Soybean Protein Meal (FSPM) with protease added (FSPMe) showed higher total free amino acid (4.8467 g/100 g sample) compared to 0.2523 g/100 g sample obtained for unfermented Soybean Protein Meal (SPM). The FSPMe had the highest in vitro trypsin digestibility and showed a single polypeptide with estimated molecular weight of 14.4 kDa in the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) assay.
  M.T. Kamara , Z.H. Ming and Z. Kexue
  In this study, we examined the various protein fractions and protein concentrates of two selected varieties (white and yellow) of foxtail millet grown in China. Characterized by amino acid analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The protein content for the white increased after defatting though not significantly different (p<0.05) from 11.50 to 11.59 and the yellow decreased from 11.41 to 11.39. Fat content shows a significant decreased (p<0.05) after defatting from 2.38 to 0.41(white) and 2.90 to 0.66 (yellow). Prolamin yellow and glutelin white were the major fractions (38.8 and 47.2%, respectively), followed by albumin yellow and white as 2.6 and 1.5%, respectively and globulin yellow and white as 2.5 and 1.4%, respectively and the difference was significant (p<0.05) among the various protein fractions. Results showed a significant amount of amino acids with essential amino acids above the recommended amount by FAO/WHO for humans. Albumin white possessed the highest DSC result (Tp = 79.583°C, ΔH = 5.115 J g-1), glutelin white the lowest (Tp = 66.682°C, ΔH = 0.313 J g-1). Fractions and concentrates had molecular sizes below 14.0 and above 97. 0 kDa. Protein fractions and concentrates are potential as functional food ingredient.
  M.B.K. Foh , M.T. Kamara , I. Amadou , B.M. Foh and Xia Wenshui
  In this study, we examined the chemical and physicochemical properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish protein hydrolysate and concentrate. Fresh Minced Meat Hydrolysate (FMMH) and Hot Water Dip Hydrolysate (HWDH) were hydrolyzed by using commercial protease Alcalase 2.4 L, with an estimated Degree of Hydrolysis (DH) 23.40 and 25.43%, respectively, exhibiting superior physico-functional properties over concentrates (p<0.05). Maximum solubility of 90 and 82% at pH 11.0 above, with a U shaped solubility curves. Furthermore, HWDH has the highest bulk density (0.53 g mL-1). In vitro protein digestibility (93.20%) and a good foaming stability. The hydrolysates were light yellow in color as influenced by the hydrolysis process and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed a smoother microstructure than the concentrate. The molecular weight ranged below 8,000 and 8,000 Da above and the essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (2007) for humans. However, Fish Protein Concentrates (FPC) had higher mineral elements and ash content than fish protein hydrolyzates (FPH) (p<0.05). The HWDC possessed the highest differential scanning calorimetry result (peak temperature of 59.13°C, delta H = 195.564 J g-1), while FMMC had the lowest (peak temperature 52.84°C, delta H = 11.0480 J g-1), respectively.
 
 
 
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