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Articles by M.T. Agyei-Frempong
Total Records ( 5 ) for M.T. Agyei-Frempong
  M.T. Agyei-Frempong , F.N. Ghartey , S. Asante-Poku and B. Wiafe-Addai
  The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence and proportion of estrogen-dependent, breast cancers in Ghana. Thirty two breast cancer tissues were obtained at random from patients seen at Komfo Anokye and Korle Bu Teaching Hospitals. Estrogen receptors were identified and quantitated using the cytosol-based dextran-coated charcoal assay. This was followed-up with a nationwide awareness and screening exercise from 1999 to 2002 to help improve awareness, encourage earlier detection and determine the prevalence of breast cancer in Ghana. Six out of 32 (18.75%, p>0.05) breast tumors were estrogen-dependent with receptor contents ranging from 12.75 to 101.31 (mean: 50.59±28.83) f mol mg-1 of cytosol protein. The mean tumor size was 12.58x 2.59 cm. Prevalence rate for breast cancer in Ghana ranged from 0.41-1.11% with a mean of 0.76±0.35% (at 95% confidence interval) among females aged 18 to 80 years. The mean age at diagnosis for breast cancer was 46.29 (±11.50) years/woman (confidence interval of ±22.54 years). Ghanaian women develop breast cancer some 10 to 15 years earlier than Caucasians and are less likely to respond to anti-estrogen therapy due to low proportion of estrogen receptor positive breast cancers.
  M.T. Agyei-Frempong , E. Nkansah , G. Bedu-Addo and K. Opare-Sem
  The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of paraproteinaemia in patients found to be hyperproteinaemic at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) and to find out the prevalence of Bence Jones Proteins (BJP) in the urine samples of such patients. The study involved 90 patients (48 males, 42 females) who reported to the Chemical Pathology Unit at KATH for protein estimation and were found to have total protein levels above 82 g L-1 using the ATAC 8000 Chemistry autoanalyzer. The initial screenings were done using serum protein electrophoresis. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed monoclonal bands in 11 (12.2%) of the patients and out of these 6.67% were found to have BJP in their urine. 57.8% had polyclonal increase in the γ region, 14.4% had hypoalbuminaemia, 6.6% gave normal electrophoretic pattern and 8.8% had either increase in α2 proteins or beta protein or beta increase with reduced albumin or decrease in all plasma proteins and a higher frequency of monoclonal gammopathy in females than in males. The study revealed a high incidence of IgG monoclonal gammopathy compared to IgA and IgM monoclonal gammopathies. There is high incidence of paraproteinaemia among hyperproteinaemic patients reporting at the Hospital. Serum protein electrophoresis should therefore, be routinely performed on all samples found to have high protein level. This will enable early treatment of patients with monoclonal gammopathies with the appropriate replacement therapy.
  M.T. Agyei-Frempong , N.Y.F. Frempong , K. Aboah and K.A. Boateng
  This study sought to find the correlation between Free to TPSA (F/T PSA) ratio and the histological grades of prostate cancer. Among 120 selected from both in-patients and out-patient clinic of the urology unit, 51 underwent tissue biopsies within six months of their PSA measurements using enzyme immunoassay. The F/T PSA ratios of patients with prostate cancer were compared to those with BPH, using the students` t-test. Correlation between histology grades and F/T PSA ratios was calculated by the Pearson test and linear regression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were generated from sensitivities and specificities of various F/T PSA ratios, FPSA and TPSA levels. The F/T PSA ratio was significantly lower in the group of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) (0.118 ± 0.0043) compared to BPH (0.302 ± 0.0179, p<0.0001). There was also an inverse correlation between F/T PSA ratios and aggressiveness of histology grades (r2 = 0.76, p<0.0001), that is, the higher the histology grade, the lower the F/T PSA ratio. The best accuracy was obtained with F/T PSA ratio cut-off at 0.15, with specificity of 87.50% and sensitivity of 100%. The use of the F/T PSA ratio improves PSA-based differential diagnoses of prostate cancer in patients and can also lead to more specific identification of potentially curable prostate cancer and reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies.
  M.T. Agyei-Frempong , H. Adusei , E. Osei-Frimpong and K. Darkwah
  The immune system is our major defense against viruses, tumors and other ‘foreign invaders’. The issue of humans’ defense against viral infections and the reaction of immune system to these infections are the main problems in practical immunology. To understand the integrated behaviour of the immune system, there is no alternative to Mathematical modeling. This current study seeks to extend the one system of two differential equations originally developed by a system of three differential equations. The system was used to model the behaviour of lymphoid cells in the absence of viruses. The steady states and the stability for this differential model were deduced. The model permitted the existence of two types of stationary states. These are a stable state and an unstable state. It was found from the study that a stable state represents the pre-programmed state of the matured lymphoid cells to attack pathogens which may invade the organism. The unstable state represents immuno-deficiency as a result of one or more cells within the immune system not operating properly or the cells are absent altogether.
  M.T. Agyei-Frempong , F.V.K. Titty , W.K.B.A. Owiredu and B.A. Eghan
  This study investigate the occurrence and the prevalence of autoantibodies and the metabolic characteristics of autoimmune and antibody-negative type 2, diabetes in recently diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients in Kumasi, Ghana. This study involved a total of 120 recently diagnosed (< 1 year) Ghanaian diabetes mellitus patients (17 insulin-requiring and 103 non insulin-requiring) and 60 controls. A standardized questionnaire was used. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken. Fasting glucose, lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were measured by enzymatic methods and HbA1C levels by agglutination test. Serum insulin level and autoantibodies (ICA, GAD ab and IAA) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of the 17 insulin-requiring, six were positive for either GAD ab or ICA or both. Out of the 103 non insulin-requiring, 16.5% were positive for ICA and /or GAD ab and/or IAA. The prevalence of Latent Auto-immune Diabetes of Adults (LADA) in the non-insulin requiring and in the total diabetic patients, were 13.5 and 11.7%, respectively. The prevalence of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in the studied population was 7.5% and that of autoimmune diabetes in the total diabetic population was 19.2%. Autoimmune and autoantibody-negative type 2, diabetes did not differ (p = ns) in the mean values of clinical and metabolic parameters, except hypertension, central obesity and HbA1C values. Autoimmune diabetes occurs in recently diagnosed diabetic patients in Ghana at prevalence comparable to that in developed countries. Both ICA and GAD ab tests are required to identify autoimmune diabetes.
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