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Articles by M.T. Musgrove
Total Records ( 4 ) for M.T. Musgrove
  J.K. Northcutt , D.R. Jones , K.D. Ingram , A. Hinton , Jr. and M.T. Musgrove
  Total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, coliforms and pseudomonads in the air in three shell egg processing operations (in-line, off-line and mixed operations) were determined using MicroBio MB2 Air Samplers. Sites were sampled from each facility on three different days (replication) during the same week. Four air samples (1000 L each) were drawn from each sampling site on a given day. Sampling sites, included areas in or near the following on-site locations: hen house (in-line and mixed operations), farm transition room (in-line and mixed operations), egg washers, egg dryer, packer heads, post-processing cooler, nest-run cooler (off-line and mixed operations), loading dock and dry storage. Type of operation (in-line, off-line or mixed), sampling site and the interaction between operation and site had a significant effect on the number of total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, coliforms and pseudomonads recovered (P < 0.05). Highest counts for total aerobic bacteria (5.9 log10 cfu/ml air), molds/yeasts (4.0 log10 cfu/ml air) and coliforms (2.5 log10 cfu/ml air) were found in the hen house. Highest counts for pseudomonads were found in the hen house (3.2 log10 cfu/ml air) and behind the egg washer (3.5 log10 cfu/ml air). Lowest counts for total aerobic bacteria (2.5 log10 cfu/ml air) and molds/yeast (2.7 log10 cfu/ml air) were found in the post-processing cooler. Few samples in the post-processing coolers, nest-run coolers, loading docks and dry storage areas tested positive for coliforms (0/36, 2/24, 1/36 and 0/36, respectively) and pseudomonads (1/36, 2/24, 5/36 and 6/36, respectively). Data gathered during this study has been useful in identifying the sources and levels of airborne contaminates in commercial shell egg processing facilities.
  J.K. Northcutt , D.R. Jones and M.T. Musgrove
  Total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae in the air during the commercial production and processing of Japanese quail were enumerated at twelve different sites. Production-related sampling sites included the breeder and grow-out houses along with the hatchery setter, hatcher, egg room and chick room. Processing-related sampling sites included the hanging/stunning area, scalding/defeathering room, evisceration line, chiller exit, further processing area and shipping room. Sampling site had a significant effect on the log10 counts for total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae and (P < 0.0001). Moreover, significant correlation was found between airborne bacteria counts and both environmental temperature and humidity (P < 0.05). During production, highest counts for total aerobic bacteria (8.1 log10 cfu/ml air), molds/yeasts (3.6 log10 cfu/ml air), E. coli (1.9 log10 cfu/ml air) and Enterobacteriaceae (2.3 log10 cfu/ml air) occurred in the grow-out house. Lowest production-related counts for total aerobic bacteria (3.5 log10 cfu/ml air), molds/yeasts (2.5 log10 cfu/ml air) and Enterobacteriaceae (2.0 log10 cfu/ml air) occurred in the chick room at the hatchery. At the processing facility, highest counts for total aerobic bacteria (6.8 log10 cfu/ml air), E. coli (1.4 log10 cfu/ml air) and Enterobacteriaceae (1.5 log10 cfu/ml air) occurred in the areas where quail are hung/stunned and scalded/defeathered. E. coli was not found at any of the sampling sites in the hatchery (setter, hatcher, egg room, chick room) or at the chiller exit, further processing area or shipping room at the processing facility. Data gathered during this study may be useful in identifying the sources and levels of airborne contaminates in commercial production and processing of quail so that effective intervention practices may be established or strengthened.
  D.R. Jones , M.T. Musgrove , A.B. Caudill , P.A. Curtis and J.K. Northcutt
  A study was conducted to examine the effects of cool water washing on the microbial quality of shell eggs. Six dual tank wash water temperature schemes were examined for their ability to reduce naturally occurring aerobic bacteria and inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). The wash water schemes were: T1= 48.9oC; T2 = 48.9oC, 23.9oC; T3 = 48.9oC, 15.6oC; T4 = 23.9oC; T5 = 15.6oC; and T6 = 23.9oC, 15.6oC. All wash water tanks were maintained from 10.5-11.5 pH throughout the study. Eggs were exposed to the wash water temperature schemes in a pilot egg washer with recirculating wash water tanks. The total amount of time eggs were exposed to the wash water combinations was 60 s. Following washing, all eggs were sprayed with a 48.9oC, 200 ppm chlorine rinse solution. Eggs were stored and sampled for 9 wks. External aerobic populations were lowest for T1 (typical U.S. wash water configuration), followed by T2 and T3. Aerobic surface contamination was greatest in T5 eggs. All treatments reduced SE levels in a similar manner as detected by shell and membrane emulsion and egg contents pools after enrichment. Commercial application of cool water shell egg processing will be investigated to determine the potential of this technology to enhance the safety and quality of shell eggs.
  D.P. Smith , J.K. Northcutt and M.T. Musgrove
  Processors are washing carcasses with one or more inside-outside bird washers (IOBW) to comply with the zero tolerance for visible feces regulation mandated by the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service. A study was conducted to determine the effect of an IOBW on total aerobic bacteria, E. coli, Campylobacter, and Salmonella recovered from uncontaminated (control), contaminated, and possibly cross contaminated broiler carcasses at two different IOBW water pressure settings. In each of three trials, 12 commercially processed carcasses, divided into two groups each containing two control carcasses, two carcasses contaminated with 0.1g cecal contents (inoculated with Campylobacter and Salmonella), and two carcasses uncontaminated and placed adjacent to contaminated birds during washing (to determine cross contamination) were prepared (n=36). Whole carcass rinses were conducted on carcasses before contamination and washing, then again after washing. Carcasses were washed with an in-line commercial IOBW set at 140 birds per minute for a 5 sec dwell time and either 276 or 552 kPa (40 or 80 PSI) water pressure. Counts of total bacteria, E. coli, Campylobacter, or Salmonella were not significantly affected (P< 0.05) by contamination with feces, by cross-contamination, or by IOBW pressure. The overall effect of washing was a slight but significant reduction in total aerobic bacteria (4.9 to 4.8) and E. coli (3.2 to 3.0) log cfu/ml rinsate. The IOBW decreased the incidence of Campylobacter from 22/36 positive carcasses (14 positive incoming carcasses plus 8 inoculated carcasses) to 1/36 positives, while Salmonella incidence decreased from 12/36 contaminated (inoculated) carcasses to 3/36 positive carcasses after washing. The IOBW removed carcass contamination to levels equivalent with uncontaminated controls without cross contaminating other carcasses. The incidence of Campylobacter was decreased, as was Salmonella to a lesser extent. Small reductions of bacterial numbers were noted for total bacteria and E. coli.
 
 
 
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