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Articles by M.S. Youssef
Total Records ( 4 ) for M.S. Youssef
  M.S. Youssef , O.M.O. El-Maghraby and Y.M. Ibrahim
  Sixty-three species in addition to 3 varieties of 21 genera were isolated from 20 samples of each of untreated (51 species + 3 varieties of 21 genera and 51.24x103 cfu g-1 dry weight seeds), roasted (28 + 2 of 12 and 11.5x103 cfu) and roasted with salt (28 + 2 of 7 and 7.5x103 cfu) on dextrose-Czapek’s agar at 28 °C using dilution-plate method. The dominant fungal genera with their respective species on three types of seeds were Aspergillus (A. niger, A. flavus and A. ficuum), Penicillium (P. citrinum) and Fusarium (F. oxysporum). Based on biological, TLC, spectrophotometeric and ELISA assays, fourteen samples (23.3%) out of 60 tested proved to be toxic with different mycotoxins; aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxins, diacetoxyscirpenol and zearalenone. Also, mycoflora and myctoxins of six cultivars, widely cultivated in Upper Egypt were studied as pre-storage and post-storage in normal store for 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. A total of 28 species belonging to 14 genera were identified on dextrose-Czapek’s agar medium (25 species of 12 genera) and cellulose-Czapek’s agar medium (24 of 12) using dilution-plate method at 28 °C. Aspergillus (A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus), Fusarium (F. oxysporum) and Penicillium (P. citrinum) were the most prevalent fungal genera and species and their counts increased with lengthening of storage period. Cultivars were non-toxic, but toxins production appeared after 12 and 24 months of storage on two and three cultivars, respectively.
  O.M.O. El-Maghraby , M.S. Youssef and Y.M. Ibrahim
  The research aimed to study the role of aflatoxins contaminated peanut seeds (4, 8, 16 and 32 μg g-1 seeds) on fungal populations of soil, rhizosphere, rhizoplane, phyllosphere and phylloplane of cultivated peanut plants for 15, 30, 60 and 120 days in the field, with special reference to aflatoxins biodegradation in soil. Mycological survey revealed that the total fungal count of soil (692.9 colonies mg-1 dry soil) was high compared with that of rhizosphere (602.9 colonies mg-1 fresh root system) and phyllosphere (103.12 colonies mg-1 fresh shoot system) based on dilution-plate method. As well as, phylloplane total fungal count (472 colonies/10 shoot segments) was rich than that of rhizoplane (288 colonies/10 root segments) based on plating-method. A total of 67 species in addition to two varieties belonging to 26 fungal genera were isolated and identified from soil (28 species of 12 genera), rhizosphere (43+1 variety of 16), phyllosphere (49+1 variety of 18), rhizoplane (15 of 10) and phylloplane (29 of 14) of peanut plants investigated (control and treated samples) on dextrose-Czapek`s agar medium at 28±2°C. Treatment of peanut seeds with different doses of aflatoxin before planting resulted in a clear effect on total fungal count of both of rhizosphere and soil, while there was no clear effect on total fungal count of rhizoplane, phyllosphere and phylloplane after different cultivation periods. The rate of aflatoxin biodegradation was dose and time dependent, that after 3 days was 40, 70, 81.9 and 89.5% at (4, 8, 16 and 32 μg g-1 seeds), while after 7 days was 70, 81.3, 85.6 and 92.5%, respectively, whereas, after 15 days, no mycotoxin could be detected in the lowest dose (4 μg g-1) and traces in the other remaining doses. After 30 days, completely disappearance of toxin was recorded at the different treatment doses.
  M.S. Youssef , E.M. El-Mahmoudy and Maryam A.S. Abubakr
  One hundred and forty three species in addition to 9 varieties belonging to 32 fungal genera were isolated and identified from 15 samples of each of broad bean, chickpea, kidney bean and sweet pea seeds collected from eight Shabias in Libya on 1% dextrose-Czapek`s agar medium at 28 ±2 °C using seed-plate method (3792 colonies 25 seeds-1, 29 fungal genera, 111 species and 2 varieties) and dilution-plate method (2330 colonies g-1 dry weight sample, 23 genera, 100 species and 7 varieties). The fungal genera of highest occurrence and their respective number of the species were Aspergillus (A. flavus, A. niger and A. fumigatus), Penicillium (P. chrysogenum), Mucor (M. hiemalis), Alternaria (A. alternata), Fusarium (F. oxysporum), Rhizopus (R. stolonifer) and Eurotium (E. chevalieri and E. repens). Mycotoxin assay proved that 16 samples (26.7%) out of 60 tested were toxic with different toxins and varying degrees of toxicity. No mycotoxins tested were detected in any chickpea seed samples investigated. It is the first report on mycoflora and mycotoxins of Fabaceae seeds in Libya, as well as 85 species in addition to 7 varieties belonging to 20 genera are new records to Libyan mycoflora.
  M.S. Youssef
  Thirty samples of each of sundried jew`s mallow leaves and okra fruits collected from six Governorates in Egypt were analyzed for their mould contamination and potential presence of mycotoxins. Mycological investigation revealed that twenty-six species and two varieties belonging to 13 genera of fungi were identified on Czapek`s-dextrose and potato-dextrose agar media at 28±2°C using dilution-plating method. Okra fruit samples were highly contaminated with fungal spores (total counts were 47523 and 30563 colonies g-1 sample) than jew`s mallow leaves samples (16608 and 6045 colonies), while the relative diversity and broad number of fungal genera and species was recorded on jew`s mallow leaves (10 genera, 20 species + one variety and 6 genera, 10 species) than okra fruit samples (8, 16 + 2 and 3, 9 + 1) on the two used media, respectively. Aspergillus was the highest occurrence (100% of the samples) and represented by 13 species + one variety of which, A. flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. awamori, A. foetidus and A. ficuum were the predominant. Mucor, Rhizopus, Fusarium, Myrothecium, Emericella and Cochliobolus were fungal genera isolated with different occurrences in high or/and moderate from the two plants samples tested on the two used media. Mycotoxin analysis proved that jew`s mallow leave samples were free from any detectable mycotoxins, while five samples of dried okra fruits out of 30 tested (16.7%) were proved to be toxic. It is the first record of mycotoxins contamination of okra fruits in Egypt. The ability of 347 isolates of recovered fungi was screened for production of mycotoxins and extracellular cellulase enzymes.
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