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Articles by M.S. Kamarudin
Total Records ( 6 ) for M.S. Kamarudin
  M. Jafari , M.S. Kamarudin , C.R. Saad , A. Arshad , S. Oryan and M.H.T. Guilani
  The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different diets on Caspian kutum larval growth, survival and body composition, thus the Caspian kutum was examined in diets, Starved (S), Egg yolk (E), Artemia nauplii (A) and Artemia nauplii plus egg yolk (A+E). Totally four dietary treatments were tested in triplicate for 30 days. A significant growth difference between fry fed was observed in Artemia plus egg yolk (p<0.05). Final mean lengths and weights for each treatment (S, A, E, A+E), respectively were 7.0±0.07, 26±0.91, 23.5±0.91, 28.6±0.18 mm (Mean±SE, n = 12) and 4.9±0.08, 57±2.14, 51±2.18, 74±3.64 mg (Mean±SE, n = 12). The larvae accumulated increasing protein in Treatment A+E and lipid in treatment E (p<0.05). Also, the highest survival rate, 70.9±2.1%was in the treatment A+E and was significantly higher compared to 59.5±1.45% and 56.6±0.98%and in the other group (p<0.05). During culture period some other factors such as DGC (Daily Growth Coefficient), DWG (Daily Weight Gain), DLG (Daily Length Gain) and SGR (Specific Growth factor Rate) were measured. The obtained result showed that diet Artemia plus egg yolk is promising for use in Caspian kutum culture for in early stages of life cycle.
  J.C. Teh , M.S. Kamarudin , A. Abd Rahim and C.R. Saad
  The understanding of appetitive and foraging behavior of medicinal leeches is important for successful breeding and culture of healthy leeches. This study was conducted to determine the response of Asian buffalo leech, Hirudinaria manillensis for combinations of selected chemical compounds. Five solutions with different combinations of sodium chloride, arginine, glycine and glucose were filled into rubber sacs and fed to the leeches in 3 replicates each. Heparinized cattle blood was used as the control. The percentages of leech that approached the sacs and the average volume consumed per individual were estimated. After feeding, the survival of leeches in each treatment was monitored daily for seven days. The results showed that a solution containing 150 mM sodium chloride, 1 mM L-arginine, 50 mM glycine and 1 mg mL-1 glucose gave significantly higher (p<0.05) approach percentage and feed consumption than other solutions. Its performance was equivalent to the cattle blood. Poor feeding consumption was observed when only L-arginine or glycine were added to the saline solution. Nevertheless, mortality up to 40% was observed among the feeding leeches while the survival of non-feeding leeches was nearing or at 100%.
  M.P.A. Muntaziana , S.M.N. Amin , M.S. Kamarudin and A.A. Rahim
  Twenty-five days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the growth and survival of Channa striatus fry fed with three types of fresh foods (bloodworm, trash fish and Acetes shrimps). Ten fry were stocked in each aquarium (46x46x37 cm) and fed ad libitum twice a day (1000 and 1700 h). All treatments were triplicate. The fry fed trash fish showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher weight gain percentage (376.50±20.74%) than those fed with Acetes shrimp (233.05±10.18%) and bloodworm (199.08±17.25%). The final mean total lengths of fry fed with trash fish, bloodworm and Acetes shrimps were 7.91±0.23, 7.28±0.23 and 7.21±0.17 cm, respectively. Fry fed with trash fish also showed the best Specific Growth Rate (SGR) value (6.24±0.17% day-1) followed by Acetes shrimp (4.81±0.12% day-1) and bloodworm (4.33±0.22% day-1). The best Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) value (3.63±0.27) was found among fish fed with trash fish compared to those fed Acetes shrimp (7.41±0.88) and bloodworm (11.48±1.51). It could be concluded that trash fish was an excellent feed for C. striatus fry in term of growth, weight gain and FCR.
  Efrizal , A. Arshad , M.S. Kamarudin , C.R. Saad and S.M.N. Amin
  This study was carried out to observe and describe sexual dimorphism, reproductive system, macroscopic and histological gonad development and Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) of blue swimming crab (P. pelagicus) during post-spawning, spent spawner and berried female under laboratory conditions. The general sex dimorphism and reproductive system of male and female blue swimming crab were observed similar to be most other decapods crustaceans. The pubertal molt, the abdomen and gonopores of female show changes that are generally accepted as external morphological indications of sexual maturity. Unlike female, the males show prepubertal (loosing of the attachment of the abdominal flap to the cephalothorax) rather than pubertal molt. The ovaries and testes were classified into five and three development stages and the ovarian histology of each stage was characterized. The ovarian stages correlated closely with the Gonado Somatic Index (GSI), the characteristics of ovarian histology and oviposition period.
  M. Hafezieh , M.S. Kamarudin and N. Agh
  Artemia urmiana nauplii were enriched with three different concentrations (100, 200 and 300 ppm) of commercial emulsion, ICES/30/4 during two periods (12 and 24 h) to evaluate the enhancement of its Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (HUFAs). This source was selected because of its high concentration of the longest chain HUFA`s in the n-3 and n-6 series. When 24-h-old Artemia nauplii were enriched with 100 ppm concentration of ICES30/4 during 12 h enriching period, the docosahexanoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) contents of the nauplii increased to 0.77, 1.22 and 0.34 and when enriched with 300 ppm during 24 h increased to 5.99, 4.97 and 0.73 mg g-1 dry weight, respectively. DHA, EPA and ARA in control nauplii were 0.00, 0.82 and 0.61 mg g-1 dryweight, respectively. Total lipid increased from 16.79% in control group to 20.87% in the treatment ICES30/4 24-300. The results suggest that high amount of emulsion and prolong the enriching period are effective in enriching Artemia nauplii in both DHA and EPA increasingly (p<0.05) but in other fatty acids, there are differences only among period treatments (p<0.05) and concentration are not any increasing effective. There are only differences among concentration treatments in total lipid p<0.05) and enriching period do not show any differences.
  A. Syahidah , C.R. Saad , M.D. Hassan , Y. Rukayadi , M.H. Norazian and M.S. Kamarudin
  Background and Objective: The problems of bacterial diseases in aquaculture are primarily controlled by antibiotics. Medicinal plants and herbs which are seemed to be candidates of replacements for conventional antibiotics have therefore gained increasing interest. Current study was performed to investigate the presence of phytochemical constituents, antibacterial activities and composition of antibacterial active compounds in methanolic extract of local herb, Piper betle . Methodology: Qualitative phytochemical analysis was firstly carried out to determine the possible active compounds in P. betle leaves methanolic extract. The antibacterial activities of major compounds from this extract against nine fish pathogenic bacteria were then assessed using TLC-bioautography agar overlay assay and their quantity were determined simultaneously by HPLC method. Results: The use of methanol has proved to be successful in extracting numerous bioactive compounds including antibacterial compounds. The TLC-bioautography assay revealed the inhibitory action of two compounds which were identified as hydroxychavicol and eugenol. The $-caryophyllene however was totally inactive against all the tested bacterial species. In this study, the concentration of hydroxychavicol in extract was found to be 374.72±2.79 mg g–1, while eugenol was 49.67±0.16 mg g–1. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it could be concluded that hydroxychavicol and eugenol were the responsible compounds for the promising antibacterial activity of P. betle leaves methanolic extract. This inhibitory action has significantly correlated with the amount of the compounds in extract. Due to its potential, the extract of P. betle leaves or it compounds can be alternative source of potent natural antibacterial agents for aquaculture disease management.
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