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Articles by M.S. Islam
Total Records ( 22 ) for M.S. Islam
  A. Islam , M.S. Islam , M.U.M.A. Zakaria , S.C. Paul and A.A. Mamun
  Background and Objective: Shrimp and prawn industries generate a huge amount of co-products (CPs) that can be utilized as a key source of chitin and chitosan, natural multifunctional polymers. The current study modified the existing extraction methods to produce chitin and chitosan from shrimp and prawn co-product (shell). Materials and Methods: Two improved methods (M1 and M2) with sub-sets (TA, TB, TC) were executed through chemical processes comprising demineralization, deproteinization and deacetylation maintaining different conditions. Chitin and chitosan were extracted by using different concentrations of HCl (1, 1.25 and 1.5 M) in the demineralization step. The purity of chitosan was tested by the ash content, moisture content, solubility test and biuret test. Results: Among the sub sets M2 TB and M2 TA produced higher amounts of chitosan from shrimp and prawn shell, respectively. The yield of the chitin and chitosan were higher in M2 than M1 for both species. M2 method found almost two times faster in time and comparatively pure and commercially standard than M1. The improvised method M2 seems to time sparing and efficient than the existing methods. Conclusion: Productions of chitosan from co-products will reduce the dependency on import for chitosan and may create employment and, exporting opportunities.
  A.M. Omar , O.M.A. Hamed , M.F.KH.A. Abolela , M.S. Islam and A. EL Sabagh
  Background and Objective: Bio-nitrogen fertilization and leaf defoliation are the important management practices which influence the yield and quality of sugar beet. To know the effect of bio-nitrogen fertilization and leaf defoliation on the growth yield traits, yield and quality of sugar beet (cv. farida), a experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of Sakha Agric. Res. Station, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt, during 2014/15 and 2015/16 growing seasons. Materials and Methods: A split plot design with three replicates was used, where main plots were assigned for four bio-nitrogen fertilizer levels (100 and 75 kg N fed–1+Rhizobacterine, 50 kg N fed–1+Rhizobacterine and Rhizobacterine only), while sub-plots were allocated to three leaf defoliation levels (zero, 25 and 50%). Results: The result of study revealed that 100 and 75 kg N fed–1+Rhizobacterine produced the highest values of root length, root diameter, root yields, top yields and sugar yields/fed and enhanced the quality of sugar beet. In addition, the root and sugar yields increased with decreasing defoliation levels. However, no significant effect from defoliation treatments on sugar beet quality was observed under in this study. Conclusion: Inoculation of Rhizobacterine with 75 kg N fed–1 and 25% defoliation are advised to use for increasing sugar beet yield.
  M.S. Islam and S.P. Majumder
  In this study, the performance of an adjustable first order polarization mode dispersion compensator has analyticaly evaluated based on a 2 cm long high birefringence linearly chirped Bragg grating and simulated a 4-channel Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) system using this compensator. The device can adjust Differential Group Delay (DGD) in a linearly continuous way without affecting wavelength outside the bandwidth. The various properties of the device such as relative group delay, reflectivity, DGD are investigated in terms of wavelength and stretching ratio. Results show that under stretched condition; the device generates a time delay between fast and slow polarization axes that is adjustable from 0-55 ps and is tunable within 2.4 nm wavelength range. Through simulation, it is also found that the power penalty is reduced from 7.10-4.5 dB at a mean DGD 40 ps for a 4-channel 10 Gb sec-1 WDM system when no stretched is applied on the grating.
  M.N. Haque , U.K. Rima , M.Z. Hossain , M.S. Islam , S.M.Z.H. Chowdhury , M.M. Hossain and M.A.H.N.A. Khan
  Objectives: Avian tuberculosis (ATB) is caused by Mycobacterium a. avium, potentially zoonotic and requires adapting molecular techniques to detect pathogenic serovars and prevent zoonosis. Methodology: Layer chicken (N = 2000) of organized poultry farms of Mymensingh district showed clinical signs of progressive emaciation and reduced weight gain constituted the study materials. This study used necropsy, histopathology and Ziehl Neelsen staining to identify specific pathology of ATB in chicken. This study adapted a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique to detect ATB in layer chicken due to highly pathogenic variant (serovars 1, 2 and 3) of Mycobacterium a. avium. Results: Investigation of sick birds at necropsy showed granulomas in liver, spleen and intestine and suspected as a case of ATB. Using histopathology, multi-focal accumulation of macrophages, epitheloid cell and lymphocytes were seen in liver, spleen, kidney, heart and intestine. Acid fast bacterium was detected in tissue sections of spleen, liver and intestine using Ziehl Neelsen staining but unable to differentiate infectivity due to pathogenic, low pathogenic and saprophytic variants of Mycobacterium. Visceral organs were, therefore, collected for PCR detection of specific cause of ATB. A specific PCR protocol was adapted targetting 16S rRNA gene (192 bp) and successfully detected pathogenic variant of ATB (M. a. avium) in clinically infected and carrier chickens. Conclusion: The PCR technique showed the potentiality to diagnosis pathogenic variant of ATB in a few hours with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Pathogenic variant (serovars 1, 2 and 3) of ATB is highly contagious and potentially zoonotic. The PCR technique can be used to screen elderly layer chickens, diagnose ATV at early onset and dispose the infected flock to prevent future zoonosis.
  M.B.R. Mollah , F.B. Islam , M.S. Islam , M.A. Ali and M.S. Alam
  Understanding the genetic diversity at molecular level is a prerequisite in developing strategies for effective conservation and utilization of chicken genetic resources. We studied the genetic variation within and between Bangladeshi native (Naked Neck, Frizzle and Non-descriptive indigenous) and exotic (White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, Commercial layer and broiler) chicken populations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Four out of the 20 random primers exhibited sufficient variability for studied populations. The four primers yielded a total of 39 distinct bands, 25 of which were polymorphic. Estimation of polymorphic loci, intra-population similarity indices and Nei’s gene diversity suggested that genetic diversities within a population were high in non-descriptive, Frizzle, Naked Neck, Rhode Island Red and White Leghorn chicken populations compared to the commercial layer and broiler populations. The coefficient of gene differentiation (GST = 0.34) and gene flow (Nm = 0.98) values reflected a high level of population differences. UPGMA dendrogram segregated the chicken populations in various degree based on their genetic distance. The overall genetic distance among native chicken was relatively low comparison to the exotic populations. The results of present study might have significant impact on the breeding and conservation of native chicken genetic resources in Bangladesh.
  M.S. Islam , M.M. Rahman , Z. Begum and M.Z. Hafiz
  Irreversible logic circuits dissipate heat for every bit of information that is lost. Information is lost when the input vector can not be uniquely recovered from the output vector. Theoretically reversible logic dissipates zero power since the input vector of reversible circuit can be uniquely recovered from the output vector. Reversible computation has applications in digital signal processing, low power CMOS design, DNA computing and quantum computing. This study presents an overview of the well-known reversible gates and discuss about their quantum implementation. A new PFAG gate and its quantum implementation are presented. Finally, this study proposes a novel low cost quantum realization of reversible multiplier circuit and compares its superiority with the existing counterparts.
  M.R. Tabassum , A.Ul. Gias , M.M. Kamal , S. Islam , H.M. Muctadir , M. Ibrahim , A.K. Shakir , A. Imran , S. Islam , M.G. Rabbani , S.M. Khaled , M.S. Islam and Z. Begum
  Most of the researches done in the fields of skin detection has been trained and tested on human images of African, Mongolian and Anglo-Saxon ethnic origins for face recognition, human motion detection, pornographic and nude image prediction, etc. Although, there are several intensity invariant approaches to skin detection, the skin color of Indian sub-continentals have not been focused separately. The approach of this research is to make a comparative study between three image segmentation approaches using Indian sub-continental human images, to optimize the detection criteria and to find some efficient parameters to detect the skin area from these images. The experiments observed that HSV color model based approach to Indian sub-continental skin detection is more suitable with considerable success rate of 91.1% true positives and 88.1% true negatives.
  M.S. Islam , M.A. Awal , M. Mostofa , F. Begum , A. Khair and M. Myenuddin
  The present study was undertaken for the effect of spirulina on biochemical parameters and reduction of tissue arsenic concentration in arsenic induced toxicities in ducks. One hundred and seventy 5 ducklings were divided into five equal groups separately. One group (T0) of ducklings was kept as control. One group (T1) of ducklings were given arsenic trioxide @ 100 mg/L drinking water and rest three groups of ducklings (T2, T3 and T4) were given arsenic trioxide @ 100 mg/L plus spirulina in three different doses i.e. 30, 60 and 120 mg/L in drinking water daily for 90 days starting from day 15. Five birds were sacrificed from each group in every 15 day intervals and biochemical parameters were determined. All the biochemical parameters (SGPT, SGOT, ALP, LDH and ACP) were significantly (p<0.01) elevated in arsenic treated groups. However, the elevation of these parameters was less in arsenic plus spirulina treated groups (T2, T3 and T4). The distribution of arsenic concentration was highest in liver and lowest in faeces. Maximum reduction of arsenic was recorded in all organs following highest doses of spirulina (120 mg/L). The present study reveals that spirulina may be helpful for reducing the tissue burden of arsenic in ducks.
  M.S. Islam , M.A. Awal , M. Mostofa , F. Begum , A. Khair and M. Myenuddin
  The present study, was undertaken for the effect of spirulina on toxic signs, body weight and hematological parameters in arsenic induced toxicities in ducks. One hundred and 75 ducklings were divided into 5 equal groups separately. One group (T0) of ducklings was kept as control. One group (T1) of ducklings were given arsenic trioxide @ 100 mg/L drinking water and rest three groups of ducklings (T2, T3 and T4) were given arsenic trioxide @ 100 mg/L plus spirulina in three different doses i.e. 30, 60 and 120 mg/L in drinking water daily for 90 days starting from day 15. Five birds were sacrificed from each group in every 15 day intervals and toxic signs, body weight and hematological parameters were recorded. Ducks of T1 group (only arsenic trioxide) showed depression, reduced feed intake, dullness and ruffled feathers which were in mild in nature in other groups i.e. arsenic plus spirulina. In arsenic treated groups (T1) the not gained body weight was maximum (14.93%), whereas in arsenic plus spirulina treated groups (T2, T3 and T4) the not gained body weight in ducks (4.08-11.26%) were better than only arsenic treated groups. Reduction of TEC, Hb and PCV values and rise of ESR values were significant (P<0.01) in T1 (arsenic treated) groups. However, in arsenic plus spirulina treated rest groups reduction of TEC, Hb and PCV were less than arsenic treated groups. The present study reveals that spirulina may be helpful for reducing the body burden of arsenic in ducks.
  N. Akter , M.S. Islam , M.A. Hossain , I. Jahan , M.H. Ahmad and M.M. Hossain

Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the productivity of broiler fed diet supplemented with L-methionine. Materials and Methods: Day-old broiler chicks (n = 216: Cobb500) were reared from day 1-33 in the battery cages. The chicks were distributed randomly into four treatments, i.e., D0 (DL-Met), D1 (0.20% L-Met), D2 (0.25% L-Met) and D3 (0.30% L-Met) in a CRD. Each treatment was replicated 6 times with 9 birds per replicate. Chicks were fed commercial starter diet ad libitum up to 2 weeks . After that, test diets were supplied throughout the trial period (15-33 day). All the formulated diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Data were collected for feed intake (FI), live weight (LW), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and livability. Visceral organs and ileal samples were collected on day 33 to assess the gut morphology and gastro-intestinal development of broiler. Results: The data revealed that FI (p<0.01) and LW (p<0.05) of broiler were influenced by treatment without affecting the FCR (p>0.05) up to 33 day. Birds fed D3 diet had higher (p<0.038) LW (1996.50.0 g bird1) at the expense of greater FI (3047.40 g bird1) than that of other diets on day 33. The livability (%) of broilers was unaffected (p>0.05) between treatments. No significant (P>0.05) differences were found in the visceral organ weights (small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard, liver, heart, spleen and bursa) of broilers except for pancreas, which was found higher (p<0.029) in the birds fed D3 diet. The data of gut morphology revealed that broiler fed L-Met diets (D2, D3) had increased (p<0.05) villi width, crypt depth and surface area compared to the birds fed D0 and D1 diets. Conclusion: Chick fed diets supplemented with L-Met had better growth response than that of chicks fed diets with DL- Met.

  A-Al Mamun , M.Z. Islam , J. Islam , M.N. Haque , J. Raihan , M.S. Ali , M.R. Hasan , S.S. Jahan and M.S. Islam
  Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of useful bacteria isolated from sweet and sour yogurt on the overall performance of antibiotic-free commercial broiler production. Materials and Methods: A total of 128 mixed-sex broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 4 replicates where T1, T2 and T3 was treated with a bacterial solution (5 mL L1) isolated from sweet yogurt, sour yogurt and their combination, respectively and T4 was considered as the control. The experiment was conducted for 34 days and the supplements were added to the drinking water. The data were statistically analyzed using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Results: A non-significant effect of yogurt supplementation on feed intake was observed in this study. Yogurt supplementation significantly increased (p<0.05) body weight gain. A highly significant (p<0.01) improvement in body weight gain was recorded for T2. The yogurt supplementation significantly (p<0.01) improved the FCR. The dressing weight was significantly (p<0.05) increased by the supplementation. The difference in survivability among the treatments was non-significant. Further, the highest profit was obtained from T2 (27.17 Tk kg1), followed by T3 (22.31 Tk kg1) and T1 (21.00 Tk kg1). In contrast, the lowest profit was recorded for the T4 (17.08 Tk kg1). Conclusion: The present study showed promising effects of yogurt supplementation on commercial broiler production without antibiotics, especially sour yogurt, which significantly improved the production performance and net profit. Therefore, it is suggested that sour yogurt could be a safe alternative to antibiotics for commercial broiler production.
  M.M. Rahman Khan , M.M. Rahman , M.S. Islam and S.A. Begum
  A simple UV-spectrophotometric method for the determination of the total vitamin C (ascorbic acid + dehydroascorbic acid) in various fruits and vegetables at Sylhet area is described. The spectrophotometric method involves the oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid by bromine water in presence of acetic acid. After coupling with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine at 37 °C temperature for three hours, the solution is treated with 85% H2SO4 to produce a red color complex and the absorbance was spectrophotometrically measured at 521 nm. The content of vitamin C were 12 to 118 mg/100 g in fruits and 22 to 135 mg/100 g in vegetables. The percent recovery, statistical calculation and the possible interfering factors are also discussed.
  S.U. Ahmed , M.S. Ali , M.S. Islam and P.K. Roy
  A three and half month study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of culture management and stocking density on the growth and survival of Penaeus monodon in semi-intensive system of farming. Three treatments with stocking densities of 20 PL/m2, 25 PL/m2 and 30 PL/m2 wereapplied and considered as treatment T1, T2 and T3, respectively. All the ponds were supplied with commercial pelleted feed of different grades and amount (ranging from 10 to 2.8 percent of total biomass weight) based on the age and growth of shrimp. A significant (p<0.05) higher production (3876.66 kg/ha) was obtained from T2 and the study showed a positive correlation between the culture managed of shrimp farm and the shrimp production and an inverse relation between stocking density and survival rate.
  M.S. Islam , M.S.A Khan and S.U. Ahmed
  An experiment was carried out at Brackishwater Station, Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Paikgacha, Khulna from July to August, 1999 to assess the effect of feed on larval survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Three treatments viz. Artemia nauplii plus egg custard (T1), Artemia nauplii only (T2) and rotifer-000 only (T3) were taken for the study each with three replicates. The experiment was conducted in celluloid tanks with M. rosenbergii larvae at a density of 50 nos./litre of water. Highest average survival rate (30.0%) was found in T1 and the lowest (4.5%) obtained in T3. Analysis of variance showed that the difference in larval survival under different treatments were significantly different (p<0.01). The results obtained implied that there is a immense potentiality for increasing freshwater prawn seed production through closed water system by using Artemia nauplii plus egg custard as feed.
  M.S. Islam , M. Serajul Islam , M.A. Wahab , A.A. Miah and A.H.M. Mustafa Kamal
  The study was carried out to analyze the comparative economic returns of alternate shrimp-crop farming and to assess the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of shrimp farming in coastal areas of Bangladesh. Shrimp farmers as well as other groups of people such as land lessors, shrimp farm labourers and shrimp seed collectors directly benefited and affected were randomly selected for the study. Accordingly, an appropriate number of all these sample households were selected from four different areas of greater Khulna and Cox`s Bazar regions. In shrimp growing areas, four different farming practices such as alternate shrimp-rice farming, shrimp-salt farming, year round shrimp farming and year round rice farming were studied. In alternate shrimp-crop farming, shrimp was the main crop, and the rice and salt were secondary crops. It was found that under alternate shrimp-salt farming per hectare production of shrimp was higher compared to the production of shrimp under alternate shrimp-rice farming. Of the different farming practices, the highest gross (Tk. 247,165 ha-1) and net (Tk.155,048 ha-1) income was recorded in alternate shrimp-salt practice, which was successively followed by the year round shrimp farming (Tk. 125,005 ha-1 and Tk. 77,226 ha-1), alternate shrimp-rice farming (Tk. 107,235 ha-1 and Tk. 62,300 ha-1) and year round rice farming (Tk. 44,760 ha-1 and Tk. 29,698 ha-1). But per hectare production of shrimp obtained from year round shrimp farming was relatively higher (275 kg) than those of shrimp-salt (245 kg) and shrimp rice farming (207 kg). It was clearly implied that farm income from year round rice farming within the vicinity of shrimp growing areas was the lowest among the four different farming practices. The results obtained indicated that shrimp farmers and other related people accrued socioeconomic benefits from shrimp culture. By providing income generation, employment opportunities and escalating many activities, coastal communities including women had chances to improve their socioeconomic condition through their direct and indirect involvement in coastal farming. The study revealed that undesigned and unplanned shrimp farming has affected the production of cereal crops and vegetables, trees, poultry and livestock in the coastal region of Bangladesh. Shrimp farming has also negative effects on biodiversity, productivity of estuarine waters, agro-ecosystem, socioeconomic conditions and friendly environment. Appropriate measures should be taken urgently to improve the natural and social environment of the coastal regions of Bangladesh.
  M.A. Razzaque , N.M. Talukder , M.S. Islam , A.K. Bhadra and R.K. Dutta
  The effect of salinity on morphological characters of salt tolerant genotypes PVSB9, PVSB19, PNR381, PNR519, Iratom24 and salt sensitive genotype NS15 along with one standard check salt tolerant rice cultivar Pokkali were assessed in two factors Completely Randomized Design with four replications. Seven rice genotypes in combination with six levels of salinity (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 dS m-1) were randomly assigned in 168 experimental plastic pots. The different morphological characters studied include plant height, total number of tillers, Root Dry Weight (RDW), Shoot Dry Weight (SDW) and Total Dry Matter (TDM) content of the selected rice genotypes in view to evaluate their response at different salinity levels. The results on the effect of morphological characters indicated that plant height, total tillers, root, shoot and total dry matter were significantly decreased by the application of salinity. The genotypes Pokkali, PVSB9, PVSB19 showed significantly higher values and the lowest value of all these characters were recorded in NS15. A sharp decrease in percent relative- plant height, RDW, SDW, TDM, total tillers were found in susceptible genotype NS15 after 3 dS m-1 level of salinity, but these characters were found to decrease slowly in tolerant genotypes.
  M.S. Islam , M.M. Islam and S.U. Ahmed
  The study was carried out in the Meghna river-estuaries of Bhola district from January, 1996 to December, 1997 with a view of quantify the extent of damage of shell and fin-fish larvae during collection of P. monodon larvae as target species. Study revealed that during collection of each Penaeus monodon (Fab.) post larva (PL), about 26 and 17 larvae of other shrimp, 16 and 7 fin-fishes and 90 and 39 macrozooplankters respectively were ruthlessly destroyed during the consequent years. During the study period, about 1.10 and 0.89 million man days/years, respectively were found to involve in shrimp fry collection. It was also recorded that about 11.0 and 8.2 million of P. monodon PLs respectively were harvested in 1996 and 1997 from the study area. The study indicates that indiscriminate killing of shell and fin-fishes and other valuable aquatic organisms during collection of P. monodon PL by shrimp seed collectors is causing threat to aquatic biodiversity conservation and ecology of coastal waters.
  M.A. Jinnah , K.M. Khalequzzaman , M.S. Islam , M.A.K.S. Siddique and M. Ashrafuzzaman
  The experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of antagonistic P. fluorescens in controlling wilt of tomato caused by R. solanacearum in the field. The tomato variety Manik showed 42.59% and Pusa Rubi showed 46.29% bacterial wilt. The lowest bacterial wilt incidence (35.18%) was recorded in T2 (soil drenching of P. fluorescens) and highest incidence was in control plot. Plant height, number of branches/plant, number of fruits/plant, total fruit weight/plant and fruit yield (t ha–1) was significantly highest in T2 and lowest was in untreated control (T0). Soil drenching by using P. fluorescens suspension contained 109 cfu/ml (T2) may be used for controlling wilt and increasing yield of tomato.
  M.J. Islam , G. Mowla , M.S. Islam and P.B. Leeds-Harrison
  In this model, firstly a simple conceptual model of water losses in rice field has been developed and quantified in spreadsheet form. Second, this model is used to simulate what would happen under three scenarios such as continuous ponding with soil management (filling and sealing of visual cracks by intercultural operation) "Case 1"; irrigation with intermittent drying and without soil management "Case 2"; and irrigation with intermittent drying and with soil management "Case 3". In Case 2 and Case 3 water is allowed to fall until water is no longer ponded at the surface and the soil dries and starts to crack. Third, conclusions have been drawn as to the consequences of not irrigating according to a schedule dictated by crack development. From this study it is observed that the total amount of water required for rice production is directly related to the nature of water and soil management practices to reduce crack during irrigation. The model reveals that irrigation in situations where cracks form should be applied before they reach the critical limit (3 mm wide), otherwise all the applied water may lost as bypass flow if the other conditions are favourable, so leading to crop failure. The study indicates the importance of soil management during irrigation to increase water use efficiency by reducing crack. Finally, it can be concluded that influence of cracking should be considered to develop an irrigation scheduling of this puddled soil.
  M. Aktaruzzaman , M.S. Islam , M.M.R. Howlader , M.M. Hossain and M.SD. Islam


Pharmacologia editorial office received a complaint from Batoul Sadat Haerian, Pharmacogenomics Lab, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia about a plagiarism of her paper published in Pharmacologia Volume 6 Number 5: 149-159, 2015.

On the receipt of her complaint, the case forwarded to the Ethics Committee of the Pharmacologia. As per the report of the Ethics Committee, article entitled “Role of KCN11, Gene Polymorphism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus” authored by M. Akhtaruzzaman, M.S.Islam, M.M.R.Howlader, M.M.hossain and M.SD. Islam published in Pharmacologia Volume 6 Number 5: 149-159, 2015 contains substantial sections of text that have been taken verbatim from earlier publication without clear and nambiguous attribution. The corresponding author of this article is M.Akhtaruzzaman, Pharmacogenomics Lab., Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Pharmacologia considers misappropriation of intellectual property and duplication of text from other authors or publications without clear and unambiguous attribution totally unacceptable.

Plagiarism is a violation of copyright and a serious breach of scientific ethics. The Editors and Publisher have agreed to officially retract this article.

Pharmacologia is highly thankful to Batoul Sadat Haerian for pointing out this plagiarism.

Detail of the article from which M. Akhtaruzzaman has copied text:
Polin Haghvirdizadeh, Zahurin Mohamed, Nor Azizan Abdullah, Pantea Haghvirdizadeh, Monir Sadat Haerian and Batoul Sadat Haerian,“KCN 11: Genetic Polymorphism and Risk of Diabetes Mellitus” Journal of Diabetes Research, 908-152, 2014.

Final Decision: Ethics Committee strongly condemns the act of plagiarism committed by M.Akhtaruzzaman and suggested to retract the paper immediately and also suggested to communicate this to the higher authorities of the corresponding author for suitable action according to their rules and regulations.

  T. Sultana , M.S. Islam , M. Aktaruzzaman , F. Begum , M.K. Hossain , N.S. Lucky and M.M.R. Howlader
  Background: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fenbendazole and piperazine citrate against ascariasis in naturally infected calves of Sylhet Dairy Farm, Sylhet, Bangladesh. The study included 84 calves of which 40 were naturally infected and randomly selected 20 on the basis of their weight and egg count. Twenty calves of 1-8 month old irrespective of sex infested with ascariasis were selected for this experiment and randomly divided into four equal groups (group A, B, C and D) where each group consisted of 5 calves and calves of group D were kept as control group. Two fenbendazole (7.5 mg kg-1 b.wt., orally) preparations (Globe Pharmaceuticals Ltd. and Techno drugs Ltd., Bangladesh) and piperazine citrate (220 mg kg-1 b.wt., orally) preparations (Ethical drugs Ltd., Bangladesh) were used for positive control of ascariasis as group A, B and C. Calves of group D was kept as control without giving any treatment. Objective: The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the effects of modern anthelmintics Fenvet® (Fenbendazole), Peraclear® (Fenbendazole) and Therazin® (Piperazine citrate) against ascariasis in calves irrespective to the species involved and their effects on the basis of EPG (eggs per gram) count, body weight of calves and hematological parameters like Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Hemoglobin (Hb%), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Total Leukocyte Count (TLC) were also included in this investigation. Results: Before trials (day 0), total egg count, blood samples and initial body weight were recorded. During the study period the fecal and blood samples were collected directly from rectum on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day and examined using McMaster fecal egg counting method. Body weights were recorded on day 0 and day 28 following the treatments. The results of the comparative efficacies of different anthelmintic of fenbendazole were 95.50 and 95.58%, followed by piperazine citrate 97.27%, respectively. McMaster fecal egg counting method discloses the percentage of prevalence of ascariasis 35.71% (1-2 months), 24.00% (3-4 months), 21.74% (5-6 months) and 18.18% (7-8 months), respectively. After treatment with fenbendazole and piperazine citrate, Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Hemoglobin (Hb) content and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) were increased significantly (p<0.01 and p>0.05) in calves but Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Total Leukocyte Count (TLC) were decreased significantly (p<0.05 and p>0.01) in all treated calves and body weight was increased significantly (p<0.01) on day 28. The farm management practices along with results of the present study revealed the efficacy of multiple anthelmintic against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves. Additional detailed studies are required to clarify the current status of the efficacy of the anthelmintic widely used in different agro ecologies, animal species and livestock management systems in Bangladesh.
  S. Khanam , M.S. Islam , M. Aktaruzzaman , M.M. Hossain , M.K. Hossain , M.A. Mamun , M. Noor and M.M.R. Howlader
  The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacies of three different commercial anthelmintic containing triclabendazole and nitroxynil against fascioliasis in goat for a period of 28 days by using 20 goats. Among hundred goats, twenty goats were selected for this study which was suffering from liver fluke (Fasciola gigantica) infection and they were marked at the neck by tag. Twenty goats were randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C and D), where each group comprising of five goats. Goats of group A were treated with tablet fasinex (triclabendazole, Novartis Ltd, Bangladesh) orally at the dose rate of 12 mg kg–1 b.wt., group B were treated with acinex (triclabendazole, ACI Ltd, Bangladesh) orally at the dose rate of 12 mg kg–1 b.wt. and group C were treated with nitronex injection (nitroxynil, Renata Ltd, Bangladesh) subcutaneously at the dose rate of 10 mg kg–1 b.wt., Goats of group D was kept as infected control group without giving any treatment. A significant (p<0.01 and p>0.05) reduction of Egg Per Gram (EPG) count was found on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days of treated goats of group A, B and C respectively. The EPG count of control group were significantly (p<0.01 and p>0.05) increased 7 day onwards up to experimental period. Reduction of mean EPG on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after treatment in group A, B and C were 81.48, 81.25 and 83.04%, respectively, whereas, in control group the mean EPG were 22.43%. Of the hematological parameters, TEC, Hb and PCV values were lower on day 0 but turned to increase (p<0.01 and p>0.05) on day 28 of the study. On the other hand, ESR and TLC were higher before treatment (day 0) but decreased significantly (p<0.01 and p>0.05) on day 28. The body weight was increased significantly (p<0.01 and p>0.05) after treatments in group A, B and C respectively except untreated control group D. This result may indicate that three different commercial anthelmintic contain triclabendazole and nitroxynil against fascioliasis in goat and nitroxynil have higher efficacies on Egg Per Gram (EPG), hematological parameters and body weight against fascioliasis in goat. Additional detailed studies are required to clarify the current status of the efficacy of the anthelmintic widely used in different agro ecologies, animal species and livestock management systems in Bangladesh.
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