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Articles by M.S. Islam
Total Records ( 41 ) for M.S. Islam
  M.S. Islam , M.O. Islam , M.N. Alam , M.K. Ali and M.A. Rahman
  A field experiment was conducted in the research field of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Mymensingh, during the period from December 2003 to March 2004 to study the effect of GABA on growth and yield attributes of onion (cv. BARI peaj-1). The experimental field was medium fertile and silt loam in texture. Effect of GABA (a mixture of GA3 and STC4771) sprayed at 30 DAT with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 was investigated. The treatments were laid out in one factorial RCBD design where each treatment was replicated five times. All morphological characters, growth and yield attributes were significantly affected by the application of GABA, which at 1.0 mg L-1 produced the highest plant height, leaf length, number of leaves, neck and bulb diameter, bulb length, leaf diameter, root length; fresh weight of bulbs, roots and leaves; splitting of bulbs, leaf and bulb yield of onion. GABA at 1.0 mg L-1 was more effective in enhancing growth and yield attributes than 0.5 and 2.0 mg L-1. Application of GABA at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 increased the bulb yield by 20.18, 28.09 and 7.02%, respectively. The results suggested that GABA at 1.0 mg L-1 is suitable for onion or any vegetable crop production but GABA at 2.0 mg L-1 may be harmful for plant growth.
  M.M. Rohman , R. Sultana , R. Podder , A.T.M. Tanjimul Islam , M. Kamrul Islam and M.S. Islam
  A 6 x 6 diallel cross (excluding reciprocal) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) dictated both additive and non-additive components were important but dominance components were more predominant than additive components in controlling the inheritance of all the characters under study. The asymmetric distribution of dominant and recessive alleles at loci was found for all the characters. At least 3 groups of genes were found in controlling the dominance in yield. The highest heritability (89%) in narrow sense was observed in 1000 grain weight. Vr-Wr graph indicated over dominance and genetic diversity among the parents.
  K.M. Khalequzamman , Md. Khalim Uddin , M.S. Hossain , M.S. Islam and M.H. Rashid
  The study was laid out to find out the peak disease incidence period of leaf spot of Sapota (Achras sapota) and to evaluate the effect of six fungicides in controlling the disease. A total of five sprays were applied at 15 days intervals during dry season (November-January). It has been observed that the peak incidence period of leaf spot disease was higher in November to January. All fungicides were found effective significantly in controlling leaf spot disease over control. Among the fungicides, Bavistin (0.1%) and Dithane M-45 (0.2%) were found better in controlling the disease.
  M.S. Islam , N.S. Lucky , M.R. Islam , A. Ahad , B.R. Das , M.M. Rahman and M.S.I. Siddiui
  An experiment was conducted to study the hematological parameters in Fayoumi, Assil and Local Chickens of different ages reared in Sylhet region. 250 chickens of three breeds (100 Fayoumi, 50 Assil and 100 Local) were tested at different ages (1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) to observe the hematological parameters: i) Total erythrocyte Count (TEC) ii) Packed Cell Volume (PCV) iii) Determination of Hemoglobin (Hb) iv) Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) v) Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC) vi) Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) vii) Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) viii) Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC). Erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume increased with the advancement of age in all three breeds. The TEC was higher in Fayoumi. The hemoglobin concentration was high in Assil. The PCV was slightly different or similar in all three breeds. ESR was inversely related to the age. Higher ESR in early age and lower in the advancement of age. The Fayoumi showed the higher ESR compared to other two breeds. The ESR of last two groups (9 and 12 months) of Assil and all groups of Local Chickens were negligible. Lymphocytes and heterophils were two principal leukocytes, which exert their dominance on other leukocytes. Among three breeds Local chickens possess the higher lymphocyte percentage. The heterophils were higher in Fayoumi breed. Monocyte was lower in Assil and Local chickens. Eosinophils were higher in number in local and Assil compared to Fayoumi. Higher MCV was recorded in Local chickens followed by Assil and Fayoumi chickens. MCH values were near about similar in Assil and local chicken but lower in Fayoumi breeds. The MCHC values of all three breeds were almost nearer to each other. The above study has highlighted some of the normal hematological parameters of chicken mostly reared in Sylhet region. However, more detailed study could be conducted in this regards.
  B.M. Hasin , A.J.M. Ferdaus , M.A. Islam , M.J. Uddin and M.S. Islam
  The research was conducted with natural ingredients and orange skin in the diet of laying pullets to determine the suitability as pigmenting agents of egg yolk for laying chicken The influence of test ingredients on production characteristics of laying pullets, internal and external quality characteristics of eggs were investigated simultaneously. The experiment covered the proximate analysis of marigold, orange skin meal to determine the nutrient concentrations, xanthophylls contents and 7th-12th weeks feeding trail to investigate the yolk pigment availability of marigold and orange skin as well as laying performance of birds. Orange skin and marigold were used for comparing the pigmenting ability to normal feed containing xanthophylls. Yolk color was improved significantly as compared to control for addition of marigold and orange skin during 4th, 8th and 12th weeks of supplementation. Inclusion of marigold and orange skin in the diet of laying pullets did not cause deterioration in natural and external quality of eggs and there were no significant variations with respect to body weight, hen day egg production egg weight and feed conversion. There was no mortality of birds during study period. The results indicates the conclusion that between two natural ingredients marigold contain more xanthophylls (156.32mg/kg DM) than orange skin (83.02mg/kg DM) and use of 4% marigold meal in the diet of laying pullets is enough to produce eggs with yolk color score 11.00 close to 30 mg synthetic pigment/kg diet at the 12th week of supplementation, whereas the birds that received 4% orange skin in the diet were able to produce eggs with yolk color score 5.0. Moreover, use of marigold and orange skin in diet of pullet has no detrimental effect on internal and external quality of egg as well as egg production characteristics. So, marigold can be used more efficiently for egg yolk pigmentation.
  F. Sultana , M.S. Islam and M.A.R. Howlider
  The research was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural University Poultry Farm, Mymensingh to evaluate the effect of different levels and sources of calcium on egg production and egg shell quality of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) up to 23 weeks of age. For that purpose a total number of 108 Japanese quails aged 20 week were fed on diets containing different levels (2.5%, 2.75% and 3.0%) of dietary calcium from different sources eg. Oyster shell, limestone and Calcium premix. They were placed in the experimental cages. Six birds were considered for a replication of each treatment. The birds were reared in clean laying cages an open sided house. The experimental quails were exposed to identical care and management throughout the experimental period. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. Eggs were collected twice daily at morning and evening. The number of eggs laid by birds in each replication was recorded daily. The external quality of collected eggs were measured weekly from each treatment and level randomly. No significant difference (p>0.05) in egg weight, shell weight, shell percentage, except egg production and shell thickness was noted due to variation of different levels and calcium sources. But as the birds were getting older calcium premix produced better shell quality than oyster shell and limestone. It was concluded that any of these calcium sources can be considered for laying Japanese quail but calcium premix produces better shell quality at later age. This result also suggested that a level of 2.5% calcium increases egg weight and shell thickness, while 2.75% increases body weight and shell weight and 3% increases egg production and shell percentage.
  K.P. Halder , S.M.A. Sattar , M.S. Islam and M.J.U. Chowdhury
  Due to late planting the panicle initiation, heading and maturity of all the cultivars were slowed with decreasing air temperature and solar radiation. Nizersail and BR11 did not complete flower beyond October 01 and September 01 planting, respectively while BR11 completed flowering in all the planting dates. An average temperature 23.92, 26.17 and 21.31°C for 10 days after start of heading was required for Nizersail, BR11 and BR22, respectively. Eighty three to 94% tillers of Nizersail produced fully exserted panicles upto October 01 planting while for BR11 it was 21-92% upto September 15 planting but in BR22 it was about 86-97% in all planting dates. Full panicle exsertion of Nizersail sharply increased with increasing temperature sum for 10 days from start of heading, later slightly decreased but it was sharply increased in BR11. The BR22 was less sensitive to temperature. The percent panicle exsertion was highly correlated with temperature sum for 1-10 days after start of heading for Nizersail (r = 0.87**) and BR22 (r = 0.96**). In BR11, it was highly correlated with temperature sum for 1-10, 11-20, 21-30 and 11-30, days from start of heading and the corresponding values were (r = 0.97**), (r = 0.95**), (r = 0.81*), (r = 0.90**), respectively.
  M.A. Islam , M.S. Islam , M.A. Mazed and M.K. Uddin
  This experiment was conducted at Buffalo Breeding And Development Farm, Bagerhat to investigate conception rate, service per conception, gestation period, age at first calving, birth weight, postpartum heat period and calving interval of Nili-Ravi and crossbred buffaloes. It was revealed that average conception rate, service per conception, gestation period, age at first calving, birth weight, calving interval and postpartum heat period were 95.24 %, 88.46%; 1.05, 1.13; 301.486?6.72, 303.200?7.07 days; 61.857?3.44, 63.048?3.89 months; 33.266?3.49, 30.508?3.43 kg; 572.633?116.54, 581.481?94.15 days and 167.800?27.92, 174.500?41.04 days; respectively. It may be concluded that Nili-Ravi buffaloes were better than crossbred buffaloes.
  Rahman, M.M. , Z.U.M. Khan , A.N.M. Rahman and M.S. Islam
  A total of 400 hatchery samples comprised of yolk interior (100), paper pad (100), shell membrane (100) and fecal swab of newly hatched chicks (100) were tested to detect the presence of Salmonella organism by bacteriological agar plate test. Positive cases recorded in this study were 37 (37), 12 (12), 3 (3) and 19 (19%) from each sample (100) of yolk interior, paper pad, shell membrane and fecal swab of newly hatched chicks, respectively. A representative numbers of 50 isolates were used for the identification of serogoups of Salmonella prevailing in selected area by using polyvalent antisera. The result indicated that the test isolates 45(90%) were typed to a specific serogroup of "O". All 45 isolated Salmonella serogroup O were then characterized by different specific biochemical media. Based on these tests, the selective isolates were identified as Salmonella gallinarum.
  M.S. Islam , M.A. Mazed , M.M. Rahman , M. A. Islam and M.A. Kadir
  The study was conducted at two dairy farms namely, Government Dairy Farm, Faridpur and Cntral Cattle Breeding Station, Savar, Dhaka to investigate the effect of milk yield, lactation length and disease incidence on Local X Friesian upgraded dairy cows. From the study, it was reveled that the average milk production per lactation per cow was 1820.75, 1861.00, 1871.00 and 1890 liters for first, second, third and fourth lactation, respectively. There was an increasing tendency in milk yield from first lactation to fourth lactation. Average lactation length of respective cows were 335.50?29.26, 333.12?29.97, 325.87?19.91 and 323.87?13.75 days for first, second, third and fourth lactation, respectively. In case of disease incidence the experimental cows were infected by Foot and Mouth Disease, Black Quater and ephemeral fever. In conclusion, it can be said that Local X Friesian cows are reared successfully allover Bangladesh.
  M.S. Islam , M.A. Mazed , M.A. Islam , M. A. Kadir and M. M. Rahman
  The study was conducted at two dairy farms namely, Government Dairy Farm, Faridpur and Central Cattle Breeding Station, Savar, Dhaka to investigate the effect of age of first service, conception rate, age at first calving, birtgh weight of calves and calving intervals on some reproductive parameters of Local X Freisian upgraded Dairy cows. From the study, it was revealed that average age at first service was 29.21?1.11 months. Means of the conception rate of different cows were 63.00?16.73 for artificial insemination and 85.00?17.17 for natural services. Average age at first calving was 39.30?4.53 months. Mean birth weight of calves of the representative cross bred was 15.32?0.78 kg. Average calving interval was 438.60?33.90, 435.75?32.35 and 424.37?38.66 days for first, second and third lactation, respectively. It may be concluded that the reproductive characters of Local X Friesian upgraded dairy cows are moderately standard and can be reared under Bangladeshi condition.
  S. Faruque , S. S. Husain , M. M. Rahman , B. K. Roy , M.N. Islam and M.S. Islam
  In this study sixty three farmers mainly from land-less and small category, having some previous experience of rearing goats were selected. There were three genetic groups viz. I) jamunapari male × black bengal female ii) selected black bengal male × selected black bengal female and iii) random black bengal. Feeding and management systems of keeping goats were almost similar. No extra inputs were provided to them except grazing from morning to evening. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of selection and crossbreeding in black bengal goats on various reproductive characteristics. Traits considered for the present study were age at puberty, number of services per conception, gestation length, litter size, age at first kidding, post partum heat period, kidding interval, abortion rate and survival rate of kids. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant (p<0.01) effect of genetic groups on post-partum heat period, kidding interval and abortion rate. Gestation length was significantly (p<0.05) affected by genetic groups. Age at puberty, number of services per conception, litter size, age at first kidding and survival rate were not affected significantly (P>0.05) by genetic groups.
  M.S. Islam , M.A.R. Howlider , M.S. Uddin , F. Kabir and J. Alam
  The aim of this experiment was to compare hatchability traits of four different breeds. A total of 3087 eggs were collected in 3 batches following artificial insemination from individually caged hen. For different breeds of cock; barred plymouth rock, white leghorn, rhode island red and white rock were compared. Fertility was highest in WLH (95.08%), intermediate in WR (92.57%) and lowest and similar in BPR (88.97%) and RIR (88.16%). Breed had little effect on fertile eggs (P>0.05). However, hatchability on total eggs was highest (P<0.05) and similar in WLH (85.99%) and WR (85.46%), lowest in BPR (81.36%) and RIR (80.21%). Breed had no significant (P>0.05) effect on dead in germ and dead in shell. Among 4 genotypes RIR (98.56%) and WLH (97.90%) were the highest (P<0.05) and similar normal chicks hatched, intermediate in BPR (97.73%) and lowest in WR (96.27%). The percentage of abnormal chicks was observed highest in WR (3.73%), intermediate in BPR (2.27%) and lowest in RIR (1.44) and WLH (1.43). Breed had little effect on chick weight at hatching. Percent chick weight was found highest in BPR (67.24%), intermediate in RIR (65.96%) and lowest and similar in WR (65.47%) and WLH (65.17%). Batch had no significant effect among different hatchability traits.
  A. Ara , M.L. Ali , M.S. Islam and M.N. Islam
  The experiment was conducted to manufacture cheese from skim milk with 30, 40 and 50 g kg-1 soybean oil and whole milk and to monitor the quality of different types of prepared cheese. It was observed that the flavour, taste, colour and appearance, body and texture, overall acceptability and final score were significantly higher in whole milk cheese than that of other types of vegetable oil based (30, 40 and 50 g kg-1) skim milk cheese. Chemical analysis showed that there were significant differences (P<0.01) incase of protein and fat contents of different types of cheeses. On the other hand there were no significant differences in moisture, total solids, ash and acidity content of different types of cheese. Although some chemical parameters showed that the quality of soybean oil based (30, 40 and 50 g kg-1) skim milk cheeses were better than the whole milk cheese but expert judges gave their opinion in favour of whole milk cheese, on the basis of organoleptic evaluation. It may be concluded that cheese could be manufactured successfully from skim milk with 30, 40 and 50 g kg-1 soyabean oil and it will open a new door in business sector and experiment also could solve the protein deficiency of Bangladesh. According to panelists score 50 g vegetable oil based skim milk cheese was better than other types of skim milk cheese.
  M.A. Baset , M.M. Rahman , M.S. Islam , A. Ara and A.S.M. Kabir
  A large number of farmers involved in bull fattening just before 3 or 4 months of Eid-Ul-Azha (Muslim festival), when they sell the animals with profitable prices. Cattle fattening for beef production have become an important business of the small farmers in Bangladesh. In few areas of Bangladesh a small scale commercial beef fattening program has already been started. Straw is the important crop residue; contribute the major portion of the fibrous part of the diet of the beef cattle. Rice straw is the basal feed for ruminants with low nutritive value and low digestibility. Farmers use rice straw of traditional varieties, green grass, sugarcane tops, wheat and rice bran, molasses, pulse bran and locally available resources such as pumpkin, carrot, banana, vegetable by products, rice gruel, boiled rice bran, oil cakes etc for beef fattening. The chemical treatment of straw is the most effective and economic method to improving the quality. Straw is mainly treated with urea and molasses and in some cases chemical treatment also done by the farmers. Urea molasses straw treatment in beef cattle resulted higher body weight, dressing percentage and also in better carcass quality than untreated straw. The acute shortage of feeds and fodder has long been identified as a serious constraint to optimum livestock production in Bangladesh. The nutritional factor is considered a major constraint to livestock productivity. Traditional grazing field is scarce except in some pokets in Pabna and Sylhet districts. Farmers used three years old cattle for beef fattening and maximum growth rate between 1.1 to 1.4 years of age. Cattle fattening period is 4.5 months in rural areas of Bangladesh.
  M.J. Islam , S.S. Parul , A.B.M.B.U. Pathan , M.S. Islam and M.A. Quasem
  Winter dry season is mainly depends on irrigation. Because, the rainfall in this season is almost zero. At the end of this season, ground water mainly remains at about 10-12 meter depth. On the other hand, the crop then remains at booting to flowering stages. During this period, a huge number of cracks developed on the puddled field due to shortage of water. Consequently, the size and number of cracks depend on the irrigation interval, the intensity and duration of drought spell. The sizes of the cracks are range about 10-30 mm wide. Normally, the major cracks goes below puddled layer of 70-100 mm and almost all the cracks are interlinked and remain active through the growing season. Therefore, a major portion of the irrigation water lost through this cracks. Hence, a large area remains fallow due to proper management and shortage of irrigation water. Therefore, irrigation application efficiency to be increased in cracking soils by reducing seepage and drainage losses in paddies. As a result, it is important to develop irrigation scheduling of rice for cracking soils on the basis of crack size rather than estimating crop water requirements based on evapotranspiration (ET) demand.
  M.J. Islam , G. Mowla , S.S. Parul , M.Z. Alam and M.S. Islam
  A study of cracking soils management was conducted in the wet soil bin with nine soil management practice treatments to investigate their impact on infiltration rate. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCB) with three replications. It is observed that the management of cracking soils, even at an early stage of crack initiation, has a great influence on infiltration rate. Among the management practices, the hand hoe operation was found to be better than trampling to reduce the cracks when the crack width was 10 mm. It is also observed that there is no influence of crack number on infiltration if a soil management practice is included with irrigation. The study reveals that with a soil management practice, the cracks reduced or were removed in a short period of time even though the cracks were 10 mm wide. In contrast, without soil management, cracks remained open for a long period even after ponding. By practicing soil management during irrigation, a large volume of water can be saved which my help to bring more area under irrigation particularly where there are limited water resources.
  N.A. Siddique , M.A. Bari , Sharmin Shahnewaz , M.H. Rahman , M.R. Hasan , M.S.I. Khan and M.S. Islam
  Callus cultures were initiated from nodal segments on Murashige and Skoog[19] medium supplemented with 2,4-D, BAP and Kn. The highest frequency (85%) of organogenic callus induction was observed in MS medium containing 1 mg L ha-1 BAP and 2 mg L ha-1 Kn. Development of adventitious shoots occurred when the calli were subcultured in MS medium supplemented in the BAP and Kn. Shoots differentiated best (80%) from node derived callus on MS medium containing 1 mg L ha-1 BAP and 2.5 mg L ha-1 Kn. Regenerated shoots rooted best on MS medium containing IBA and Kn (1 mg L ha-1 ). Plantlets were transferred to pots containing sand and soil mixture, acclimatized in a culture room and finally rooted plants were transferred to soil.
  G.C. Biswas , W. Islam , M.M. Haque , R.K. Saha , K.M.F. Hoque , M.S. Islam and M.E. Haque
  The hatching, larval, protonymphal, deutonymphal and reproductive periods, fecundity and longevity of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infesting Solanum melongena were studied in different seasons under laboratory condition. Except fecundity the highest values of these parameters were obtained during winter. Negative impact of temperature was observed on hatching, larval, protonymphal, deutonymphal and reproductive period whereas temperature affected directly the fecundity of T. cinnabarinus. Relative humidity was found to have no significant effect on development stages well as any aspect.
  M.S. Islam , M.A. Quasem , M.M Uddin , M.A. Reza and S.K. Das
  To study the innervation to the esophagus of Black Bengal goat a research was conducted in the Department of Anatomy and Histology, BAU, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh with 12 Black Bengal goats. All specimens were collected from adult Black Bengal goats (over 6 months of age); irrespective of sex. The esophagus of Black Bengal goat was sampled at six sites- Cranial cervical, middle cervical, caudal cervical, at the level of thoracic inlet, at the middle mediastinum and at the level of cardia. The nerves supplying the upper third of cervical esophagus by the pharyngoesophageal branch of vagus. The caudal two-third of cervical esophagus was innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. The thoracic part of the esophagus was supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the dorsal esophageal branch of the vagus. The dorsal vagal trunk innervated the esophagus from the heart to the cardia.
  M.S. Sultana , F. Kabir , M.S. Islam , M.M. Rashid and A.I. Akon
  The study was designed to assess the comparative profitability of selected winter vegetables like potato, cauliflower and tomato. To achieve this objective, total of 75 farmers, 25 producing potato, 25 producing cauliflower and 25 producing tomato were selected. For this purpose, Cobb-douglas production function model was used. Per hectare total cost of production of potato, cauliflower and tomato were 51396.79, 64406.06 and 61663.87 TK., respectively and the corresponding gross incomes were 99401.44, 119165.12 and 93442.24 TK., respectively. The estimated net return of producing potato, cauliflower and tomato were 48004.65, 54759.06 and 31778.37 TK., respectively. For producing the three alternate winter vegetables net return was the highest for cauliflower followed by potato and tomato. It was also found that there was a large variation of yield in producing these winter vegetables among different categories of farms. In the case producing potato and cauliflower, per hectare yield was the highest for small farms followed by medium and large farms. On the other hand in the case of tomato per hectare yield was the highest (48164.50 kg) for large farms followed by medium (47444.10 kg) and small farms (46143.00 kg). It is concluded that production of cauliflower is more profitable than that of others.
  M.J. Islam , S.S. Parul , M.A. Rashid and M.S. Islam
  A study of infiltration and bypass flow was conducted in a wet soil bin with three different soils treatments (sandy loam, clay loam and clay soil) to determine the swelling behaviour of cracking puddled soils by watering and its impact on bypass flow. Infiltration rate for the soils was recorded after puddling the soils. Then the puddled soils were allowed to dry for a period of up to 15 days. After that the plots were rewetted in order to observe the swelling and bypass behaviour of cracked soils. From this study it is observed that the infiltration rates of puddled soils were very low (0.03-0.05 mm h-1) mainly due to the puddling effect. The study indicates that cracks on puddled soils at 15th day’s of drying are effectively irreversible. The maximum bypass flow was recorded for the clay loam soil. During the first day, the flow rate was extremely high at 313 mm h-1. But this higher rate gradually reduced from the second day and onwards. The bypass flow rate for the clay loam and clay soil was almost same. The study reveals that it is not possible to swell up shrinkage cracks on puddled soils by watering alone. Re-working of the soil is necessary to seal the cracks.
  Rabbani M.G. , M.I. Hossain , M.S. Islam , T.M.B. Hossain and M.A. Mannan
  Cobb-Douglas production function has been used to measure the effect of various factors on alternate rice-fish production. The chosen factors were of fingerlings cost, cost of cow dung, cost of rice bran, cost of oil cake, cost of lime, cost of urea cost of human labour and cost of netting for fish production and for rice production the factors were human labour, animal labour. Cow dung, urea, TSP, MP, seed and irrigation cost. It was found that except cost of rice bran and lime for fish production all the factors were statistically significant and for the rice production animal labour, TSP and irrigation cost were the insignificant.
  M.G. Rabbani , M.S. Islam , M.I. Hossain , T.M.B. Hossain and M.E.A. Begum
  The study was conducted to determine the profitability of alternate rice-fish culture from the viewpoint of small, medium and large farmers. In total 80 alternate rice-fish producing farmers in which 24 small, 44 medium and 12 large farmers were purposively selected from each of the selected strata from three villages under Bhaluka Upazila of Mymensingh district for the study. The study showed that the alternate rice-fish culture was a profitable business. Per hectare costs of alternate rice-fish culture were Tk 46656.25, 47079.26 and 54268.74 for small, medium and large farms, respectively. Per hectare yield of fish, under small, medium and large farms were 1123.85, 1076.92 and 1179.80 kg, respectively and their corresponding yields of rice were 4323, 4491 and 4512 Kg. The average per hectare net returns from alternate rice-fish culture were Tk 27463.50, 28226.33 and 31018.61 for the small, medium and large farms, respectively.
  M.A. Mazed , M.S. Islam , M.M. Rahman , M.A. Islam and M.A. Kadir
  In the present study urea molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) may be used as a catalytic feeding to the straw based diet of the indigenous cows for fertility. With that understanding, 49 indigenous post partum cows from 49 marginal village farmers of village-Boira were selected and a cake of 250 g/h/d UMMB was supplied with their usual feeding from date to calving to the date of confirmation of pregnancy. Cows were stall fed. Reproductive events of cows were recorded as when occurred. Milk progesterone was measured by using radio immuno assay (RIA) technique. Similarly, 49 cows were in control group in the same village. The results in control and UMMB group were-calving to 1st p4 (progesterone) rise (days) 104±52 and 103±37 (p>0.05); calving to first service (days) 194±68 and 130±64 (p<0.01); calving to conception (days) 199±72 and 162±73 (p>0.05) and subsequent calving interval (days) 480±73 and 443±70 (p>0.05), respectively. From the study, it may be concluded that UMMB has a positive effect on fertility of the local cows under the village condition of Bangladesh.
  K.N. Islam , M.S. Islam , R. Sultana , A.B.M. Khaleduzzaman , P. Gain and S.M. Bulbul
  Seventy-five battery brooded (up to 3 weeks) broilers were transferred on conventional rice husk littered floor (CRLF) and were reared up to 49 days of age. On the other hand, seventy-five broiler chicks were reared on CRLF from day-old to 49 days of age served as control. The body weight of the battery brooded birds at 28 days of age was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of floor reared birds. Rearing battery brooded broiler on CRLF following transfer depressed growth rate (at 35 days of age) in comparison with CRLF birds, but at the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences in body weight gain. Non-significant differences were also observed in case of feed intake, feed conversion efficiency and dressed yield between two management systems at the end of the experiment. There were no birds having breast blister irrespective of management system. Mortality percentage was higher in case of CRLF than that of battery brooded birds on CRLF. Battery brooding up to 3 weeks of age saved space. Males had higher body weight (P<0.05) and shank weight (P<0.01) than those of females. From the present study it is evident that battery brooder can serve as a positive brooder, because after transfer from battery brooder to CRLF there is no negative effect on overall performance.
  M.S. Islam , M.U. Ahmad , M.E.H. Sarker and A.H.M.M. Haque
  An investigation on prevalence of rice root nematode in the farmer rice fields under natural condition was carried out. Farmer fields were located under Jamalpur district, Tangail district and Mymensingh district. Nematodes were isolated by following Bangladesh plate technique (modified Whitehead and Hemming tray method, 1965) and were counted per liter soil at booting, flowering, milking, soft dough, hard dough and harvesting stage. The highest nematode population 1196.7 L-1 soil was recorded in Madarganj having soil pH 5.9 sandy loam texture, 0.92% OM and higher N status followed by 524.4 L-1 soil in Sutiakhali having soil pH 5.4, loamy texture and 1.06% OM maximum nematode population 965.3 L-1, soil was observed at soft dough stage.
  S.A. Azmal , M.R. Amin , P.C. Goswami , M.P. Mostari , M.S. Islam and R. Khatun
  The experiment was conducted to compare the relative efficiency of homo and heterospermic insemination in respect of fertility judged by conception and calving rate. Spermatozoa from three different breeds of bull namely Holstein Friesian (HF), Red Chittagong (RC) and Sahiwal (SL) were mixed in equal number and preserved for 3 days and inseminated at different days. In this study 168 cows were inseminated and 42 of them were inseminated with heterospermic semen containing equal numbers of spermatozoa from a HF, a RC and a SL bull. After calving the paternity of calves was established by comparing coat colour and conformation. Difference between homo and heterospermic insemination on conception and calving rate was not significant (p>0.05). The heterospermic conception and calving rates were 80.95 ±0.07 and 64.29 ± 0.08%, with the homospermic rates being 66.67 ±0.04 and 50.79 ±0.04%, respectively. The conception and calving rate from heterospermic insemination was found insignificantly (p>0.05) different from that of homospermic insemination separately at first, second and third day of preservation. Conception rates of homo and heterospermic insemination at first day were 76.19 ±0.07 and 85.71 ±0.12%, respectively. The corresponding values at third day were 59.52 ±0.07 and 78.57 ±13%. Calving rate of homo and heterospermic insemination at first day were 57.14±0.08 and 64.29 ±0.13%, respectively. The corresponding values at third day were 45.24 ±0.08 and 64.29 ±0.13%. The numbers of offspring (12:8:7) sired by the three bulls (HF: RC:SL) after using heterospermic semen did not differ significantly from an assumed 1:1:1 ratio (χ2 = 1.55: p>0.05). The sex ratios among calves from heterospermic insemination (15♂ .12♀) also did not differ significantly (χ2 = 0.34: p>0.05) from 1:1. From the above results, it was concluded that heterospermic insemination did not however, show any significant superiority in conception and calving rate in cows compared to homospermic insemination. However, heterospermic insemination offers no apparent risk to co-operating farmers, since overall conception and calving rate were either numerically higher or at least equal to that obtainable from homospermic insemination.
  S.A. Azmal , M.R. Amin , H. Khatun , M.S. Islam , M.P. Mostari and P.C. Goswami
  The experiment was conducted to compare the relative efficiency of homo and heterospermic bull semen in terms of preservation quality. Spermatozoa from three different breeds of bull namely Holstein Friesian (HF), Red Chittagong (RC) and Sahiwal (SL) were mixed in equal number and preserved for 3 days. The quality of semen in terms of mass motility, normal and live sperm content of homo and heterospermic semen were studied at various preservation periods. In total 312 samples were included in the analysis. The average (%) mass motility, normal and live sperm of homospermic semen were 51.77 ± 0.49, 77.55 ± 0.45 and 78.73 ± 0.44 respectively and for heterospermic semen the corresponding values were 59.94 ± 0.85, 83.55 ± 0.78 and 83.69±0.76. The significantly (p<0.001) highest mass motility, normal and live sperm percentages were observed in heterospermic semen as compared to homospermic semen. The quality of semen between homo and heterospermic semen in terms of mass motility, normal and live sperm percentage did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between groups at first day but differed significantly (p<0.001) at second and third day of preservation. Mass motility of homo and heterospermic semen at first day were 60.77±0.55 and 62.31±0.95%, respectively. The corresponding values at third day were 44.04 ± 0.44 and 57.12 ± 0.77%. Normal sperm of homo and heterospermic semen at first day were 86.50 ± 0.43 and 86.31 ± 0.74%, respectively. The corresponding values at third day were 70.36 ± 0.38 and 81.00 ± 0.66%. Live sperm of homo and heterospermic semen at first day were 86.56 ± 0.43 and 86.54 ± 0.75%, respectively. The corresponding values at third day were 71.54 ± 0.46 and 81.42 ± 0.79%. From the above results, it was concluded that heterospermic semen could be better preserved in terms of mass motility, normal and live sperm percentage compared to homospermic ones.
  M.S. Islam , M.U. Ahmad , A.H.M.M. Haque and M.E.H. Sarker
  Population dynamics of Hirschmanniella oryzae were determined per 5 g root basis from the roots at different plant growth stages by survey of irrigated rice in Madarganj (Jamalpur district), Madhupur (Tangail district), Sutiakhali, Nilukkhar char and Bangladesh Agricultural University Farm (Mymensingh District) during December 2001-March 2002. The highest nematode population 30.5/5 g root was recorded in BAU Farm having soil pH 5.6 sandy loam texture, 1.88% OM and balanced fertility status followed by a population 24.8/5 g root in Madhupur having soil pH 4.4, loamy texture and 0.99 % OM peak population was observed at soft dough stage covering booting, flowering and milking stage. The reduction in nematode population was recorded from hard dough to mature stage.
  A.K.M. Rohul Amin , M.A.J. Bapary , M.S. Islam , M. Shahjahan and M.A.R. Hossain
  An eighteen weeks long experiment was conducted during the month of June to October, 2002 to observed the effect of different period of starvation and subsequent refeeding on growth, daily food demand and food conversion ratio of Thai pangs Pangasius hypophthalmus. Fish maintained in four treatments were either: fed to satiation twice a day (control-A), fed every alternate day (1:1-B), starved two days followed by spell of two days feeding (2:2-C) and starved for 5 days following 5-day feeding (5:5-D) at a sticking density of 100 fingerlings per decimal at 28±1.54°C. Thai pangas responded to a change from a restricted to satiation feeding showing a higher daily feed demand compared to their counterparts raised on a liberal feeding regime. The total feed demand of fish in controlled treatments was, however, much higher than the fish in the other three treatments. Nonetheless, fish that fed to satiation on alternate day (1:1) had similar body weights to the controls and were larger than those exposed to 2 or 5 days of feed deprivation (2:2 or 5:5). There was no significant difference in specific growth rate of fish in the treatments A and B over the experimental period. The highest FCR was found in treatment A (control) where fish were fed to satiation twice a day. The study provided evidence that Thai pangas would be cultured in feeding regime with feeding every alternate day without any significant difference in fish size and final production. As farmers have to give less feed in the system they can manage water quality in better way.
  M.I. Hossain , M.S. Islam , F.H. Shikha , M. Kamal and M.N. Islam
  Studies were conducted to evaluate the post-mortem changes in Thai pangas (Pangasius sutchi) during 25 days of ice storage. Rigor mortis progress was measured as parameters of rigor tension. Rigor begins within 1-1.5 h after death in ice and increases gradually with the lapse of storage period. Rigor-index reached maximum of 67.46% in 6 h and did not attain full rigor (100%) and then started relaxation. The organoleptic quality of Thai pangas (Pangasius sutchi) during ice storage was assessed on the basis of the sensory evaluation such as appearance, odour, texture and taste. The initial pH value was around 7.0, which gradually decreased to 5.98 during 14 days of storage period and then increase until the experiment was terminated. The extractability of myofibrillar protein gradually decreased from 88.37 to 52.87% at the end of the 20 days of ice storage. The initial TVB-N value and peroxide value were 1.37 mg/100 g and 1.1 meq kg-1 of oil, respectively which continuously increased with the lapse of storage period. At the end of 20 days of storage TVB-N value and peroxide value were 24.25 mg/100 g and 16.64 meq kg-1 of oil, respectively. There is a large fall of Ca+2-ATPase activity both in presence of 0.1 and 0.5 M KCl during storage period. The overall results indicated that Thai pangas fish was found in acceptable conditions for 20 days of ice storage in an insulated box.
  M.H. Morshed , M. Shamim Hossain , M. Ibrahim , M.Z. Shafique , M.O.H. Helali , A. Samad , M.S. Islam and M.A. Islam
  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial characteristic of the four synthetic plant hormones Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Gibberellic acid (GA). Antibacterial potency was assessed by measuring the zone of inhibitions on semi-solid nutrient agar bacterial inoculating petri dishes. NAA and IAA gave potent antibacterial activity at concentration of 150 μg disc-1 giving zones at 26-35 mm. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentrations against the pathogens were determined by serial dilution technique. Bacteriocidal concentrations of the tested principles were found to be significantly higher than their respective bacteriostatic concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentrations that are bacteriostatic concentrations of the tested compounds were found at 32-128 μg mL-1 whereas, bactericidal concentrations established at 256-512 μg mL-1 against eight pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus -haemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, E. coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
  K.H.M.N.H. Nazir , M.B. Rahman , K.M. Nasiruddin , F. Akhtar , M.F.R. Khan and M.S. Islam
  The aim of the research was to find out the effective antibiotic(s) against Escherichia coli and to observe the relationship between the plasmids to the antibiotic resistant pattern found by antibiotic sensitivity tests. For these forty water samples were collected from different sources including river, pond, tap and drain for isolation and identification of pure E. coli. The overall recovery rate of E. coli from water samples was 45%. The highest recovery rate was found from drain water (70%). The pure cultures were subjected to observe the antibiotic resistant pattern by commonly used ten antibiotic disks. All the isolates were found resistant to Penicillin G (94.45%) but 50% isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin. The isolates were highly sensitive to other antibiotics as Ciprofloxacin (88.89%), Chloramphenicol (72.22%), Norfloxacillin (88.33%) and Tetracycline (61.11%). The isolates exhibited moderate sensitivity to Ampicillin (44.44%), Gentamicin (77.78%), Streptomycin (33.33%). Only 22.22, 27.78, 27.78, 16.67, 11.11 and 16.67% of the isolates were recorded to show moderate sensitivity to Amoxycillin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Cephradin, Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacillin, respectively. Plasmid profile analysis of 18 isolates were done by 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis. A total of 11 different plasmid bands of different size were observed by careful eye estimation with the comparison to reference marker. The size of the bands range from 2.4 to 40 kb and at best 5 plasmid bands were found. There was no plasmid in only one isolate. There was no relation found between the plasmid band pattern in agarose gel and antibiotic resistance of E. coli.
  M.A.I. Chowdhury , M.T. Uddin , M.F. Ahmed , M.A. Ali , S.M.A. Rasul , M.A. Hoque , R. Alam , R. Sharmin , S.M. Uddin and M.S. Islam
  Untreated groundwater, often enriched in arsenic-one of the most important pollutants and trace elements of the aquatic system recently regarded as the major threat to drinking water-was and is being extensively used as a source of drinking for the decades in rural and semi-urban areas of the developing countries which results in a high incidence of arsenic with deleterious effects on humans and food chain. In Bangladesh, India, Vietnam and other developed countries, arsenic contamination in groundwater is considered to be the key environmental health problem of the twenty first century. In Bangladesh arsenic was first detected in the district of Chapai Nawabgonj bordering the West-Bengal district of India in 1993; since then higher levels of arsenic (exceeding the WHO standard of 0.01 mg L-1 and Bangladesh standard of 0.05 mg L-1) have been detected in many regions of the country including 61 districts out of 64. It is estimated that of the 140 million inhabitants of Bangladesh more than 100 million are at the risk of arsenic hazard, such arsenic hazards collapses the societal structure and socio-economic backbone of poor people of rural Bangladesh. The study tries to discuss the chronological extent and severity of the biggest global arsenic calamity prevailed in Bangladesh, socio-economic impact of arsenic hazard on the poor people of rural society living more than seventy percent under poverty limit in Bangladesh. Specially due consideration was given on the socio-economic impact on arsenic victims particularly earning male family member, young male, married female and young female going to be married as well as arsenic affected family and their interaction with non-arsenic-victim of the society.
  M.A. Rahman , M.D. Hossain , M.S. Islam , D.K. Biswas and M. Ahiduzzaman
  Genetic variability, heritability and path coefficient analysis were studied in 24 genotypes of snake gourd. The genotypic coefficient of variation was high for fruit yield, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, stem length and flesh thickness. High to moderate heritability as well as genetic advances were estimated in fruit yield, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, stem length, flesh thickness and average fruit weight. Correlation studies revealed that fruit yield had significant positive correlation with number of fruits per plant, fruit length and stem length. The highest direct positive effect were recorded for number of fruits per plant. For selecting high yielding genotypes emphasis should be given on number of fruits per plant, stem length, fruit length and average fruit weight.
  Amina Khatun , M.I.U. Mollah , M.H. Rashid , M.S. Islam and A.H. Khan
  An experiment was carried out at the net house of the Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh using four seedling ages - 30, 45, 60 and 75 days, for transplant rice during July to November 1995 in transplant Aman (T. Aman) season and during November 1995 to May 1996 in Boro season. The highest grain yield was obtained from 45-days old seedlings in both seasons. Regression models prepared for T. Aman and Boro seasons separately could explain the yield variations 77.1% and 68%, respectively due to seedling age.
  M.A. Rahman , M.N. Amin , M.S. Islam , M.M. Begum and M.A. Uddin
  Air layering on five different times with the help of indole butyric acid (IBA) at 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 and 3500 ppm concentration was evaluated in BARI-1 variety of litchi. Five different dates of layering were 15 May, 01, 16 June, 01 and 16 July. It was observed that the number and average length of primary roots and survival of layers were markedly increased where layers were prepared on 01 and 16 June. Layers prepared with IBA at 2500 ppm produced the maximum number (27.14) and length (6.69 cm) of primary roots and obtained the highest percentage (77.66%) of success in the survivability of litchi layers. The best rooting performance and the final survival of air layers in the nursery after 90 days of severing was recorded to be the highest (90%) where layers were prepared on 16 June with IBA at 2500 ppm.
  M. Aminur Rahman , S. Ahammed , K.M.M. Hasan , M.M.H. Bhuiyan , F. Ali , M.S. Islam and M.M. Rahman
  A study was undertaken to develop the economic status of rural women of Kishoregonj district in Bangladesh through fish farming. In total, 200 beneficiaries of Nari Uddug Kendra (NUK) having various sizes of pond were selected by baseline survey at Pakundia, Hossainpur and Tarail Upazillas (sub-districts) of Kishoreganj district and made a two-day training on carp-prawn polyculture and provided counseling on the pond sites in a small group routinely from pond preparation to marketing of their products. Five fish species viz., silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), catla (Catla catla) rohu (Labeo rohita), grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idela) and Thai sharpunti (Barbodes gonionotus) and one prawn species, golda (Machrobranchium rosenbergi) were used in the present investigation. Pond preparation and management were depended upon the use of lime, cow dung, urea and Triple Super Phosphate (TSP). The average stocking densities of fish fingerlings and shrimp post-larvae (PL) were 17,290 ha-1 with the species compositions of silver carp (20%), catla (10%), rohu (20%), grass carp (1.43%), Thai sharputi (14.3%) and golda (34.3%). Supplementary feed comprising of rice/wheat bran and mustard oilcake (2:3) was applied at the rate of 8-12% of the total live fish weight twice daily. Duckweed either produced in pond or collected from the external sources was also used as additional supplementary feed. Physico-chemical parameters of pond water were within the normal range for fish culture. Mean production of fish and shrimp was obtained to be 1,980 kg ha-1 over an average culture period of 240 days. Pond management input and cost-benefit data were recorded by the farmers and were then analyzed by fish experts. The mean production cost was estimated to be Tk. 18,772 ha-1 with a benefit of Tk. 47,041 ha-1.
  M.Y. Habib , M.S. Islam , M.A. Awal and M.A. Khan
  A research work of herbal medicine viz. Neem leaf extract (Azadirachta indica), nayantara leaf extract (Catharanthus roseus) and bitter melon fruit (Momordica charantia) juice with the patent drug gliclazide (Comprid®, Square Pharmaceuticals Bangladesh Ltd.) were studied on blood glucose level, hematological parameters and on body weight in rats. Twenty-five apparently healthy adult rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups namely A, B, C, D and E. One group (group A) was kept as control. The rest four groups (B, C, D and E) of rats were treated with gliclazide (Comprid®) @ 4.5 mg/kg bd. wt./day, neem leaf extract (NLE) @ 500 mg/kg bd. wt/day, nayantara leave extract (NtLE) @ 500mg/kg bd. wt./day and bitter melon fruit juice @ 500 mg/kg b. wt./day respectively for 14 consecutive days. Blood glucose levels were significantly (P<0.01) reduced in all treated four groups of rats (39.78-44.31%) in comparison to their pre-treatment values. Total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC) and differential leukocyte count (DLC) were not changed significantly in any treated group (B, C, D & E). Eosinophil and monocytes and hemoglobin contents were decreased significantly (P<0.01) in all groups. Among the herbal drugs used in the study bitter melon fruit juice was more effective (7.45%) in increasing the body weight in comparison with other herbal preparations i.e. NtLE (7.4%) and NLE (4.86%). From the present study, it may be further revealed that although the patent drug gliclazide was found to be highly effective, as blood glucose lowering agent, but the efficacy of three different combined form of herbal preparations was also seemed to be encouraging.
  M.M. Rahman , A.Z. Rahman and M.S. Islam
  A study was conducted to determine the incidence of diseases in various age groups of 10 different flocks of birds from 5 different poultry farms in some selected areas of Bangladesh. The diseases were diagnosed based on history,signs and symptoms prior to death,lesions observed after post mortem examination of dead birds and by bacteriological examinations. A total 8169 dead chickens (2960 chicks, 1083 grower and 4126 adults) were examined. Related samples like liver,spleen and intestine were collected and were cultured on different bacteriological agar media. Among bacterial diseases salmonellosis was found in 53.90% of chicks (group 1) followed by omphalitis in 28.42%, colibacillosis in 13.36%, mycoplasmosis in 2.55%, necrotic enteritis in 1.18% and infectious coryza in 0.59%. The bacterial diseases salmonellosis, colibacillosis, infectious coryza and necrotic enteritis were detected in 55.96, 11.93, 29.91 and 2.20% of group 2 (growers), respectively. Omphalitis disease was never found in grower. Mycoplasmosis was not found in group 2. Salmonellosis was found in 53.32% of adult chicken followed by mycoplasmosis in 39.09%, infectious coryza in 6.11% and necrotic enteritis in 1.48%. Omphalitis was also not found in this group. This group was also not affected by colibacillosis.
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