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Articles by M.R. Islam
Total Records ( 27 ) for M.R. Islam
  M.N. Huda , M.R. Islam and M. Jahiruddin
  An investigation was undertaken to evaluate suitable extractant(s) for available sulphur and critical limits of sulphur for wetland rice soils of Bangladesh. Some 22 soils from 0-15 cm depth were collected from different locations of Old Brahmaputra Floodplains of the country. Sulphur in the soils was extracted with four different extractants, MCP (500 ppm P), CaCl2 (0.15%), NH4OAc (0.5 M) and NaHCO3 (0.5 M). Rice plants were grown in pots treated with and without S for eight weeks. At harvest dry matter of rice was recorded. The critical level of S was determined by both graphical and statistical methods. The extractable S of the soils varied considerably with the soils and the extractants used. The ability of the extractants to extract S followed the order: 0.5 M NH4OAc > 0.5 M NaHCO3, >0.15% CaCl2 > MCP. The MCP extractable S showed significant and positive correlation with organic matter, available P and exchangeable K contents but was significantly and negatively correlated with soil pH. The amount of extractable S by other methods did not show any significant correlation with soil properties. The extractable S by any pair of extractants viz., CaCl2 vs NH4oAc, CaCl2 vs NaHCO3 and NH4oAc vs NaHCO3 were significantly and positively correlated. The critical levels of MCP, CaCl2, NaHCO3 and NH4OAc extractable S were 9.3, 9.7, 15.8 and 17.8 mg kg-1, respectively in both graphical and statistical methods for rice. The critical limit for plant S was found to be 0.12% at 56 days of crop growth.
  S.N. Mozumder , M. Moniruzzaman , M.R. Islam , S.M. Faisal and M.A.R. Sarkar
  An experiment was conducted in a split plot design with 8 irrigation levels with or without mulch to determine optimum level of irrigation or mulch of Dwarf French bean (Bushbean) during two consecutive cropping seasons. Straw mulch significantly increased plant height, number of pods per plant, pod yield and profitability. Irrigation influenced most of the yield attributes except pod size and number of seeds per pod. The maximum number of pods and Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) (5.03) was obtained from fortnightly flood irrigation (6 mm) with mulch while maximum pod yield (19.77 t ha-1) was obtained from half-weekly sprinkler irrigation (3 mm). The lowest yield (10.87 t ha-1) was obtained from control (no irrigation) without mulch. There was no significant effect of irrigation and mulch on pod size and number of seeds per pod.
  M.E. Haque , M.M. Pervin , M.Z. Rahman , K.M.K.B. Ferdaus , M.H. Kabir , M.A. Rahman , M.A. Bari Miah , M.R. Islam and M.T. Hoque
  The aim of present study was to investigate the bioactivity (antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxicity etc.) of the ethylacetate extract isolated from Streptomyces sp. Aspergillus sp. and Bacillus sp. from sewage of different regions of Bangladesh. The ethylacetate extract of Streptomyces sp., Aspergillus sp. and Bacillus sp. shown modest antibacterial and antifungal activities at the concentration of 200 μg disc-1. The maximum antibacterial and antifungal activities were shown by the Streptomyces sp. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the microbial extracts was between 64 to 128 μg mL-1 against test organisms. Brine srimp lethality bioassay was carried out for cytotoxicity measurement of the extracts and the LC50 values were calculated after probit transformation of the resulting mortality data. All the ethyl acetate extract showed lower cytotoxicity properties (Streptomyces sp. 42.37 μg mL-1, Aspergillus sp. 52.25 μg mL-1 and Bacillus sp. 47.51 μg mL-1) compared with the reference standard Bleomycin (0.41 μg mL-1) and Galic acid (4.53 μg mL-1).
  M.R. Islam , S. Zaman and K. Nasirujjaman
  In the present study plant regeneration techniques of Aegle marmelos from nodal explant have been developed. For inducing callus, nodal segments derived from in vitro grown shoots were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different compositions of phytohormones. The maximum callus formation was observed on MS medium having 0.3 mg L-1 BA+2.0 mg L-1 2,4-D. In all cases, callus proliferation began at the cut ends of the explants. Optimum organogenesis and plantlet formation occurred when the calli were subcultured on medium fortified with 2.0 mg L-1 l BA+0.1 mg L-1 NAA. Callus-derived shoots produced roots when transferred to half strength of MS medium without any growth regulators. The rooted plantlets were successfully transplanted to soil.
  M.S. Islam , N.S. Lucky , M.R. Islam , A. Ahad , B.R. Das , M.M. Rahman and M.S.I. Siddiui
  An experiment was conducted to study the hematological parameters in Fayoumi, Assil and Local Chickens of different ages reared in Sylhet region. 250 chickens of three breeds (100 Fayoumi, 50 Assil and 100 Local) were tested at different ages (1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) to observe the hematological parameters: i) Total erythrocyte Count (TEC) ii) Packed Cell Volume (PCV) iii) Determination of Hemoglobin (Hb) iv) Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) v) Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC) vi) Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) vii) Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) viii) Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC). Erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume increased with the advancement of age in all three breeds. The TEC was higher in Fayoumi. The hemoglobin concentration was high in Assil. The PCV was slightly different or similar in all three breeds. ESR was inversely related to the age. Higher ESR in early age and lower in the advancement of age. The Fayoumi showed the higher ESR compared to other two breeds. The ESR of last two groups (9 and 12 months) of Assil and all groups of Local Chickens were negligible. Lymphocytes and heterophils were two principal leukocytes, which exert their dominance on other leukocytes. Among three breeds Local chickens possess the higher lymphocyte percentage. The heterophils were higher in Fayoumi breed. Monocyte was lower in Assil and Local chickens. Eosinophils were higher in number in local and Assil compared to Fayoumi. Higher MCV was recorded in Local chickens followed by Assil and Fayoumi chickens. MCH values were near about similar in Assil and local chicken but lower in Fayoumi breeds. The MCHC values of all three breeds were almost nearer to each other. The above study has highlighted some of the normal hematological parameters of chicken mostly reared in Sylhet region. However, more detailed study could be conducted in this regards.
  Kh. N. Islam , M.Z.I. Khan , M.S.I. Siddiqui , M.R. Islam , N.S. Lucky , M.K. Hossain and G.N. Adhikary
  The anatomical studies of the kidneys of Rhode Island Red (RIR) and White Leghorn (WLH) chicken during their postnatal stages of growth and development were investigated in the present study. The chicken were grouped into day old, day 30, day 90, day 180 and day 360.The gross structures of the kidney (weight, relative weight, length, breadth and thickness) during their growth period were estimated by using the measuring balance and scale. The histological structures of the kidney (the nephrons, the number of glumerulae and the presence of collagen and elastic fibers within the kidney) were also studied by light microscope using hematoxylin and eosin stain, Van Gieson and Verhoeff`s stain. The gross structures were significantly higher in the RIR than the WLH chicken whereas the histological structure (number of glomerulae) were higher in WLH than RIR chicken. From these data it may be suggested that these differences did not depend on the developmental stages of growth and development but depend on the genetic variation of the chicken.
  M.A. Islam , M.M. Rahman , M.R. Islam and M.M. Khatun
  An attempt was undertaken for molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field isolates. In order to isolate the virus, bursae of thirty five dead chicken with clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) were collected from Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh. Isolation of field strain of IBDV was carried out in chickens of 5-week-old. Five IBDV isolates were obtained from chicken inoculation. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was preformed to detect IBDV isolates in the bursal tissues. RT-PCR couple with restriction enzyme (RE) analysis was carried out for molecular characterization of IBDV isolates to determine the pathotype. 677 bp fragments from IBDV genome segment A corresponding to the hyper variable domain of outer capsid protein VP2 was amplified by RT-PCR. Two restriction endonuclease (REs), SspI and SacI were used for digestion of RT-PCR products. RT-PCR product was digested by SspI but not SacI. The presence of SspI restriction site in the 677 bp RT-PCR fragment indicated that IBDV isolates belonging to very virulent (vv) pathotype.
  M. Nasimul Gani , A.K.M. Maqsudul Alam , M.R. Islam , M.M. Rahman , M. Nuruzzaman and Shafi Iqbal
  A field study was carried out with three fibre crop varieties to estimate the bulk organic materials produced by each variety and soil nutrient status due to their incorporation into soil. Considerable amount of plant biomaterials were produced by all varieties viz., CVL-1(6.4t ha-1), O-9897(7.56t ha-1) and HC-95(9.02t ha-1). Plant biomaterials of each variety enriched the soil nutrient status over the initial value. Highest nutrient status (OC-1.7%, OM-2.95%, N-0.58%, P-23ppm, K-0.79meq/100) was found for variety HC-95. The highest percent increments of these nutrients over the initial nutrient of soil(INS) and not allowed to decompose the plant biomaterial in soil (NBM) [OC over INS (211%), NBM (159%); N over INS (190%), NBM (81%); K over INS (93%), NBM (72%)] were found with variety HC-95. The highest P(28%) was obtained with O-9897 where percent increment of P over INS and NBM was 115%. In production of biomaterials and enrichment of soil, Kenaf performed better than Jute varieties. The cultivation of jute and Kenaf may be an exceptional source of organic materials which may save the depleted soil of Bangladesh without using external organic matter.
  M.E. Haque , S. Habib , M.R. Islam , K.A. Khan , A.S.M.A. Hannan , A.K.M.M. Anowar and E.U.A. Nadir
  Sero-monitoring of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in 750 goats and 500 cattle were studied 15 different districts of Bangladesh. This study was undertaken with a view to evaluate the serum antibody level against PPR virus in goats, determination of level of PPR antibodies in large ruminants, and finally to determine the risk of goat population to PPR based on age. The experiment was conducted at the Virology Laboratory of Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Savar, Dhaka. In most districts, the antibody level against PPR Virus (PPRV) in goats varied between 4-98% with an average 49.33% and only 3-10% was found positive against rinderpest in C-ELISA The highest level of antibody against PPRV was found in Hill tracts (98%) and the lowest in Pabna (4%). In terms of Rinderpest (RP) antibody as being detected by C-ELISA, it was observed that the sera collected from Jessore, Faridpur and Tangail showed very low levels of antibody, which varied between 3-10%. The results from the examination of cattle sera from four selected areas of Bangladesh showed that antibody level against PPRV varied from 17.64-36.84% with an average 24.67% and 0-26.31% found positive against RP in C-ELISA. So the present findings are the indication of future problem in proper evaluation of rinderpest vaccination programme in Bangladesh particularly with low sero-conversion in vaccinating herds as they have already been sensitized by PPRV.
  S. Begum , M.M. Rahman , M.J. Abedin Mian , M.R. Islam and M. Uddin
  An investigation was undertaken to see the effect of added nitrogen supplied from poultry manure and urea-N on the growth, yield and nutrient uptake of BRRI Dhan 29 rice. There were eight treatments consisting of T0 (control), T1 (N100), T2 (PM5.0), T3 (N75 + PM1.25), T4 (N50 + PM2.5), T5 (N25 + PM3.75), T6 (PM7.5) and T7 (N120). Application of poultry manure alone or in combination with urea-N significantly increased the plant height, number of effective tillers hill-1, panicle length, number of grains panicle-1 and filled grains panicle-1 whereas 1000-grain weight varied insignificantly. The grain and straw yields increased significantly with different treatments and the highest yield was obtained with T6 treatment which was statistically at par with T5. The NPKS uptake was positively influenced by different treatments. Poultry manure was found the best source of N for rice. Application of poultry manure considerably increased the organic matter content, total N, available P, exchangeable K, available S and CEC of the post harvest soil and thus improved soil health.
  M.M. Hossain , M.A. Sattar , M.A. Hashem and M.R. Islam
  A study was undertaken to determine the arsenic status of some selected soils in six thanas of three arsenic affected districts of Bangladesh. Eighteen soil samples taking three from each of 6 thanas representing 3 districts viz. Moulavibazar, Habiganj and Sylhet of Bangladesh were collected for the study. The soils were collected from 3 depths viz. 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm from each location. The arsenic content in soils of Moulavibazar, Habiganj and Sylhet districts ranged from 1.32-31.89, 0-16.87 and 0.66-17.57 ppm, respectively. Out of 18 samples, arsenic content was noticed for 11 samples at 0-15 cm depth (1.98-25.76 ppm), 15 samples at 15-30 cm depth (3.96-30.68 ppm) and 14 samples at 30-45 cm depth (3.96-38.23 ppm). The highest arsenic content of 38.23 ppm was found at 30-45 cm depth in Sylhet district. Seven samples at 0-15 cm, 3 samples at 15-30 cm and 4 samples at 30-45 cm were free from arsenic contamination. Correlation study of arsenic contents of soils was done with some soil properties viz. sand, silt and clay contents, soil pH, EC and organic matter status. Results showed that arsenic content correlated significantly with different soil properties.
  M.G. Mostofa , M.R. Islam , A.T.M. Morshed Alam , S.M. Mahbub Ali and M.A.F. Mollah
  A study was carried out with 33 Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) genotypes of diverse origin to obtain information on genetic variability, heritability and correlation between fibre yield and various yield attributes. A substantial variability was observed among the genotypes for all 8 characters studied. The character dry stick weight per plant exhibited the highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation (20.30, 14.11) followed by dry fibre yield per plant (18.06, 12.05) and green weight per plant (17.25, 11.41). Heritability ranged from 98.36 for days to 50% flowering to 15.97% for node number per plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for days to 50% flowering and green weight per plant suggesting the dominant role of additive gene effects in the expression of these two characters. Correlation studies revealed that fibre yield was positively and significantly correlated with all the characters studied except node number per plant and days to 50% flowering. The character node number per plant was negatively associated with fibre yield. To enhance yield status of kenaf, the characters plant height, base diameter, green weight and stick weight could be used as selection criteria.
  M.M. Ahasan , K.M. Hossain and M.R. Islam
  This experiment was conducted to study the adaptation of IBDV on vero cell line. Suspected IBDV isolates were collected from the bursa of dead chicken of a particular flock. For adaptation, the anchorage-dependant monolayer of vero cell was first subcultured to form semi-confluent monolayer in eagle`s minimum essential medium (EMEM) with 5% fetal calf serum. This semi-confluent monolayer was then infected by local field IBDV isolates. The passage 1 (P1) viruses were harvested and used for the next passage. In this way, the viruses were given three serial passages on vero cell line where characteristic cytopathic effects (CPEs) were observed. During the first passage, no CPEs were found. The infectivity of IBDV on vero cells was observed by changes in the characteristics of vero cell monolayer. During the third passage, clear and consistent CPEs were observed. Vero cell monolayer was changed to form rounding cells. The P3 adapted viruses were confirmed to be IBDV by agar gel precipitation test. The P3 IBDV virus became well adapted to vero cell line.
  M. Mehedi , K.M. Hossain , M.J.F.A. Taimur , B.K. Sil and M.R. Islam
  The research work was undertaken to prepare haemagglutination antigen of NDV on vero cell line as an alternative to the traditional chicken embryonated egg. Newcastle disease virus can grow within different animal cell line. Vero cell is an established cell line whose source is African green monkey`s kidney. The anchorage-dependent vero cells were first subcultured in Eagle`s minimum essential medium to form semi-confluent monolayer. This monolayer was then infected by collected passage 3 (P3) adapted NDV and maintained up to passage 7 (P7). The antigen was collected from this adapted NDV. Then the NDV antigen was assayed and tested for its purity by tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) assay and haemagglutination test respectively. The titre of NDV was 104.1 TCID50. HA result showed NDV antigen agglutinate chicken red blood cells up to 1600 dilution, which is moderately higher titre than HA titre found for NDV, propagated in chicken embryos.
  M.M. Rahman , M.R. Islam , M.N. Ullah and F.M.M. Adeyl
  Information of broiler farms, adoption of scientific knowledge and managemental skill of broiler farmers were collected. Data were collected through personal interview from 140 farmers at 6 thana`s of Rajshahi district. In this study, 45.3% large, 30.7% medium, 12.5% small, 7.0% marginal and 4.5% landless farmers were involved in commercial broiler farming programme. In case of educational level, about half of the farmers (47.30%) had above secondary, 36.0% had secondary, 12.2% had primary and rest of the farmers (4.5%) had no educational qualification. In case of feed use, percentage of self-preparation and ready made feed were 60.0 and 40.0% respectively. In vaccination, 70.0% broiler farmers vaccinated their birds regularly and 30.0% farmers vaccinated their birds irregularly. In case of floor management system, 80.7% farmers used deep litter system with sow dust or rice husk and rest 19.3% farmers used slate system. About 54.5% farmers did not have any training on broiler farming, whereas only 45.5% farmers had taken training on broiler farming, 71.43% of the respondents had high level of knowledge, 24.29% in medium and only a few respondents (4.28%) possessed very poor knowledge about broiler farming. On the other hand, 37.86% of the broiler farmers had high level of managemental skill based scientific knowledge. However, 52.85% respondents possessed medium managemental skill and a few of them (9.29%) never cared about the skilled management. So this indicates that broiler farmers need to be trained in routine management aspects.
  M.K. Kyum , S.M.E. Rahman , M.R. Islam , M.S.I. Khan and A. Sultana
  The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing molasses with straw based diets on the growth performances of male crossbred calves. For this purpose, twelve bull calves of about one year and a half years to 2 years of age having similar body weight were divided into two groups (six in each group). Calves on one group received the as usual basal diet (straw+concentrates) offered by the dairy farm and the other group received the basal diet+500 g of molasses per head/day. Ration was formulated in such a way so that both group had similar level of metabolizable energy (ME). From the result is was observed that per day body weight gain, heart girth, height and length increment of molasses group calves were significantly higher than that of the calves on as usual basal diet group (control). It was concluded that straw-based diets could be supplemented successfully by molasses, which is widely available in country especially in sugar mill areas.
  M.M. Zaman , M.M. Rahman , M.R. Islam , M.K. Hossain and K.A. Khan
  Feeds and fodder and the quantities fed to large ruminants (cattle and buffalo) in eight different areas of Bangladesh involving 96 farmers were recorded for a year from January 1988 to 1989. Roughage like straw naturally available seasonal green grass and weds, tree leaves, water hyacinth, legumes and sugarcane tops were the major feeds offered to the animal by a bigger proportion of farmers in the study areas. It was found that amount varied (P<0.01) from area to area. The overall consumption of straw, green grass, leaves, legumes and sugarcane tops per day and head were 1.9+2.6, 5.1+4.9, 0.3+2.0, 0.1+1.0 and 0.01+0.07 kg respectively. By product concentrates, mostly rice bran, wheat bran and different oil cakes were offered to the animals in the studied areas. However, the amounts offered also varied (P<0.01) from area to area. Consumption of as fed rice bran, wheat bran and oil cakes were 0.5+0.7, 0.03+0.1 and 0.01+0.03 kg, respectively. The means and standard deviation indicate a wide range of variations in the amounts of roughage and concentrates offered. Furthermore assignment was the not systematic due to the availability of foodstuffs, lack of knowledge of farmers and consequences of the inefficient utilization of available feed resources. In addition to feeding roughage and concentrates, farmers graded their animals 6.2 h on an average a day. Grazing also varied (P<0.01) with different areas. It is thus concluded that feeds and feeding and the assignment amount of roughage and concentrates to the large ruminants are very poor practices of large ruminants exercised in Bangladesh. The assignment amounts are however, not upto the requirement of animals. Feeding animals should be improved by exploring the unconventional feeds of those areas and also by the best management and utilization of available resources. Farmer·s knowledge about feeding practices of animals should also be improved to increase animal production in Bangladesh through proper research extension linkages.
  M.M. Bhuiyan , M.R. Islam , M.L. Ali , M.K. Hossain , M.A. Kadir , N.S. Lucky and B.R. Das
  An experiment was conducted to find out the importance of various characteristics of mammary system and to study their relationship with milk yield in dairy cows during the period from October to November 2000. By a previously prepared module, 100 dairy cows were selected to collection of data for the various measurements and shapes of udder from the Bangladesh Agricultural University Dairy Farm and adjacent villages of University. The phenotypic correlation coefficients between udder measurements and test milk yield and between all possible combinations of udder measurements were significant (P<0.01), revealed that length, width and depth of udder were related to each other and also to the milk production. A bowl shaped udder with large proportion of secretory tissue with highest milk production was as an assets for a milch cow. It may be concluded that a well conformation of udder is to be considered for selecting dairy cows on milk yield.
  M.R. Islam , S. Islam , M. Jahiruddin and M.A. Islam
  A pot culture experiment was carried out at Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh to see the effects irrigation water arsenic (As) on Boro rice (February to June) and the residual effect on T. Aman rice (August-November). There were eight treatments consisting of Control, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.50 and 2.00 ppm As added through irrigation water. A total of 56 L of irrigation water having different concentrations of As was needed for the Boro rice (Cv. BRRI dhan 29). After harvest of Boro rice, T. Aman rice (Cv. BRRI dhan 33) was grown in the same pots with monsoon rain. Nutrients such as N, P, K and S @ 100, 25, 40 and 25 ppm, respectively were added to sustain normal growth of both Boro and T. Aman rice. The irrigation water added As up to 0.25 ppm enhanced the plant height, panicle length, filled grains/panicle, 1000-grain weight and finally the grain yield of Boro rice and the further doses of depressed the plant growth, yield and yield components. The concentration of As in rice grain or straw of Boro rice increased significantly with increasing As concentrations in the irrigation water, the values for grain As for every As treatment were below the Maximum Permissible Level (1.0 ppm). Application of As added to the first crop (Boro rice) had significant residual effects on the second crop (T. Aman rice) in respect of plant height, panicle length, grains/panicle, grain and straw yields. Arsenic concentrations were always higher in Boro rice grain and straw compared to T. Aman rice. The grain As of Boro rice was almost double the As levels in T. Aman rice grain over the treatments. The As treatments had an adverse effect on the N, P, K and S concentration of rice grain.
  K.M. Iftekharuddaula , M.S. Hassan , M.J. Islam , M.A. Badshah , M.R. Islam and Khaleda Akhter
  Nineteen-hybrid rice were evaluated in order to determine variability and genetic association for grain yield and its component characters. It was observed that all the tested characters had significant variation. The highest genotypic coefficient of variation was found in panicles per m2, followed by spikelets per panicles, grain yield, 1000-grain weight and flag leaf area. High heritability was observed for all the tested characters except grains per panicle and harvest index. High heritability and genetic advance was found in panicles per m2, spikelets per panicle and 1000-grain weight. Genotypic correlations were higher than the phenotypic correlations in most of the cases. Flag leaf area, days to maturity, grains per panicle, panicles per m2, , 1000-grain weight and harvest index showed highly significant positive correlation with grain yield both at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Path coefficient analysis of the study revealed that higher harvest index, adequate spikelets per panicle, days to maturity, more panicles per m2, and heavy grains had direct effect on grain yield. Grains per panicle had a positive but indirect effect on grain yield through spikelets per panicles and harvest index. Similar trends were also observed in panicle length through spikelets per panicle and in flag leaf area through harvest index.
  M.A.A. Prodan , M.R. Islam , S.K. Das , M.A. Awal , M.N.H. Siddiqi and M. Kurohmaru
  Histological studies on the arterial wall of main arteries from the ascending aorta to the pectoral and abdomino-inguinal mammary glands of indigenous dogs in different reproductive stages were observed using a light microscope. Based on the histological characteristics and organization of connective tissue fibers and smooth muscle cells in the tunica media, the arterial segments were clearly identified into elastic, transitional and muscular types. Every artery belonging to the three types had different morphological structures at different levels. The artery distant from the heart gradually decreased its elastic lamellae in the tunica media as well as its elasticity and at the periphery of the arterial tree the elastic lamellae were replaced by the smooth muscle cells. The type of the arteries does not depend on the size or diameter of the arteries but depend on the relative distance from the heart. It is assumed that the histological arrangements of tissues in the arterial walls are certainly closely related to the functional demand of the mammary glands.
  P. Shrestha , M.M. Ahasan , K.M.D. Islam , M.M. Billah , M.E. Islam , M. Mehedi , S. Mitra and M.R. Islam
  In the present experiment, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied on a total of 49 samples collected from 4 breeds of chicken (BV-300, Broiler Kasile, LBM and Hisex) at different age (day 1, day 5, day 10 and day 15) to determine the level of maternally derived antibody (MDA) against infectious bursal disease (IBD). All the chickens were the progeny from the parentstock that had the history of vaccination. A total number of 10 broilers were used to determine the level of IBDV specific antibody in vaccinated and in non-vaccinated chickens following infection with field virus suspension. As these chickens attained the age of 14 days, 6 chickens were vaccinated with Gumboro D78 live vaccine while remaining 4 chickens were kept without vaccination. All the chickens were infected with field virus suspension on day 19 and blood samples collected on day 29 were subjected to ELISA. Slight variation in the antibody titer was observed among 4 breeds of chickens. An average antibody titer of 5320.79, 5877.15, 3676.24 and 5581.55 was found in day old BV-300, Broiler Kasile, LBM and Hisex respectively. Day old BV-300 contained high level of MDA (average of 5320.79) and the level gradually declined and persisted up to 15-20 days. Five days old, 10 days old and 15 days old BV-300 contained an average antibody titer of 3848.57, 2615.53 and 580.88, respectively. On day 29, there was a significant level of antibody (1489.50), much above minimum protection level, in vaccinated chicken whereas nil antibody level was observed in non-vaccinated chickens. Therefore, the chicks should be vaccinated at around day 14, at which time the antibody level reaches nearly to minimum protection level. Antibody level must be carefully monitored at proper interval of time in order to make the vaccination program more effective, to keep the chickens disease free, to increase the production and to prevent the economic loss.
  M.R. Islam , M.K. Hossain , M.H. Bahar and M.R. Ali
  Naturally infected leaf samples of betelnut having characteristic symptoms of spots were collected from the campus of Khulna University, Bangladesh. The pathogen of this disease was identified on the basis of growth characters, acervuli production and conidial features on PDA medium as Pestalotia palmarum. The species was found pathogenic on excised leaves of the betelnut. Among the six fungicides tested in vitro Bavistin of three doses (100, 200 and 300 ppm) and Tilt 250 EC (100 and 200 ppm) were most effective in inhibiting radial growth of Pestalotia palmarum. Among the seven indigenous plant extracts tested in vitro, two doses (4 and 5%) of garlic (Allium sativum) extracts were found most effective in inhibiting the radial growth of the fungus.
  M.A.S. Talukder , M.A.M.Y. Khandoker , M.G.M. Rahman , M.R. Islam and M.A.A. Khan
  The reproductive disorders are major causes of reduced fertility in cows that result in failure to produce or delay in producing the total annual calf crop. To identify the reproductive problems of dairy cows of Bangladesh Agriculture University (BAU) dairy farm initially different reproductive parameters in five genetic groups of cows were compiled in this study and 10 cows were identified as less performer. Jersey cross and Holstein Friesian cross were found as the less performer (30% reproductive disorder) followed by Sindhi and Sahiwal crossbred cows (20% reproductive disorder) and Red Chittagong was found as the best performer (0% reproductive disorder). The reproductive records of these 10 cows further taken into consideration and found to be anestrus. The cause of anestrus were further confirmed by rectal palpation and led to the anestrus due to unknown reason (20%) and ovarian abnormalities (80%). The ovarian abnormalities recorded to be as hypoplasia, deformed ovaries and cystic ovaries and their incidence percentages were 30, 20 and 30, respectively. For probable remedies related reproduction management were provided and the incidence (%) of improvement found in Jersey, Sindhi, Holstein Friesian and Sahiwal crossbreds cows were 66.7, 0.0, 33.3 and 100.0, respectively. It is concluded that Red Chittagong cows encountered least reproductive complains in BAU dairy farm. Moreover, Jersey and Holstein-Friesian crosses were found to be more susceptible to reproductive disorders than crosses of Sindhi and Sahiwal cows.
  M. Khanam , M.M. Rahman , M.R. Islam and M. R. Islam
  An experiment was conducted at the Soil Science Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University Farm, Mymensingh during the Aman season of 1999 to evaluate the effect of manures and fertilizers on the growth and yield of BRRI Dhan 30. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. There were seven treatments such as T0 (control), T1 (N100), T2 (N100S10Zn5), T3 (PM5), T4 (PM7.5), T5 (PM10) and T6 (CD10). The results demonstrated that all the treatments had positive effect on the yield components and yields of BRRI Dhan 30. Grain and straw yields of BRRI Dhan 30 were significantly increased due to different treatment and the highest value was recorded with the application of poultry manure at 10 t ha -1. The NPKS content in BRRI Dhan 30 and their uptake were increased due to the application of manures and fertilizers. Analysis of post-harvest soils revealed that organic manure application had a positive influence on organic matter, total N, available P, exchangeable K, available S and CEC of the post-harvest soils.
  M.L. Rahman , M.R. Islam , M. Masuduzzaman and M.Z.I. Khan
  The different parts of digestive system of one-day old, 30 days, 90 days and 180 days old deshi chickens were taken in fresh state and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E). The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of lymphocytes in the different histological layers of the digestive tract of deshi chicken at the different ages of postnatal growth and development. In the present study the Intraepithelial Lymphocytes (IELs) were not abundant in the upper segments of the digestive tract (oesophagus, crop, proventriculus and gizzard), however these immunocompetent cells were abundantly found in the distal part of the digestive tract (duodenum, jejunum, Meckel`s diverticulum, ileum, caecum, cecal tonsil and colorectum). The population of IELs in the distal part of the tract were found higher from day 90 to day 180 of postnatal period of development, however in the jejunum, caecum and ceacal tosil the frequency were found abundant at day old ages only. The lamina propria of the different segments of digestive tract contain isolatory and diffuse lymphocytes. In addition to these isolatory lymphatic nodules and aggregated lymphatic nodules were present and there were higher in frequency at day 90 and at day 180 of postnatal ages. The lymphocytes were also distributed scatteredly in the submucosa and tunica muscularis in all the stages of development. These results suggest that the development of the population of lymphocytes in the postnatal period vary with the different segments of the digestive tract concerned and aging of chicken of Bangladesh.
  M.M. Islam , K.Sultana , M.M. Hussain , M.G. Mostafa , M.R. Islam , M.L. Rahman and M.A.Kashem
  An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different inoculation times with MS-6, MS-9 strains of Macrophomina phaseolina and CS-1 strain of Colletotrichum corchori on the seed yield contributing characters and quality of late jute seeds (Corchorus capsularis L). Varieties were BJC-7370 and CVL-1. Results showed that inoculation with the pathogens was conducted on 45,55,65 days age of the jute plants. Variety BJC-7370 and CVL-1 of jute had reaction with strains MS-6, MS-9, and CS-1 at every inoculation times. The gradual increase of inoculation affected the plants. As the time of inoculation increases the lesion size on stem decreases, the number of pods plant-1, seeds plant-1 and Seed germinations (%) increases and at the same time seed infections (%) decreases. MS-6 strain was found more virulent than MS-9 and CS-1 regarding pods plant-1 and seeds plant-1 production, as well as seed germinations and infections(%).
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