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Articles by M.O. Wegwu
Total Records ( 5 ) for M.O. Wegwu
  K.C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu and M.O. Wegwu
  The hepatoprotective effects of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of stem and leaf of Acanthus montanus pre-treatment against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in wistar albino rats were investigated. The plant extracts were fed to the rats intragastricaly for 15 days prior to the administration of 0.5 mL CCl4 kg-1 body weight. Serum L-alanine aminotransferase (L-ALT), L-aspartate amino transferase (L-AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, 24 h after CCl4 administration decreased significantly in rats pre-treated with aqueous and alcoholic extracts of both stem and leaf of Acanthus montanus than in CCl4-treated rats only. The aqueous extract of stem of Acanthus montanus showed a marked decrease in the levels of AST, ALT and ALP when compared with the alcoholic extract of stem including aqueous and alcoholic extract of leaf of Acanthus montanus. However, rats fed with the alcoholic extract of leaf of Acanthus montanus was lowest in the level of LDH when compared with the results obtained from the other extracts of the stem and leaf of Acanthus montanus. Determination of total serum bilirubin also showed a remarkable decrease in rats pre-treated with aqueous and alcoholic extracts of stem and leaf of Acanthus montanus when compared with those administered CCl4 alone. Aqueous leaf extract of Acanthus montanus showed the least result in total serum bilirubin when compared with the alcoholic extracts of the leaf and both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the stem of Acanthus montanus. Lipid peroxidation expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was significantly reduced in rats pre-treated with aqueous and alcoholic extracts of stem and leaf of Acanthus montanus than rats administered CCl4-alone. The lowest MDA concentration was observed in aqueous extracts of stem of Acanthus montanus while the highest concentration in rats pre-treated with aqueous and alcoholic extracts of stem and leaf of Acanthus montanus was observed in rats treated with alcoholic extract of stem of Acanthus montanus. Histopathological examinations in rats administered CCl4-alone showed severe hepatic damage to the liver. However, rats pre-treated with extracts of Acanthus montanus showed significant improvements in the architecture of rat liver. The results obtained in this study suggest that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaf and stem of Acanthus montanus may prevent liver damage induced by CCl4 in rats.
  K.C. Patrick- Iwuanyanwu , M.O. Wegwu and J.K. Okiyi
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Negro pepper (Xylopias aethiopica) and African locust bean (Parkia clappertoniana) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) -induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.) was administered after 21 days of feeding animals with diets containing Negro pepper (X. aethiopica) and African locust bean (P. clappertoniana). Serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels 24 h after CCl4 administration decreased significantly (p≤0.05) in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana than in CCl4 -treated rats only. Total serum bilirubin also showed a remarkable decrease in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana when compared to those administered CCl4 alone. Lipid peroxidation expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was significantly decreased (p≤0.05) in rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana than in rats administered CCl4 alone. Histopathological examinations of rats administered CCl4 alone revealed severe hepatic damage to the liver. However, rats pre-treated with X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana showed significant improvements in the architecture of rat liver. These findings suggest that X. aethiopica and P. clappertoniana may be protective against CCl4- induced liver damage in rats.
  C.O. Ibegbulem , C.U. Igwe , E.U. Eyong , E.U. Essien , M.O. Wegwu and D. Akachukwu
  Traditional medicines are administered mostly as decoctions. The mechanism of the LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of Terminalia littoralis decoction used in ethno-medicine is hypothesized. The decoction prepared from fallen dry leaves of T. littoralis was screened for its relevant phytochemical contents. The pH, concentration and fibre content were of the decoction determined. A feeding study using the decoction as the only source of fluid was carried out for 35 days using albino rates of the Wistar strain. Anthropometric measurements and serological examinations were also carried out. Hypothetical deductions were based on the presence of phytochemical and biochemical constituents with reported pharmacological activities in relation to pharmacological outcome. The decoction did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the liver function indices. It however significantly (p<0.05) increased body weight and conversion of feed mass to body mass but reduced serum LDL cholesterol concentration and LDL-cholesterol/ HDL-cholesterol ratio. The hypothesized mechanisms were that decoction’s phytosterols competitively inhibited uptake of dietary cholesterol by intestinal cells and HMG-CoA reductase activity, the fibre content reduced enterohepatic bile acid cycle, the catechins increased LDL receptor activity and the tannin, flavonoid and saponin prevented the oxidation of LDL. In conclusion, the phytochemical and biochemical constituents of the Terminalia littoralis decoction lowered LDL-cholesterol through a combination of different biochemical mechanisms.
  K.C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu , C.C. Onyemaenu , M.O. Wegwu and E.O. Ayalogu
  Haematotoxic effects following administration of kerosene and Petrol-contaminated diets were investigated in male and female albino rats. Haematological parameters namely haemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), White Blood Cell Counts (WBC) and differentials were used to assess the effect of kerosene and petrol-contaminated diets on rats. LD50 values of kerosene and petrol were obtained at levels of 212 and 128 mL kg-1 of feed respectively for 12 weeks. Long term exposure of the animals to kerosene and petrol-contaminated diets caused a significant decrease (p≤0.05) in PCV and Hb indicating an anaemic condition. Male and female rats fed diets contaminated with kerosene and petrol showed a significant decrease (p≤0.05) in the WBC counts. Result of the differential count showed a significant increase (p≤0.05) in neutrophils of male and female rats fed diets contaminated with kerosene and petrol while lymphocytes, antibody forming leucocytes decreased significantly (p≤0.05) among rats fed diets contaminated with kerosene and petrol indicating a response to stress and susceptibility of the animals to infection. Long term exposure of rats to kerosene and petrol-contaminated diets induced anaemia as observed in this study.
  K.C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu , C.C. Onyemaenu , M.O. Wegwu and E.O. Ayalogu
  The purpose of this study was to investigate the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of kerosene and petrol-contaminated diets on male and female wistar albino rats after 12 weeks of chronic exposure. The LD50 values of kerosene and petrol were obtained as 212 and 128 mL kg-1 b.wt. of rats, respectively. The animals exhibited changes in behavioural pattern such as respiratory distress, sedation, coma and death with symptom being more severe with petrol when compared to kerosene. Serum L-alanine amino transferase (L-ALT), L-aspartate amino transferase (L-AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, 12 weeks after feeding male and female wistar albino rats with contaminated diets increased significantly (p≤0.05). Feeding rats with diets contaminated with kerosene and petrol for 12 weeks resulted in remarkable decrease in Final Body Weights (FBW) and Percentage Weight Increase (PWI) of test animals compared to control. There was, however, a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the relative weights of liver and kidney of male rats fed kerosene-contaminated diets when compared to the control. Histological examination of the liver and kidney indicated that kerosene and petrol-contaminated diets induced significant degenerative changes in the structural integrity of both the hepatic and renal cells. The result obtained in this study suggest that long term ingestion of kerosene and petrol indicated stress on animals which could possibly cause adverse effect on the kidney and impaired liver function.
 
 
 
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