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Articles by M.N. Opara
Total Records ( 7 ) for M.N. Opara
  M.C. Ucheghu , I.C. Okoli , A.A. Omede , M.N. Opara and C.T. Ezeokeke
  Biochemical, physical and performance evaluation studies were carried out in order to determine the quality of four commercial growers rations, (GF, SF, TF and VF) and five commercial layer rations (GF, SF, TF, VF and LF) manufactured in Nigeria. Percentage moisture content (% MC), Ash content (% AC), Ether extract (% NFE) and calculated metabolizable energy (ME) in MJ kg-1 were determined by proximate analysis and compared with the nutrient values declared on the brand labels. Performance was investigated using 60, 4-month-of-lay commercial laying birds in a 10-week experiment. Four treatment diets including three commercial rations (GF, SF and LF) and a control diet (CF) were fed to 3 replicated groups of the experimental birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD) experiment. Percentage MC of TF growers ration (14.75%) and GF layers ration (17.25%) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than others. Both the analyzed and declared values of crude protein in both feed types were statistically similar (p<0.05) for all feed brands. All other parameters showed either a significantly higher or lower values when comparing the analyzed values with the declared values of the nutrients in all feed brands. TF and GF recorded significantly higher ME (MJ kg-1) in growers and layers rations respectively than the rest. The overall mean weights of feedbags ranged from 24.66±0.52 kg for GF to 25±0.02 for VF and were statistically similar to the declared 25 kg/bag of feed by manufacturers. Average feed intake was significantly (p>0.05) lower in the control diet (CF). Highest body weight change was recorded in LF and CF while GF and SF were similar. CF, SF and LF, though statistically similar (p>0.05) recorded higher percentages of her-day production than GF. LF, CF and GF on the other hand, recorded significantly higher average egg weight than SF (p<0.05). SF was the most economical in terms of cost of feed kg-1 egg and per kg feed. Commercial feed millers seem to more concerned with the CP% content of their feeds while compromising the quality of other nutrient components.
  O.K. Chukwuka , I.C. Okoli , M.N. Opara , A.A. Omede , I.P. Ogbuewu and O.O.M. Iheshiulor
  This review was developed to help those who might have experience financial loss to better understand mycotoxin problems and their control. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain toxigenic fungi while growing on organic substances. Scores of compounds produced by fungi have been identified and many are capable of accumulating in certain feed and food commodities. The feed/ingredient contamination with toxins may occur anywhere in the supply chain, starting from the harvest of the feedstuffs, to storage, processing and feeding channels in the farm. Mycotoxin contamination of feed is recurring problem in livestock feed industry. These mycotoxins when gets into the system of the animals or humans consuming them may cause moderate to severe toxicity symptoms. Low levels of prolonged ingestion of mycotoxins can be more hazardous than what it was thought about. The economic impacts associated with mycotoxins go far beyond the losses incurred by the feedstuff producer. They will be spread throughout the system to handlers, distributors, processors, livestock and dairy operators, consumers, national and state governments. If exports or other markets are lost due to questionable feedstuffs quality, the overall price level for the commodity could fall and result in even greater losses throughout the agricultural sector. Hence, a rational approach has to be adopted for effective control of mycotoxins.
  I.P. Ogbuewu , U.E. Ogundu , M.N. Opara , I.C. Okoli , D.O. Umesiobi , U. Herbert and M.U. Iloeje
  The application of technologies in the field of male reproductive physiology has advanced greatly during past couple of decades. Since, the advent of frozen semen and artificial insemination, reproductive physiologists have attempted to manipulate male reproductive rates of mammals, sometimes successfully or sometimes not. The past five decades has resulted in phenomenal expansion in the improvement spermatozoa with direct application to livestock and medicine. Spermatogenesis had been reported to be induced in male animals using synthetic fertility drugs and local plant extracts. Sperm production and function have been improved via the use of nutritional regiments, semen extender and semen pool admixture. Currently, the sex of animal has been predetermined with 85-95% accuracy by sexing spermatozoa. The current success recorded in male assisted reproductive techniques came about due to advances in computer science, biophysics, cell biology and genetic engineering. This review will briefly cover the developments and modifications of existing sperm manipulation techniques that have direct practical applications today and in the near future in animal agriculture and bio-medicine.
  Audifax N. Iwu , C.S. Ebere , I.P. Ogbuewu , I.F. Etuk , M.N. Opara , M.C. Uchegbu , I.C. Okoli , F.C. Iheukwumere and U. Herbert
  Forty eight crossbred male and female rabbits aged 12-14 weeks were used to study the effects of supplementing Coconut Shell Ash (CSA) on reproductive organ characteristics and serum sex hormone concentrations of growing rabbits. The rabbits were divided into 24 males and females, respectively. Each group was divided into four experimental treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 of six animals and was further replicated three times with two animals per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The animals were fed a commercial grower rabbit ration which was supplemented with CSA at the rate of 0, 1, 2 and 3 g kg-1 b.wt., respectively. At the end of 12 weeks feeding, three rabbits were selected from each group, slaughtered and used to determine reproductive organ characteristics. Blood samples from the slaughtered animals were collected from the jugular vein and assayed for serum reproductive hormones concentrations. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. Testicular morphometry result showed that 1 to 2 g kg-1 b.wt. CSA supplementation could improve the weight of testis, size and epididymal weights indicating that up to 2 g kg-1 b.wt. CSA supplementation supported superior testicular development. This was associated with increasing serum testosterone concentration indicating probably a CSA enhancement of metabolic activity. One gram kg-1 b.wt. was the optimal CSA supplementation rate in female rabbits, since this led to improved weight of whole reproductive tract, weight of ovary, oviduct and uterus. This was equally associated with increased estrogen concentration, which increased with increasing CSA supplementation.
  I.P. Ogbuewu , V.U. Odoemenam , H.O. Obikaonu , M.N. Opara , O.O. Emenalom , M.C. Uchegbu , I.C. Okoli , B.O. Esonu and M.U. Iloeje
  There has been astronomical increase in the costs of chemical fertilizers, agrochemicals, animal feeds and synthetic drugs in the developing countries, with an increasing indebtedness and acute poverty. This situation exerts enormous pressure to explore local resources, handy to combat these deficits and improve quality of life of the people. One of such available resources with great potentials in the 21st century is the neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) tree. Neem belongs to the family Meliaceae. It is the most versatile, multifarious trees of tropics, with immense potentials. It possesses maximum useful non-wood products such as leaves, bark, flowers, fruits, seeds, gum, oil and neem cake than any other tree species. Biologically neem has numerous bioactive ingredients with diverse applications. These bioactive ingredients are known to have antiallergenic, antidermatic, antifeedent, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antipyorrhoeic, antiscabic, insecticidal, larvicidal, anti-implantation, nematicidal, spermatocidal and other biological activities. This review is an attempt to assemble all the major research findings in neem which is of direct relevance to environment, industry, medicine and agriculture.
  M.N. Opara
  Grasscutter contributes to both the local and export earnings of most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. At the local market level, for example, approximately 73 tons of grasscutter meat representing more than 15, 000 animals can be sold in a year. According to recent survey, the grasscutter continues to dominate the bush meat trade. However, international trade as well as regional and continental interests in the grasscutter meat provides economic bases for the development of the grasscutter industry. The industry will be greatly enhanced through the establishment of breeding centres to provide stocks for farmers and other growers who will multiply its’ production and also provide additional source of income, desperately required in the quest to help the rural poor to meet their basic necessities and sustain their food security. Detailed information on the health and diseases of these rodents are reported here. Some of the disease agents include species of gastrointestinal helminthes (nematodes, trematodes, cestodes and acanthocephala) and haemoparasites (Trypanosoma, Babesia and Plasmodium species).
  M.N. Opara , T.S. Adewumi , B.R. Mohammed , S.S. Obeta , M.K. Simon , O.C. Jegede and R.I.S. Agbede
  Background: Haemoprotozoan diseases have been recognized globally as emerging problems in the livestock industry, including dogs. Materials and Methods: Between May and October 2016, blood samples collected from randomly selected 109 local breed of dogs in Gwagwalada, FCT were examined for the presence of haemoprotozoa. Results: Of the 109 dogs examined, 60 (55.0%) were male and 49 (45.0%) female. Of these, 84 (77.1%) were infected with haemoparasites. Prevalence of infection in the male dog was 76.7% and in female dog, 77.6%. Haemoprotozoa encountered among the dogs were Babesia sp., 48 (57.1%), Hepatozoon sp., 33 (39.3%) and Trypanosoma sp., 3 (3.6%). All age groups of the local breed of dogs were infected, but this decreased in older dogs. Ticks collected from the dogs were of the genus Rhipicephalus. Dogs with brown hair coat were infested with 60.5% of the ticks, while those with white and brown/black hair coats had 3.7 and 2.5% tick infestations, respectively. About 37 of the dogs infested with ticks and 11 of those without ticks were infected with Babesia sp. Thirty of the tick infested and 3 of the non-infested dogs had Hepatozoon sp., while 3 of the tick infested dogs and none of those without ticks were infected with Trypanosoma sp. Ten of the dogs with ticks and 15 of those without ticks had no haemoprotozoan infection. Conclusion: It was therefore concluded that local breed of dogs in Gwagwalada are highly infected with Rhipicephalus borne haemoparasites and thus need adequate veterinary attention.
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