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Articles by M.N. Somchit
Total Records ( 13 ) for M.N. Somchit
  M.N. Somchit , A. Zuraini , A. Ahmad Bustamam , N. Somchit , M.R. Sulaiman and R. Noratunlina
  The hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Curcuma longa was investigated against paracetamol (acetaminophen, 4-hydroxy acetanilide)-induced liver damage in rats. Paracetamol at 600 mg kg-1, induced liver damage in rats manifested by statistically increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Histologically, livers from these rats revealed parenchymal necrosis and massive inflammation. Pretreatment of rats with the ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa (100 mg kg-1) prior to paracetamol dosing lowered serum liver enzyme activities. Livers of these rats showed normal histology. These results suggested that ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa has potent hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver damages in rats.
  M.N. Somchit , M.H.N. Shukriyah , A.A. Bustamam and A. Zuraini
  The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-pyretic and analgesic activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Zingiber zerumbet rhizomes. The anti-pyretic activity of Zingiber zerumbet (25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1) was studied in Brewer`s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The analgesic activity of Zingiber zerumbet (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1) was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Both aqueous and ethanol extracts of Zingiber zerumbet showed significant anti-pyretic activities in Brewer`s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats throughout the observation period of 8 h. The ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet however significantly decreased the writhing movements in mice in acetic acid-induced writhing test. In conclusion, rhizomes Zingiber zerumbet have both analgesic and anti-pyretic activities.
  A. Zuraini , M.R. Ros Aziah , A.K. Arifah , M.R. Sulaiman and M.N. Somchit
  The aim of present study was to investigate the potential roles of aqueous extracts of A. paniculate in lowering the plasama lipid parameter which is responsible for hyperlipidemia and its damaging consequences and also to determine the kidney and liver functions of rats. Plasma Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol and Triglycerides (TG) had progressively increased in cholesterol-fed rats up to 4 weeks of cholesterol-feeding. Both 100 and 200 mg kg 1 concentrations of A. paniculata extracts had kept TC, LDL and TG values within the normal range even after 4 weeks of feeding. No significant enhancement was found in the amount of High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol and the kidney and liver enzymes of the rats, i.e. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), total creatinine and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), respectively indicating normal kidney and liver functions. From the current study, it can be concluded that 100 and 200  mg kg 1 aqueous extract of A. paniculata appeared to possess great potentials as anti-hyperlipidemic agent in rats.
  Z.A. Zakaria , H.M. Khairi , M.N. Somchit , M.R. Sulaiman , A.M. Mat Jais , I. Reezal , N.N. Mat Zaid , S.N.Z. Abdul Wahab , N.S. Fadzil , M. Abdullah and C.A. Fatimah
  To determine on the antibacterial activity of the leaves and acute toxicity level of the leaves, tender leaves and rhizomes of Manihot esculenta var. Sri Pontian extracts. The chloroform (CME1) and ethanol (EME1) leaves extracts of M. esculenta (25, 50 and 100% concentrations) were tested against a selected groups of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria using the disc diffusion method. On the other hand, the chloroform and ethanol leaves (CME2 and EME2), as well as the tender young leaves (CME3 and EME3) and rhizomes (CME4 and EME4), extracts of M. esculenta, (concentration ranging from 200 to 2600 ppm) were tested for their chronic toxicity level using the brine shrimp bioassay. CME1 was found to give positive antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhi while EME1 was effective against P. aeroginosa, C. diphtheria and V. cholerae. The results also showed that among the chloroform extracts, CME4 (LC50) = 413.9±51.6) possessed significantly (p<0.05) high toxicity followed by CME3 (LC50 = 496.2±33.1) and CME2 (LC50 = 532.9±22.9) while among the ethanol extracts, EME3 (LC50 = 344.7±33.9) was significantly (p<0.05) more toxic followed by EME2 (LC50 = 534.3±81.5) and EME4 (LC50 = 609.6±74.8). Overall, EME3 and CME4 were highly toxic than their counterpart (CME3 and EME4), respectively, while CME2 and EME2 did no show any discrepancy in their LD50 value. M. esculenta possess an antibacterial property and low toxicity level.
  Z.A. Zakaria , M.N. Somchit , H. Zaiton , A.M. Mat Jais , M.R. Sulaiman , W.O. Farah , R. Nazaratulmawarina and C.A. Fatimah
  The presence study was carried out to investigate on the possible antibacterial activity of methanol (MECO) and chloroform (CECO) extracts of Corchorus olitorius (Senaung betina) using the in vitro disc diffusion methods. The sterilized blank discs (6 mm diameter) was impregnated with 20 μL of the respective extract (in the concentration of 10,000; 20,000; 40,000 and 50,000 ppm) and tested against Corneybacterium diphtheria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Bacillus cereus, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Kosuria rhizophila, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli (O 157), Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes. The MECO and CECO, at all concentrations, were effective against C. diptheria and K. rhozophila with the latter also effective against S. aureus and B. cereus. At the concentration of 40,000 ppm and above, the MECO was effective only against S. aureus, B. cereus and S. epidermidis while the CECO was effective against S. epidermidis, S. flexneri and A. hydrophila. Based on this study, it was concluded that C. olitorius possesses antibacterial activity that is comparable to some of the standard antibiotics.
  Z.A. Zakaria , C.A. Fatimah , A.M. Mat Jais , H. Zaiton , E.F.P. Henie , M.R. Sulaiman , M.N. Somchit , M. Thenamutha and D. Kasthuri
  The present study was carried out to investigate on the possible antibacterial activity of aqueous (AEMC), methanol (MEMC) and chloroform (CEMC) extracts of Muntingia calabura using the in vitro disc diffusion methods. The sterilized blank discs (6 mm diameter) was impregnated with 20 μL of the respective extract (in the concentration of 10,000, 40,000, 70,000 and 100,000 ppm) and tested against Corneybacterium diphtheria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Bacillus cereus, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Kosuria rhizophila, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli (O 157), Aeromonas hydrophila and Salmonella typhi. At all concentrations tested, the AEMC was effective against S. aureus and K. rhizophila while the MEMC was effective against S. flexneri, B. cereus, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, A. hydrophila, K. rhizophila. This activity was not observed with the CEMC. At the concentration of 40000 ppm and above, the AEMC exhibited significant antibacterial activity against C. dihptheriae, P. vulgaris, S. epidermidis and A. hydrophila; the MEMC was effective against C. diphtheriae and L. monocytogenes; and the CEMC was effective against S. aureus. Finally, we concluded that M. calabura possesses a potential antibacterial property that is comparable to the standard antibiotics used. The results also suggest the presence of more potent polar antibacterial compound.
  Z.A. Zakaria , A.M. Mat Jais , M.N. Somchit , M.R. Sulaiman and C.A. Fatimah
  The present study was carried out to elucidate some of the basic physical properties of the bioactive compounds responsible for Channa striatus antinociception. The aqueous extract of C. striatus was obtained after soaking the fish fresh fillet in the ratio of 1:2 (w/v) in chloroform: methanol (2:1; v:v) overnight. The extract, in the concentrations of 10, 50 and 100%, was subjected to the centrifugation-filtration process using the Millipore Ultrafree-CL low binding cellulose filters with different pore size (5,000, 10,000 and 30,000 dalton) prior to the abdominal constriction test in mice, respectively. Subsequently, the 100% concentration extract was also subjected to the analytical high performance liquid chromatography (using a Gilson 715 HPLC equipped with two slave 306 pumps and analytical reverse-phase Vydac C-18 column (10 μm, 0.46 x 25 cm) set at 40°C, with the flow rate of 0.5 mL min-1 absorbance at the wavelength of 220 nm was monitored by a wavelength UV detector; the eluant A was 100% methanol and eluant B was 80% methanol in dH2O) to establish its chromatogram profiles and the first fraction obtained was collected and subjected to the same antinocceptive assay. The non-filtered extract was found to exhibit a concentration-dependent antinociception (p<0.05). Except for the 30,000 dalton extract, the 5,000 and 10,000 dalton extracts antinociception were significantly different (p<0.05) from the non-filtered extract. Furthermore, the chromatogram profiles of C. striatus aqueous extract revealed the presence of four major fractions while the first fraction, prepared in the concentrations of 0.005, 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg kg-1, was found to exhibit significantly (p<0.05) concentration-dependent antinociception. Based on the present data obtained, it is plausible to suggest that at least four types of bioactive compounds with molecular weight ranging from lower than 5,000 dalton as well as between 10,000 to 30,000 dalton presences in the aqueous extract of C. striatus.
  Z.A. Zakaria , M.N. Somchit , M.R. Sulaiman and A.M. Mat Jais
  The present study was conducted with an aim of establishing the best organic solvent system that can yielded the Channa striatus extract with highest antinociceptive activity and also to determine the polarity of the respective bioactive compound using the acetic acid- induced abdominal constriction test. Briefly, the Channa striatus fillet were extracted separately with methanol, ethanol, chloroform, chloroform:methanol and distilled water overnight. This procedure is repeated three times and each of the supernatant obtained was pooled together and then subjected to the evaporation process. The extracts obtained was prepared in the doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 g kg-1 and administered subcutaneously (SC) into mice. Thirty min after the administration of extracts, 0.6% acetic acid was administered intraperitoneally (IP). All solutions were administered in the volume of 10 mL kg-1. From the data obtained, it can be concluded that the bioactive compounds to be of two types, the polar compound that is water-soluble and the non-polar compound that is fat-soluble. These two compounds might act alone, as in DH2O and chloroform extracts or act together, as in CM, methanol and ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the ability of this compound(s) to exhibit the antinociceptive activity in all the three types of solvents also suggested the presence of peptide compound. However, further investigation need to be carried out in order to isolate and identify the respective compound. In addition, methanol and chloroform:methanol were found to be the best solvents for further isolation of the respective bioactive compound of Channa striatus.
  Z.A. Zakaria , M.R. Sulaiman , A.M. Mat Jais and M.N. Somchit
  This study was attempted to preliminarily establish the basic chemical properties of the bioactive compound responsible for Channa striatus (Haruan) mucus extract antinociceptive activity using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test in mice. Pre-treatment of extract with enzymes were carried out at the temperature of 40°C for 60 min. The extract, pre-treated with distilled water (DH2O), was found to show a significant and concentration-dependent antinociceptive activity with the 25 and 50% concentration extracts showing insignificant activity when compared together. The extracts, at the concentrations of 50 and 100%, were pre-treated with 10% concentration α-amylase and lipase and 0.1% concentration protease, respectively. The extracts, pre-treated with α-amylase or protease, were found to produce a concentration-dependent activity, which are, however, not significant when compared to the extracts pre-treated with DH2O (positive control). Interestingly, pre-treatment of the extracts with lipase enhanced the activity significantly (p<0.001). However, this activity did not follow the concentration-dependent pattern. The failure of -amylase and protease to influence the extracts antinociception seems to suggest that the bioactive compound is neither a simple carbohydrate nor protein. Meanwhile, the ability of lipase to enhance the extracts activity, especially of the 50% concentration extract, lead to suggestions that the lipid may act as a carrier of the bioactive compound or the bioactive compound itself is a lipid-based compound. Finally, the bioactive compound is suggested to be a short chain macromolecule, which is resistant to the effect of the three respective enzymes. However, further studies need to be carried out to clarify this finding before the real chemical properties of the bioactive compound can be ruled out.
  Z.A. Zakaria , M.R. Sulaiman , M.N. Somchit and A.M. Mat Jais
  The onset and offset time of aqueous supernatant of haruan (Channa striatus) fillet (ASH) antinociception was evaluated using the abdominal constriction test. The ASH, extracted using chloroform:methanol (2:1; v:v) overnight and then evaporated to remove the residual solvent, was prepared in the concentration of 10, 25 and 100% and administered subcutaneously (SC) at four different set of time (0, 5, 30 and 60 min). At the end of the respective time, acetic acid (0.6%) was administered intraperitoneally (IP) and the number of abdominal constrictions was then calculated. ASH was found to exhibit a concentration-dependent antinociception. The onset time of antinociception was found to be between 0 to 5 min depending on the concentration of ASH used with the highest and lowest concentrations of ASH produced antinociception 0 and 5 min after their administration, respectively. This activity, which increased with increase in time of ASH administration, was found to reach the highest level after 30 min of ASH administration regardless of the concentration used. The offset time, on the other hand, does not depend on the concentration of ASH used. The three respective concentrations of ASH antinociception were found to diminish completely after 60 min of their administration. Interestingly, it was also found that ASH produced activity comparable to that of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).
  Z.A. Zakaria , M.N. Somchit , M.R. Sulaiman , A.M. Mat Jais and C.A. Fatimah
  The present study was carried out to determine the involvement of various receptor antagonists in and the effect of pH and enzymes on the recently reported antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of Muntingia calabura leaves (MCAE) using the abdominal constriction test. The extract was prepared by soaking the dried powdered leaves of M. calabura in distilled water (dH2O) overnight and the supernatant obtained was considered as a stock solution with 100% concentration/strength. The MCAE, administered s.c. at the concentrations of 5, 50 and 100%, were found to show significant antinociceptive activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The 50% concentration MCAE was further used to study on the above mentioned parameters. The extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) decreased in activity when pre-treated (s.c.) against 10 mg kg-1 naloxonazine, 10 mg kg-1 pindolol and 5 mg kg-1 atropine, but not 10 mg kg-1 -funaltreaxamine, 10 mg kg-1 naltrindole, 10 mg kg-1 phenoxybenzamine, 10 mg kg-1 bicuculine or 5 mg kg-1 mecamylamine, respectively. The extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) increased in activity after pre-treatment at alkaline pH (pH 9 and 11) while maintaining the activity at the extreme acidic and alkaline conditions (pH 2 and pH 13), respectively. The extract activity was not changed after pre-treatment against -amylase, protease, lipase or their combination, when compared to the dH2O-pre-treated group, respectively. Based on the results, we conclude that the M. calabura leaves peripheral antinociception involved, at least in part, activation of µ-opioid, -adrenergic and muscarinic receptors and resist the effect of extreme acidic and alkaline conditions as well as various enzymes.
  M.R. Sulaiman , Z.A. Zakaria , S. Moin , M.N. Somchit and Y.S. Chai
  The present study was carried out to establish the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of Lonicera japonica flowers’ buds in various experimental animal models. The antinociceptive activity was measured using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests, while, the anti-inflammatory was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema. The dried flower’s buds of L. japonica was added with distilled water (1:10 w v 1) and boiled for 2 h at 80°C. The supernatant collected was freeze-dried overnight and prior to use was diluted to the desired doses. The extract (30, 100 and 300 mg kg-1; administered intraperitoneally) exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in all assays used. In conclusion, the flower’s buds of L. japonica possessed potential antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities that require further in-depth studies.
  M.N. Somchit , S. Faizah , A. Zuraini , H.M. Khairi , A.H. Hasiah and Z.A. Zakaria
  Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are heterogenous group of compounds used to cure and prevent inflammation. It was demonstrated that NSAIDs has the ability to inhibit the viability of colon cancer cells in vitro. We investigated the effects of Piroxicam and mefenamic acid on the viability of 4 cancer cell lines in which 2 of them are colon cancer cell lines (HCT 116 and CaCo-2). Cell viability was determined using MTT assay. Both NSAIDs was observed to markedly decrease the cell viability of both cell lines (HCT 116 and CaCo-2). Piroxicam was statistically more cytotoxic towards the cancer cell lines when compared to mefenamic acid. However, the cytotoxic effect of NSAIDs was less potent on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and liver cancer cells (Hep G2). In conclusion, piroxicam and mefenamic acid showed selective cytotoxic effects against colon cancer cells but not against liver or breast cancer cells.
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