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Articles by M.N. Islam
Total Records ( 26 ) for M.N. Islam
  M.Z. Rahman , K.M. Nasiruddin , M.A. Amin and M.N. Islam
  Meristem culture of banana cv. BARI-I was performed for virus eradication and shoot multiplication where different concentrations of BAP (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 mg L-1) and combinations of different level of BAP (0, 4 and 5 mg L-1) and NAA (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L-1) were used. Among the different levels of BAP, better response was found with 5.0 mg L-1 BAP in respect of survivability (91.67%), single shoot formation rate (62.50%) and formation of hard meristamatic ball like structure (29.17%). Maximum shoot multiplication (4.52/explant) with highest shoot length (3.62 cm) was achieved on MS medium containing 4.0 mg L-1 BAP+1.5 mg L-1 NAA treatment. The clusters of multiple shoots were also rooted on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 NAA.
  M.N. Islam , M.A. Rahim , M.N.A. Naher , M.I. Azad and M. Shahjahan
  An experiment on the inserted contact grafting in mango (Mangifera indica L.) was conducted to find out the best time and age of rootstock for grafting in best varieties of mango under Bangladesh condition. The experiment indicated that inserted contact grafting could be more successful in 16 May operations. The highest percentage of survived grafts (56.82%) was recorded in 16 May operation 120 days after the detachment of the grafts from the mother plant requiring less time (70.22 days) for graft success when grafted with 2-year-old rootstock in cv. Amrapali (BARI Aam–3).
  A. Nahar , M. Al-Amin , S.M.K. Alam , A. Wadud and M.N. Islam
  The experiment was carried out with an aim to assess the quality of Dahi prepared from cow, goat and buffalo milk. With that understanding, milk samples were collected from Bangladesh Agricultural University Dairy farm; Senbari, Mymensingh; Gobiddocher, Mymensingh and Dahi samples were analyzed in the Dairy Technology and Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. The parameters used to monitor the quality of Dahi samples were physical (smell and taste, body and consistency, color and texture), chemical (protein, fat, total solids, ash, acidity and pH) and microbiological (gram positive rods and cocci, total viable count, coliform and mould count). From the result of all parameters it can be concluded that Dahi prepared from cows milk in the Dairy Technology Laboratory, Department of Dairy Science was superior to Dahi samples in same place from buffalo and goat milk. Most of the nutritional parameters it can be found that Dahi sample prepared from buffalo milk scored the highest. From the nutritional point of view it can be showed that Dahi prepared from buffalo and goat milk was not so bad. So, the people of our country are suggested to prepare Dahi from cow, buffalo and goat milk and also follow to strict hygienic conditions in order to get good quality Dahi.
  S.K. Das , G.N. Adhikary , M.N. Islam , B.K. Paul and G.G. Das
  To judge the advantages and disadvantages of Artificial Insemination (AI) by raw semen in deshi chicken a test experiment was conducted in Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) poultry farm, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Male birds (RIR) were collected from the BAU poultry farm, whereas the female birds (deshi hens) were purchased from nearby local village market. Both types of birds were kept in individual cage with adlibitum food and water and were given abdominal massage at least for three days (at the same time of the day) prior to AI. Collected semen was inseminated (0.20-0.25 ml/hen) directly by soft dropper into the female genital tract. The result of the present experiment showed that 1-2 females could be covered by semen collected from single ejaculate from one cock. It was also found that very small amount of semen was wastage by container. Thus it can be concluded that AI by raw semen is not profitable (except experimental point of view) until we use semen diluents for commercial purpose.
  Md. Abdullah Baki , Nadira Akhtar , M.M. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Mosharrof Hossain , N. Islam , M. Khursed Alam , R. Islam , N.A. Khatun and KAMSH Mondal
  Synergistic effect of W. calendulacea plant extract combined with Lamda cyhalothrin were demonstrated against red flour beetle T. castaneum in methanol extract. W. calendulacea plant extract offered synergistic action when used Lamda cyhalothrin. It was noted that plant extract indicates synergistic action from 1:1 to 1:5 ratio and above.
  M. Taj Uddin , A. Sen , M.S. Noor , M.N. Islam and Z.I. Chowdhury
  This study deals with the analysis of non parametric estimation of Cure rate parameter. Frailty models have been proposed for cure rate estimation. In this research we have tried to estimate the cure parameter from the Frailty model using non-parametric maximum likelihood estimation (NPMLE) method. To perform the analysis, we consider two cases: i) cured and non cured group simultaneously and ii) non cured group only. The analysis showed that cute rate estimator can not be obtained from the analytical solution of the estimating equation but may be obtained from the numerical solution of the equation.
  Ahmed S.U. , P.K. Sarker , M.N. Islam , M. Kamal and M.A. Mazid
  The study was undertaken in eighteen selected shrimp farms, fifteen depot and fifteen markets of different locations, viz. Paikgacha, Rampal and Shaymnagar of greater Khulna district to observe the variation in quality and quantity of shrimp production of the farms operated by trained manpower with the application of improved management aspects at different degrees to that of the traditional farms and to identify the causes of post-harvest quality losses of shrimp produced from the farms at depot and market levels. Data reveals that a significant higher production 398.50 kg ha–1 can be achieved from the improved managed farms against the low yielded traditional shrimp farms (170.80 kg ha–1) with a positive impact of management on the quality of shrimp. For post harvest quality loss of produced shrimps at depot and markets, the major causes identified were poor quality non-chlorinated water, non-maintenance of personnel hygiene, poor drainage and sanitation system, unscientific holding system, poor quality of ice and ice shrimp ration, long time transportation in unscientific packet material, defective infrastructure of the market place etc. The estimated loss due to improper handling, icing and transportation calculated as about 8-25% in the coastal shrimp producing area of greater Khulna district.
  Kh.N. Islam , M.Z. I. Khan , M.N. Islam , A. Ahad and M.S. Mazumder
  The light microscopic structure of the ureter of RIR and WLH chicken of Bangladesh has been analyzed as histologically in the present study. Based on the histological architecture, the ureteral wall were clearly identified into three layers; mucosa, muscularis and adventitia. The lumen was roughly circular in cross section in both types of genetic groups. The histological features of the mucosa, muscularis and adventitia were remained same in different developmental stages. The epithelial wall of the ureter consists of a tall pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium in the cranial part through the middle part of the ureter which were transformed into transitional epithelium in the caudal part of the ureter in both Rhode Island Red (RIR) and White Leghorn (WLH) chicken. The presence of collagen and elastic fibers were observed in the lamina propria of the ureter. However, the population of lymphatic tissue in the lamina propria was greater in RIR rather than WLH chicken. The mucosal folds were very clear and more in RIR than WLH chicken. These differences did not depend on the developmental stages but depend on the genetic variation of the chicken
  S.M.R. Rahman , M.H.Rashid , M.N. Islam , M.N.Hassan and S. Hasan
  Yogurt samples were prepared by adding 0,5, 10 and 15% jack fruit juice with milk. The quality of prepared yogurt was measured by some organoleptic, chemical and microbiological tests. Smell and taste; body and consistency; color and texture score of yogurt improved due to the addition of jack fruit juice. Addition of jack fruit juice increased the total solids content but decreased the protein, fat and ash content. Yeast cells were higher in jackfruit yogurt (JFY) than plain yogurt. From this study it was suggested that yogurt could be prepared successfully by adding different proportions of jack fruit juice with milk and among of them 5% jack fruit juice yogurt showed little better performance.
  S. Faruque , S. S. Husain , M. M. Rahman , B. K. Roy , M.N. Islam and M.S. Islam
  In this study sixty three farmers mainly from land-less and small category, having some previous experience of rearing goats were selected. There were three genetic groups viz. I) jamunapari male × black bengal female ii) selected black bengal male × selected black bengal female and iii) random black bengal. Feeding and management systems of keeping goats were almost similar. No extra inputs were provided to them except grazing from morning to evening. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of selection and crossbreeding in black bengal goats on various reproductive characteristics. Traits considered for the present study were age at puberty, number of services per conception, gestation length, litter size, age at first kidding, post partum heat period, kidding interval, abortion rate and survival rate of kids. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant (p<0.01) effect of genetic groups on post-partum heat period, kidding interval and abortion rate. Gestation length was significantly (p<0.05) affected by genetic groups. Age at puberty, number of services per conception, litter size, age at first kidding and survival rate were not affected significantly (P>0.05) by genetic groups.
  A. Ara , M.L. Ali , M.S. Islam and M.N. Islam
  The experiment was conducted to manufacture cheese from skim milk with 30, 40 and 50 g kg-1 soybean oil and whole milk and to monitor the quality of different types of prepared cheese. It was observed that the flavour, taste, colour and appearance, body and texture, overall acceptability and final score were significantly higher in whole milk cheese than that of other types of vegetable oil based (30, 40 and 50 g kg-1) skim milk cheese. Chemical analysis showed that there were significant differences (P<0.01) incase of protein and fat contents of different types of cheeses. On the other hand there were no significant differences in moisture, total solids, ash and acidity content of different types of cheese. Although some chemical parameters showed that the quality of soybean oil based (30, 40 and 50 g kg-1) skim milk cheeses were better than the whole milk cheese but expert judges gave their opinion in favour of whole milk cheese, on the basis of organoleptic evaluation. It may be concluded that cheese could be manufactured successfully from skim milk with 30, 40 and 50 g kg-1 soyabean oil and it will open a new door in business sector and experiment also could solve the protein deficiency of Bangladesh. According to panelists score 50 g vegetable oil based skim milk cheese was better than other types of skim milk cheese.
  M.S. Reza , K.M. Azimuddin , M.N. Islam and M. Kamal
  Studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of ice storage on the raw materials for the production of high quality dried fish products in solar tunnel dryer by determining organoleptic, biochemical and bacteriological aspects. Fresh fish samples of silver jew fish, Bombay duck, big-eye tuna, Chinese pomfret and ribbon fish were collected from the landing centre of Cox`s Bazar and stored in ice for 13 days. During the storage period, required quantity of fish samples were taken out every three days for drying in a Hohenheim type solar tunnel dryer. The quality of the raw materials during storage and corresponding dried products produced in the dryer were evaluated. One day ice stored raw materials exhibited excellent quality on the basis of odour, colour, appearance and consistency of flesh. However, the overall organoleptic qualities of all samples were acceptable conditions up to 10 days of ice storage. Four days ice stored raw materials produced excellent quality of dried products in the solar dryer, while the dried products produced from 10 days of ice stored fishes were also found acceptable qualities judged by their characteristic colour, odour, texture, infestation and broken pieces. There were little or no changes in initial moisture content of 70.5 to 89.1% in raw materials during 13 days of ice storage. The initial total volatile base, peroxide value and aerobic plate count of the raw materials were 2.37 to 5.15 mg N (100 g)-1, 1.27 to 2.81 m eq kg-1 oil and 2.75 x 102 to 2.0 x 103 CFU g-1, respectively, which increased considerably beyond the acceptable limits after 13 days of ice storage. The moisture content of the dried products prepared from various days of ice stored fish samples were in the range of 15.9 to 16.4% which were within the acceptable limit. The TVB-N, peroxide and APC values of the dried products produced from up to 10 days of ice stored raw materials were found within the limit of acceptable levels, which increased beyond the acceptable limits when raw materials stored up to 13 days in ice were used to produce solar tunnel dried fish products.
  M.I. Hossain , M. Kamal , M.N. Sakib , F.H. Shikha , M. Neazuddin and M.N. Islam
  An investigation was carried out on the quality changes in surimi prepared from ice stored Queen fish (Chorinemus lysan) in time interval during 20 days of storage in ice storage condition and the ratio of the fish to ice was maintained 1:1. Mince was prepared in both washed and unwashed condition. To evaluate the gel-forming characteristics, a portion of the mince was washed with water containing 0.1% NaCl. Both washed and unwashed mince were ground with 3% NaCl for 20 min at 4°C. The ground paste was stuffed into polyethylene tube and incubated at various temperatures (40, 50 and 60°C) for 2 h. The quality changes during ice storage of mince prepared from the ice stored fish muscle were evaluated with time interval by determining the gel-forming ability, myofibrillar Ca2+-ATPase activity, protein solubility and pH value of fish muscle. The resulting gels were subjected to the puncture test, teeth cutting test and folding test. Maximum breaking force was obtained from both washed and unwashed mince at the incubation temperature of 50°C. The gel strength of both unwashed and washed meat paste gradually declined with lapse of storage period and washed meat paste showed higher gel forming ability than unwashed meat paste throughout the study period. Myofibrillar Ca2+-ATPase activity, protein solubility and pH of the ice stored muscles decreased from 0.847 to 0.309 μmol pi min 1 mg 1, 87 to 12% and 6.69 to 5.89, respectively, during 20 days of ice storage.
  M.Z. Islam , M.N. Islam and S.M.F. Ahsan
  In this study, nutritional status of children under six years have been investigated based on primary data and efforts have been made to find out the probable factors influencing the nutritional status of children. The study shows that the factors such as maternal education, family income, duration of breast feeding, age of child, family size have significant effect on nutritional status of children. Therefore, sustainable policy should be taken regarding the factors mentioned above to improve nutritional status of children of Bangladesh.
  M.N. Islam and M.O. Ullah
  This study reports an investigation about knowledge and attitude of urban pregnant women on nutrition and delivery place and an attempt has also been made to identify factors that are closely related to these behaviors based on primary data. The analysis shows that educational status of pregnant women, their occupation, their husband`s occupation, monthly family income have significant influence on knowledge and attitude of pregnant women toward nutrition and health care practice. The result also shows that opinion about place of delivery depends on educational status and occupation of pregnant women and monthly family income.
  M.N. Islam , M.O. Ullah and M.T. Uddin
  Standard weight gained during pregnant period is an important indication of good health of pregnant women. This study tries to point out health status of urban pregnant women of Bangladesh with respect to weight gained during pregnant period and Body Mass Index (BMI) of pregnant women. The analysis shows that health status of study population is satisfactory in context of Bangladesh though lag behind compared to neighbour country like India and other developed countries. This study also shows that the overall relative change of BMI with respect to gestational age is significant though it is insignificant in first trimester and significant in both second and third trimester.
  S.U. Ahmed , M.A.Rahman , M.N. Islam , M. Kamal and S. Awal
  An on-farm study was undertaken to investigate the possibility of Artemia culture with salt in the traditional solar salt beds of Bangladesh and to find out the impact of various fertilization treatments on the production performance of Artemia (cysts and biomass) and salt through integrated approach. Four treatments in two consecutive years of experiment like, T1 and T2 ( in the first year), T3 and T4 (in the second year) was applied for this integrated culture system. Treatments were comprised of application of urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) and dried and powdered chicken manure at different doses. Study reveals that modified solar salt beds of Bangladesh having suitable water quality can be successfully utilized for salt Artemia production in the winter months. A significant higher production of Artemia cysts (P=0.0015) and biomass (P=0.0136) was found for treatments T3 (15.23 kg/ha DW) and T3 (196.10 kg/ha WW) respectively. No effect of Artemia - salt integration system was observed on the quantity of salt production.
  F. A. Hayder Talukder , Sontosh Chandra Chanda , A. K. M. Golam Sarwar , P.K. Bhander and M.N. Islam
  An experiment was conducted with Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) cultivars O-9897 and O-4 to study the early vegetative growth and fibre yield. Both the cultivars showed congrous gain in plant height. Leaf spread increased up to 40 days and declined thereafter. Leaf number per plant, length and breadth of leaf increased with the increase in age of the plants. Total dry matter production per plant increased rapidly up to 30 days in both the cultivars. At the time of first harvest at 20 days after emergence (DAE), the leaf dry weight became double (2.37 g) as compared to that of the stem (1.31 g). Stem dry weight increased rapidly during the period of 20 to 30 days and thereafter the stem maintained higher dry weight till the senescence of the plant. The RGR, NAR and LAR were relatively higher at the early stage of growth and then began to decrease sharply with the increase in age of the plants in both the cultivars. Both RGR and NAR increased a little at 50 to 60 DAE. There were significant positive correlations between early growth attributes viz., plant height, leaf number per plant, length and breadth of leaf and LAI, and fibre yield. It is concluded that there is an ample scope of increasing fibre yield through vigourous vegetative growth at early stage.
  L. Yasmin , Kamal M. , S.A.K. Ahmed , K.M. Azimuddin , M.N.A. Khan and M.N. Islam
  Studies were conducted on the post-mortem changes in genetically improved farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during ice storage. Fish sample kept at room temperature, rigor started 1 hr. after spiking, reached full rigor (100%) within 3 hr which continued for 3 hr. . In ice stored fish, rigor started within one hour and attained full rigor (100%) within 2 hr that continued for 16 hrs. The pH of the muscle was about 7 immediately after catch and started to decrease gradually with the lapse of storage period. But the decrement of pH in samples stored at room temperature was much rapid than those stored in ice. Organoleptically the fish were in acceptable conditions for 16 days. The initial TVB-N and peroxide values were 5.3 mg/100g of fish and 5 meq/kg of fish respectively. These values gradually increased with the lapse of storage time but remained within the recommended limit up to 16 days. Ca2+ ATPase activities in presence of 0.1M KCl and 0.5 M KCl were 0.349 and 0.139 μmol.pi/min. mg, respectively, and decreased gradually with storage period. Mg2+ ATPase activities in presence and absence of Ca2+ were 0.418 and 0.183 μmol.pi/min. mg respectively. The myofibrillar solubility decreased gradually from around 85.33% to 38.6% at the end of the 16 days of ice storage. The bacterial loads in muscle of ice stored GIFT varied from 7.6 × 103 to 7.1 × 103 cfu/g at 2nd day of storage and then gradually increased with storage period. At the end of the 16 days of ice storage, bacterial load increased to 4.6 × 106 cfu/g and at this stage the fish were organoleptically in acceptable condition. After 18 days of storage the bacterial load was 3.8 × 108 cfu/g that exceeded the acceptable recommended limit.
  S. Habib , B.C. Das , M.N. Islam , M.K. Hossain and M.F. Ahmed
  The effect of various tranquilizer and sedative agents was studied in sheep. The respiration rates, pulse rates and rectal temperature in sheep reduced significantly (P<0.01) with all the tranquilizing and sedative agents except promethazine hydrochloride. The chlorpromazine hydrochloride produced longest onset and shortest duration of sedation and recovery period, while xylazine hydrochloride produced shortest onset and longest duration of sedation and recovery period. Xylazine hydrochloride and diazepam decreased the rumen motility significantly (P<0.01) whereas chlorpromazine hydrochloride and promethazine hydrochloride decreased insignificantly. Hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume decreased significantly (P<0.01) compared with the pre-sedative control values with all the above tranquilizers and sedatives except promethazine hydrochloride. Xylazine hydrochloride reduced the PCV in a marginally significant (P<0.05) level. Promethazine hydrochloride significantly (P<0.01) increased the Hb but PCV insignificantly. Xylazine hydrochloride and diazepam produced good sedation in sheep but chlorpromazine hydrochloride produced moderate sedation whereas promethazine hydrochloride only tranquilizes the sheep.
  M.M.H. Khan , M.A. Islam , M.M. Hossain , M.M. Rahman and M.N. Islam
  Milk samples from single, twin and triplet or 1st, 2nd and 3rd lactation bearing Black Bengal goat were collected to monitor the physical (organoleptic, specific gravity and pH value) and chemical (acidity, fat, SNF, total solids, protein, lactose and ash content of milk) quality of milk. From the above tests, it was observed that the color, flavor, taste and texture of milk samples were normal; yellowish white, normal (goaty), slightly sweet and free flowing liquid. Except acidity and protein content, all other chemical traits varied significantly among different kid bearing goats milk. Chemical parameters were similar in different lactations except fat and total solids percentage. Results of the above experiments indicated that milk obtained from single kid bearing and 2nd lactating goats were better than the other number of kids bearing or lactating goats
  M.I. Hossain , M.S. Islam , F.H. Shikha , M. Kamal and M.N. Islam
  Studies were conducted to evaluate the post-mortem changes in Thai pangas (Pangasius sutchi) during 25 days of ice storage. Rigor mortis progress was measured as parameters of rigor tension. Rigor begins within 1-1.5 h after death in ice and increases gradually with the lapse of storage period. Rigor-index reached maximum of 67.46% in 6 h and did not attain full rigor (100%) and then started relaxation. The organoleptic quality of Thai pangas (Pangasius sutchi) during ice storage was assessed on the basis of the sensory evaluation such as appearance, odour, texture and taste. The initial pH value was around 7.0, which gradually decreased to 5.98 during 14 days of storage period and then increase until the experiment was terminated. The extractability of myofibrillar protein gradually decreased from 88.37 to 52.87% at the end of the 20 days of ice storage. The initial TVB-N value and peroxide value were 1.37 mg/100 g and 1.1 meq kg-1 of oil, respectively which continuously increased with the lapse of storage period. At the end of 20 days of storage TVB-N value and peroxide value were 24.25 mg/100 g and 16.64 meq kg-1 of oil, respectively. There is a large fall of Ca+2-ATPase activity both in presence of 0.1 and 0.5 M KCl during storage period. The overall results indicated that Thai pangas fish was found in acceptable conditions for 20 days of ice storage in an insulated box.
  M. Kamal , M. Ismail Hossain , M.N. Sakib , F.H. Shikha , M. Neazuddin , M.A.J. Bapary and M.N. Islam
  Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of salt concentration on the gel forming ability of surimi prepared from Queen fish (Chorinemus lysan) using various concentration of salt (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6%) in meat paste. In both one step (50°C for 2 h) and two steps heating process (50°C for 2 h prior to heating at 80°C for 30 min), maximum gel-strength was obtained at the salt concentration of 3% NaCl. In order to investigate the effect of cryoprotectants on the gel-forming ability of surimi prepared from Queen fish (Chorinemus lysan) during 3 weeks frozen storage, different combination of sucrose, sorbitol and polyphosphate were used. In both one and two steps heating process, the highest gel-forming ability was obtained from combination of 4% sucrose + 4% sorbitol + 0.3% polyphosphate, indicating that above combination of cryoprotective agents during frozen storage is suitable for surimi prepared from Queen fish (C. lysan).
  M.N. Islam , M.Z.I Khan , S.R. Khan and M.A. Haque
  Morphomatrical analysis of aortic valves of bovine heart was done for the purpose of manufacturing of bioprosthetic materials in Bangladesh. The study analyzed 32 healthy fixed bovine hearts; 50% of them obtained from males, 50% of them from female animals ranged from 2 to 4 years old. The characteristics assessed related to age and sexes were the following: number and height of the cusps and size of the lunulae. This study included the assessment of 32 aortic valves of the hearts, 8 valves from each of 2, 2.5, 3 and 4 years of indigenous cattle. All the bovine hearts assessed in the present study possessed tricuspid aortic valve. The values of the heights of left, right and noncoronary cusps were 14.91±2.47, 14.25±2.60 and 15.19±1.75 mm, respectively and NC cusp had the largest dimensions, followed by the RC and the LC cusps, whose dimensions were nearly similar. The highest values of lunula (width and length) were 8.31±1.35 mm for LC in case of width and 32.22±3.10 mm for RC in case of length. Data about height of the cusps, the size of the lunula (width and length) of the cusps and their anatomical relations facilitate the manufacturing of bovine tissue valves as well as those can be used in valve replacements as like as stentless porcine and bovine pericardial bioprostheses are being used clinically
  A. Haque , M.J. Alam , M. Hasanuzzaman , M.N. Islam and M.A.K. Azad
  Three types of rasogolla were prepared from cow milk chhana and buffalo milk chhana named as A (100% cow milk chhana). B (100% buffalo milk chhana) and C (50% cow + 50% buffalo milk chhana). Quality of those was evaluated by physical and chemical tests. Rasogolla made from cow milk chhana gained the highest organoleptic score. In addition the addition of 50% buffalo milk chhana with 50% Cow milk chhana Produced rasogolla nearly similar to A type rasogolla.
  M.N. Islam and M.S. Pramanik
  Studies on the limnology of a fishpond of Rajshahi University campus were made over a period of 12 months between January-December 2002. Fluctuations of some physico-chemical parameters were noted. This pond was found to be of eutrophic in nature with slightly acidic to alkaline pH, with high bicarbonate content. Diurnal change of water temperature was also observed. Like other stagnant water bodies the thermal stratification occurs in this pond.
 
 
 
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