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Articles by M.M. Fathi
Total Records ( 11 ) for M.M. Fathi
  M. Mahrous , A. Galal , M.M. Fathi and A. Zein El-Dein
  Growth performance and immune response of naked neck, frizzle and double segregation chickens were evaluated under moderate temperature. Four genetic groups originated from the same genetic origin (normally feathered, frizzled, naked neck and naked neck-frizzled) were used in the current study. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were determined from 4-12 weeks of age. Humoral immunity, phagocytic ability, cell-mediated immunity and relative weight of lymphoid organs were determined. The frizzled (nanaFf), naked neck (Nanaff) and naked neck frizzled (NanaFf) genotypes had significantly heavier body weight compared to normally feathered (nanaff) counterparts. The presence of Na gene in a single state or interacted with F gene significantly improved feed conversion ratio compared to nanaff sibs. With respect to immunocompetence measurements, it could be noticed that the Na, F and double segregation genes significantly increased total antibody titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) compared to nanaff genotype. Concerning cautenous basophilic hypersensitivity (CBH), it could be speculated that the naked neck, frizzle and naked neck frizzle birds were hyper responder to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) injection compared to normally feathered sibs. Likewise, naked neck, frizzled and naked neck-frizzled birds had significantly higher carbon clearance index (lower carbon particles in their blood circulation) compared to normally feathered counterparts. Negative relationship between body weight and relative weight of lymphoid organs was observed in all genetic groups. Also, there was significantly negative correlation between body weight and total antibody against SRBCs in all genotypes. The phagocytic ability measured at all times was negatively correlated with body weight in all genetic groups. It could be concluded that the naked neck, frizzled genes in a single state or in combination significantly increased immune response of chicken under prevailing conditions of Egypt. Therefore, introducing naked neck (Na) and frizzle (F) genes in selection programs for disease-resistance must be taken into consideration, particularly in unfavorable environments.
  A.M. Abd El - Motaal , A.M.H. Ahmed , A.S.A. Bahakaim and M.M. Fathi
  A study was conducted to determine the effect of Eucalyptus leaf powder supplementation on productive performance and immune response of brown Hy-line laying hens. Sixty brown Hy-line layers were equally divided into four groups. They were fed diet containing 0, 1, 2 and 3g Eucalyptus leaf powder/kg diet form 46 to 54 weeks of age. Egg production (weight and number) was recorded daily. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded every 4 weeks. Cell mediated immunity was determined at 54 weeks of age. At the end of the experiment, internal and external egg quality measurements were determined. The present results revealed that supplementation of Eucalyptus at the rate of 3g/kg diet significantly increased egg number compared to the other groups. Likewise, the hens fed a diet containing 3g Eucalyptus produced significantly higher egg mass compared to remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference among treated groups for egg weight. There was no significant difference among treated groups for all egg quality traits, except for breaking strength. Whereas the eggs produced from hen fed a diet containing 3g Eucalyptus had a significantly higher breaking strength compared to other treated groups. With respect to immune response, it could be noticed that the hens fed diets supplemented with 2 or 3g Eucalyptus were significantly hyper responder to PHA-P injection compared to other groups. Moreover, the Eucalyptus supplementation at the rate of 2 and 3g/kg diet significantly decreased the H/L ratio of laying hens. In summary, the current experiment has shown that the inclusion of Eucalyptus at the level of 3g/kg diet is useful for improving the productive performance and immunity of commercial laying hens.
  M.M. Fathi , A. Zein El-Dein , S.A. El-Safty and Lamiaa M. Radwan
  An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastructural measurements of eggshell in two Egyptian local breeds of chicken (Fayoumi and Dandarawi). A total of 162 females representing the two breeds were randomly assigned to the current experiment. They were housed in individual cages placed in an open-sided house under the same environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. Maturation measurements including body weight and age at sexual maturity were determined. Also, egg production (number and weight) was recorded for the first 3 months of production cycle to calculate egg mass. To assess egg quality parameters (internal and external), a total of 90 eggs were randomly collected from each breed at 26 weeks of age. In addition, eggshell samples were prepared to investigate ultrastructural variations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The current results revealed that Fayoumi breed had a better performance at sexual maturity compared to Dandarawi one. Inferior egg production parameters during the first 3 months of laying cycle were associated with Dandarawi breed. With respect to internal egg quality, there were no significant differences between Fayoumi and Dandarawi breeds for liquid components as a percentage of egg weight. In addition, Haugh unit and yolk index as indicators to the quality of albumen and yolk, did not exhibit a difference between breeds. Regarding eggshell quality traits, it could be noticed that Fayoumi breed significantly increased specific gravity and eggshell strength compared to Dandarawi one. In terms of ultrastructural measurements of eggshell, SEM inspection revealed that eggshell of Fayoumi breed had a higher effective thickness (palisade layer) compared to Dandarawi one. On the other hand, the length of mammillary layer (absolute or relative) was significantly lower in eggshells of Fayoumi hens compared to those of Dandarawi counterparts. Type B bodies, which are rounded and located among mammillary caps, were more frequent in eggshell of Dandarawi breed resulting in poor shell quality. However, Fayoumi breed had good rounded caps and early fusion as compared to Dandarawi one. The incidence of mammillary alignment and erosion were more common in eggshell of Dandarawi breed suggesting poor shell strength. In conclusion, Fayoumi breed had genetically not only better egg production and egg quality but also good ultrastructural formation of eggshell compared to Dandarawi breed.
  E.A. Deif , A. Galal , M.M. Fathi and A. Zein El-Dein
  Immunocompetence of broiler chicks fed marginal and high dietary protein levels was studied. Four hundred one-day-old broiler chicks (200 Cobb and 200 Hubbard) were divided into two equal groups within each strain. The marginal protein starter diet had 3075 Kcal ME/kg and 20% Crude Protein (CP) while the marginal protein fishier diet had 3152 Kcal ME/kg and 18% CP. The high protein starter diet and finisher diets contained 3086 Kcal ME/kg, 22% CP and 3130 Kcal ME/kg, 20% CP, respectively. Starter ration was provided for ad libitum consumption from hatching up to 3 weeks of age, while the finisher one was provided from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The average high and low ambient temperatures recorded during the experimental period were 21 and 18°C, respectively. At 3 weeks of age, 60 chicks (15 chicks/strain/treatment) were used for determined the cell-mediated immunity via Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) injection. Also, humoral immune responses were determined. On day 14, chicks were slaughtered and the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus, liver and heart were removed and weighed to the nearest milligram. The present results showed that the body weights did not significantly affected by strain, dietary protein level and their interaction. However, the Hubbard broiler chicks significantly consumed more feed and had a better feed conversion ratio compared to Cobb ones. The broiler chicks fed a high protein diet significantly consumed less feed and had a better feed conversion ration compared to other that fed a marginal protein diet. With respect to immunocompetence, it could be noticed that the Hubbard broiler chicks had significantly hyper responder to PHA-P injection and significantly higher total anti-SRBCs antibody titer compared to Cobb ones. The high dietary protein level significantly increased the toe-web swelling and total anti-SRBCs antibody titer compared to marginal protein level. The relative lymphoid organs weight did not significantly affected by strain. Similar trend, except for bursa, was noticed for dietary protein level. The relationships between body weight and toe-web swelling measured at all times were very low in Cobb fed a marginal protein diet. Similar trend, but moderate, was noticed in Hubbard-H group. However, significantly positive relationships between body weight and toe-web swelling measured at all times were observed in Cobb fed a high protein diet and Hubbard fed a marginal protein diet. Negative relationship between body weight and total anti-SRBC antibody titer was observed in all groups. In conclusion, under winter season of Egypt, the Hubbard broiler chicks had lower mortality rate and better immune competence compared to Cobb ones. Also, the high protein level improved the immunity of the broiler chicks.
  Kh. Roushdy , A. Zein El-Dein , M.M. Fathi , U.M. Ali and Heba M. Assy
  The present study was conducted on two Egyptian native breeds (Dandarawi and Fayoumi) and commercial laying hens (brown Hy-line) to estimate genetic differentiation using microsatellites and their association with egg production traits. Five microsatellite markers, four located on Z chromosome and one located on chromosome 1 were used in this study. The present results indicated that the Hy-line strain had significantly better egg production parameters and feed conversion ratio compared to two native breeds. Inversely, the two native breeds had better eggshell quality measurements compared to Hy-line hens. The five microsatellite genetic markers applied in the present study success to reveal high degree of polymorphism among the three breeds used here. Also, a clear discriminating power was achieved in differentiation among studied chicken populations. The genetic distance revealed that Fayoumi breed is mostly related to Hy-line strain more than Dandrawi breed.
  Lamiaa M. Radwan , M.M. Fathi , A. Galal and A. Zein El-Dein
  The objective of the study was to assess mechanical and ultrastructural properties of eggshell in Dandarawi and Fayoumi chicken breeds. At 30 weeks of age, 180 eggs (90 of each breed) were randomly chosen. The results showed that the Fayoumi eggs had significantly higher specific gravity and mechanical properties values (thickness and breaking strength of eggshell) than that of Dandarawi ones. With respect to ultrastructural traits, it could be noticed that the relative palisade layer (effective thickness) of Fayoumi eggs was significantly higher than that of Dandarawi ones. Opposite trend was noticed for relative cap layer. Concerning ultrastructural variants, the Fayoumi eggs owned shells with significantly higher values of confluence and cuffing traits. Conversely, the Dandarawi eggs have superior values of fusion, alignment and type B's traits than Fayoumi ones.
  G.N. Rayan , A. Galal , M.M. Fathi and A.H. El-Attar
  This investigation was carried out to study mechanical eggshell traits (weight, specific gravity, eggshell thickness and eggshell breaking strength) and ultrastructural properties from layer breeder hens at different ages (25, 47 and 61 weeks). The present results showed that the brown eggshell had significantly higher specific gravity, shell thickness and breaking strength compared to white eggshell. Concerning breeder flock age, it could be noticed that the age of hen significantly affected mechanical eggshell traits, where specific gravity, shell thickness and breaking strength decreased significantly as the breeder age was advance. With respect to eggshell ultrastructural properties, the brown eggshell had significantly higher effective thickness (palisade %) compared to white ones. Opposite trend was observed for relative cap thickness. With regard to layer breeder flock age effect, the results indicated that the effective thickness (palisade %) was significantly decreased as the layer breeder flock age increased. Conversely, the relative cap thickness was increased with age increased. With respect to confluence trait, the present results observed that both brown and white eggs owned shells with similar values of confluence. Significant difference observed between strains regarding fusion (early or late) trait. Type B's, type A's and alignment traits in eggshell produced from older breeders was significantly higher that of younger breeders.
  A. Makram , A. Galal , M.M. Fathi and A.H. El-Attar
  Selection for faster growth rate is accompanied by changes in the humoral and cell-mediated immunity that may potentially affect the overall immune response. The goal of the present study was to compare the carcass characteristics and immune response of four modern broiler strains. Four different genetic lines of meat-type chicks (125 Avian, 125 Arbor Acres, 125 Cobb and 125 Hubbard) were reared under similar managerial, environmental and hygienic conditions during summer season of Egypt. The high and low ambient temperatures recorded during experimental period were 32.7 and 27.8oC, respectively. The present results revealed that the Cobb and Avian broiler chicks had significantly heaviest marketing body weight compared to remaining strains. The Arbor Acres strain recorded significantly lowest breast muscle percentage compared to other strains. With respect to Cutaneous Basophilic Hypersensitivity (CBH) response, it could be observed that the Cobb strain had a greater dermal swelling response to Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) followed by Hubbard one when compared to other strains at 24 and 48 h post injection. The Hubbard strain exhibited greater bursa and spleen (as a percentage of live body weight) compared to the Avian ones. The mortality rate of Arbor Acres strain was the highest than those of other broiler strains. We concluded that some parameters of immunocompetence could be considered as a selection criterion when selecting for productive performance under high ambient temperatures.
  S. Al- Mansour , A. Al- Khalf , I. Al- Homidan and M.M. Fathi
  A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental yeast culture (Diamond V XP Yeast Culture; YC) in broiler diets on growth performance and hematological parameters. One-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks (n = 240) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal containing 0, 1, 1.25 (recommended level) and 1.5 g/kg of YC in the diet over 42 days. Each treatment group had 60 birds divided into 4 replicates. All birds were kept under the same managerial, environmental and hygienic conditions except for different dietary levels of yeast. Feed consumption, weight gain and feed conversion were measured on 3 week-interval basis. At 42 days of age three birds were chosen randomly from each replicate for determination of hematological parameters. The results of this study indicate that dietary supplemental YC at 1.25 g/kg (recommended level of the manufactory) improved growth performance. However, this improvement was not statistically differed. The chicks fed supplemented diets with YC in the rate of 1.5 g/kg had significantly (p<0.05) lower White Blood Cell (WBC) counts compared to control one. However, no significant differences were found among treatment groups for HGB, RBC, HCT, MCV and MCH. Generally, broiler chicks fed with yeast shows highly significant decrease (p<0.0005) in thrombocyte count compared to the control group. In conclusion, the addition of yeast culture in broilers' diet improved body weight gain and feed efficiency and decreased H:L ratio, especially in recommended level (1.25 g YC/kg diet).
  H.A. Yacoub , A. Galal , M.M. Fathi , S.A. El Fiky and H.A.I. Ramadan
  Gallinacins are antimicrobial peptides that play a significant role in innate immunity in chicken. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gallinacin genes and resistance to Marek's disease and to predict whether the amino acids substitutions lead to produce new phenotypes. We used in current study two inbred White Leghorn Lines 6 and 7. We examined gallinacins genes (3-5 and 10) by sequenced a 2.29 kb in two directions from two inbred lines (6 and 7). A total of 10 SNPs were identified within the sequenced regions. This equates to an SNP rate of 4.36 SNPs/kb, nearly to the previously reported 5 SNPs/kb across the entire chicken genome. The current study showed that the gallinacin genes are polymorphic because there are many (SNPs) in both inbred lines of White Leghorn chickens and some of these SNPs are nonsynonymous and others are synonymous. We are concluded that a new chromosomal region with effects on the response to Marek's disease in chickens was characterized in this study. Within this region, the SNPs in the gallinacin candidate genes could potentially be used in a marker assisted selection program to enhance the response to Marek's disease. Analysis of the gallinacin genes in the protective pathways of disease resistance has also opened the possibilities for therapeutic strategies using endogenous antimicrobial peptides.
  O.K. Abou-Emera , U. Ali , A. Galal , S. El-Safty , E.F. Abdel-Hameid and M.M. Fathi
  Background and Objective: The identification of genetic diversity for heat resistance genotypes, such as naked neck (Na) and frizzle (F) genes, is of great interest for scientists to be discovered along with the native breeds genetic map recognition. Since they represent the most important genotype flocks raised in tropical and semi-tropical areas. The extent of feather (or plumage distribution) and feather shape (straight or curled) divergence between both genotypes (whether homozygous or heterozygous state) morphologically, comparing with normally feather flock, need to be clarified using microsatellite markers technique side by side with productive performance. Methodology: According to morphological appearance of feather coverage, a total number of 326 birds, representing 5 genotypes (homozygous naked neck (NaNa), heterozygous naked neck (Nana), homozygous frizzle (FF), heterozygous frizzle (Ff) and normally feathered (nanaff) genotypes) were classified. At sexual maturity, the chickens were individually housed in wire cages located in semi-closed house. Adult body weight, age at sexual maturity, egg number and egg weight were recorded for each genotype throughout the first six month of laying cycle. At 30 weeks of age, egg quality characteristics were examined. Forty birds were randomly assigned (8 birds/genotype) to assess cell mediated immunity through PHA-P injection in wattles. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein. The DNA was purified by successive extraction with phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) and chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1), respectively. A total of 20 microsatellite markers were selected based on the degree of polymorphism reported in the literature. The PCR amplification was carried out in 25 μL reaction volumes, gels were stained in ethidium bromide and DNA bands were visualized on UV-transilluminator. Data of SSR analyses were scored on the basis of the presence or absence of the amplified products for each primer. The similarity coefficients were then used to construct a dendrogram by Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetical Average (UPGMA). Results: The productive results revealed that the introducing Na and F genes in chicken breeds raised under hot weather significantly improved most of egg production and eggshell quality traits. Moreover, significantly higher cell mediated response was found in naked neck and frizzle genotypes particularly, in homozygous manner compared to normally feathered genotype. The results revealed that the microsatellite markers had 83 alleles with an average of 4.2±0.24 alleles per locus. It could be observed that polymorphism ranged from 25-100% with an average of 64.7% for all markers. A remarkable extensive genetic diversity was seen among the studied genotypes. Genetic distance as a pair-wise comparison of different genotype ranged from 0.14 (NaNa-Nana) to 0.41 (Nana-FF). Both naked neck genotypes and frizzle sibs located in a separate sub-cluster resulted in a clear distinction between the two major genes. Conclusion: It was concluded that the evaluation of genetic diversity among chicken genotypes carrying Na or F based on the studied microsatellite markers was efficient and gained consistent results.
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