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Articles by M.M. El-Loly
Total Records ( 5 ) for M.M. El-Loly
  M.M. El-Loly
  The biological function of colostrums in all lactating species is the growth and health of a newborn offspring. In bovine colostrum, the naturally occurring antibodies (immunoglobulins) provide a marked antimicrobial effects against a wide range of microbes and confer a passive immunity until the calf’s immune system has matured. The concentration of specific antibodies in mammary secretions against a certain pathogens microorganism can be raised in colostrum and milk by immunizing cows with these pathogens or their antigens. Such hyperimmune colostrum and milk or antibodies isolated from it provide an increased specific protection against different enteric diseases in calves. Colostral immunoglobulin preparations designed for farm animals are commercially available in many countries and also some colostrum based products are marketed for humans as dietary supplements. Clinical studies are now in progress in many countries to evaluate the potential of immune milk products as preventative treatment for various hospital infections, especially those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria and Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of chronic gastritis. This article reviews the recent progress made in the properties of bovine immunoglobulins, their isolation from colostrum and utilization in the preparation of bovine immune milk for prevention and treatment of microbial infections in humans and animals.
  M.M. El-Loly and Y.A. Ghazi
  The aim of study were to use whey proteins loci as genetic markers to clarify the expected relationships between specific alleles and susceptibility to infection by brucella. A total number of 48 dairy cows, located at Sharkia province in Egypt during a period extended from 2004 to 2005, were examined for brucellosis using different serological tests at dairy laboratory, National Research Centre. The incidence of brucellosis among examined cows by different diagnostic tests on milk and whey were 11 (22.91%), 10 (20.83%), 8 (16.66%), 7 (14.58%) and 11 (22.91%) with Milk Ring test (MRT), Whey Rose Bengal Plate test (WRBPT), Whey Microtiter Agglutination test (WMAT), Whey Dithiothereitol Agglutination test (WDAT) and Brucellin skin test, respectively. The results of absolute specificity were 26.31, 20.0, 17.07, 29.72 and 29.72% with WRBPT, WMAT, WDAT and MRT, respectively. The highest incidence of Brucellin skin test (22.91%) indicated that the sensitivity of this test, which depends upon the cellular immunity response, was independent on production of specific antibodies. The concordances between reactors cows in the different tests in this study were 100.0, 97.51, 93.75 and 91.66% for MRT, WRBPT, WMAT and WDAT, respectively. It is noticed that the DHT achieved the highest agreement with MRT (100%). Only one isolate of Brucella melitensis biovar 3 could be isolated from milk samples, which gave positive with MRT. The electrophoretic results evident that the whey of cows included obtained closed bands in case of infected samples if compared with free and healthy one. Within β-Lg three genotypes were observed: AA, AC and CC. Homozygote CC had the greatest number (5) of these genotypes, but, heterozygote AC had the lowest number (1). A higher frequency for allele C of β-Lg than allele A of β-Lg gene was observed (0.687 and 0.312), respectively. Within α-La the presence of three genotypes were appeared: AA, AB and BB, the highest number being recorded for homozygote BB with higher frequency in α-LaB gene (0.812) than in all fractions of whey proteins. Concerning the γ-globulin (Sα2), the same genotypes of α-La were observed for this fraction, with higher frequency in Sα2B than Sα2A (0.687 and 0.312), respectively. The observed homozygous genotype in β-Lg, α-La and γ-globulin variants of whey proteins were higher than those expected heterozygous genotypes. Results revealed that the infected cows suffering from brucella distinguished by high frequency of homozygotic genotypes in all studied loci with predominance of α-LaB gene marker.
  M.M. El-Loly , A.A. Awad and A.I.A. Mansour
  The denaturation rate of immunoglobulins (Igs) in buffalo milk was determined in the temperature range of 63-88°C for holding time 5-15 min by Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) technique. Data revealed that the IgG and IgM were incompletely denatured upon heating up to 88°C for 15 min; whereas IgA was completely denatured at any of these temperatures, which means that the IgA was the most heat sensitive of Igs and these heat treatments had a destructive effect on the IgA content of milk samples. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for heat-induced denaturation of buffalo milk Igs were determined, which indicate that the quantity of Igs in dairy products is dependenton thermal treatment. The reaction order obtained for the thermal denaturation of IgG and IgM was second order. The velocity constant rate (k) and thermal destruction coefficient (Z) values of IgG and IgM were gradually increased, while both of the decimal reduction time (Dυ) and temperature coefficient (Q10) values were decreased with increasing temperature. The rate of denaturation (k) in buffalo milk Igs was in low values at low temperature 63°C when compared to this at high temperature 88°C. In contrast, Dυ and Q10 values were higher at 63°C when compared to those at 88°C. Values of k, Ea and Q10 were higher in the case of IgG than those in IgM. These results should be taken into account in the design of heat treatments of milk in order to preserve the biological functions of Igs when added to formula milk or other hyperimmune products.
  A.S.M. Fouzy , M.M. El-Loly and Y.A. Ghazi
  Six mature female Baladi goats were selected from Abou Rawash experimental farm, National Research Center, Egypt, during the period from August 2005 to January 2006. These animals divided to three groups each of them two animals, the first keep as control, the second has orally administered low dose of dioxins (1/13 and 1/27) LD50 and the third has orally administered high dose of dioxins (1/3 and 1/6) LD50. Milk and blood samples were collected after 48 and 96 h from dioxins exposure and after 96 h for protein fractions, to investigate the effect of dioxins on the physical, chemical and bacterial properties of goat`s milk, casein, whey protein fractions and blood picture. After 16 days, two of the goats were slaughtered and samples of the mammary gland were taken for analysis of dioxins residues. The results indicated that the gross chemical composition of goat`s milk with low dioxin doses had higher effect than the high dioxin doses as compared to control samples, especially for fat contents (71 and 65%), respectively. The average percentages of dioxins excretion in milk were 0.0015 and 0.0010 for low and high dioxin doses, while the percentages storage of dioxins in the mammary gland were 0.0011 and 0.0012 for low and high dioxin doses. Goats exposed to dioxins revealed significant decrease in total RBCs count and MCV indicating anemia. Also, the same significant decrease in total WBCs count associated with neutropenia. Goats exposed to dioxins revealed positive result by CMT test after 96 h post-treated. The results of bacteriological examination showed positive result only with the positive milk samples by CMT after 96 h the isolates were Streptococcus dysagalactiae and E. coli which were the most prevalent isolates indicate the presence of environmental mastitis. Generally, the oral ingestion of goats with dioxins resulted in different patterns of milk protein fractions in casein and whey proteins. Several bands were observed for dioxin low doses than dioxin higher doses in most fractions of casein and whey proteins.
  M.M. El-Loly and A.I.A. Mansour
  Hydrometer is a simple, rapid tester and little cost method to evaluate the quality of colostrum. Colostral immunoglobulins (Igs) concentrations measured from one partial to third consecutive complete milking at 12 h intervals postpartum decreased at different rates over time or milking number. The colostrum is thicker, stickier and slightly yellow compared to normal milk, the specific gravity was higher than that of normal milk and the pH is lower. The thermal stability and some physico-chemical properties of individual buffalo’s colostrum (5 animals) were followed during three days after postpartum. The heat stability of first postpartum milk can be visually defined in terms of the time required to induce coagulation at boiling temperature. Gradually marked variations of heat coagulation time were detected up to 60 h postpartum milking when heated at boiling temperature. The thermal stability of individual buffalo’s colostrum was gradually increased with progressive postpartum milking, namely, at 1 h (0.55 min), 6 h (3.53 min), 12 h (7.10 min), 24 h (12.30 min), 36 h (18.10 min), 48 h (21.05 min) and 60 h (24.13 min). But at 72 h postpartum, it was observed no visual change (coagulation) during heating at boiling temperature for one hour. It can be seen that first postpartum milk was very unstable to heat treatment with coagulation at boiling temperature. The total solids, total protein, fat and ash contents were highest after parturition and then decreased rapidly to reach values of normal milk almost after three days of parturition, where the protein content was the most variable constituent. But, the changes in the lactose content followed an opposite trend.
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