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Articles by M.K. Oladunmoye
Total Records ( 10 ) for M.K. Oladunmoye
  M.K. Oladunmoye , F.C. Adetuyi and F.A. Akinyosoye
  The effect of ethanolic leaf extract from Cassia hirsuta (L.) on the DNA profile of some selected pathogenic microorganisms were investigated using PCR-RAPD analysis to generate DNA fingerprints. The change in molecular configuration of organisms with and without extract shows a wide disparity between the sensitive and the resistant organisms. Thus, this study demonstrates that some of the organisms are susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of Cassia hirsuta extract while some are resistant. The mechanism of action of the extract or other antimicrobial agent on these organisms is due to alteration on the genome and the extract is mutagenic on the susceptible organisms.
  M.K. Oladunmoye
  Immunostimulatory activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum was investigated in albino rats using immunologic/haematologic indices. The rats were dosed orally with standard inoculum of Escherchia coli (NCIB 86) of 1x107 cfu mL-1. The extent of infection was carried out by checking the haematologic indices before, during and after treating the infection with ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group was dosed with 8ml of the standard inoculum for two days. The second group was dosed with the standard inoculum and treated with 250 mg mL-1 of Ocimum gratissimum ethanolic leaf extract. The third group was dosed with the extract alone while the fourth group was given normal saline and this serve as the control. The infected rat that was not given the extract showed a White Blood Count (WBC) of 4,800 mm3 before infection and increased to 13,800 mm3 during infection and later decreased to 2,400 mm3 after oral administration of the extract. The Packed Cell Volume (PCV) was 57% before infection, 47% during infection and 35% after treatment. The neutrophil and lymphocyte percentage in the differential count were 48 and 51% before infection, 62 and 37% during infection and 74 and 26% after treatment of infection respectively. For the rats treated with extract, it showed a White Blood Count (WBC) of 5,000 mm3 before infection, which decreased to 3,000 mm3 during infection and 1,700 mm3 after infections. It has a Packed Cell Volume (PCV), neutrophil and lymphocyte value of 55, 47 and 52% before infection, 50, 42 and 58% during infection and 33, 44, 56% after infection. The rats given the extract of Ocimum gratissimum alone showed a value of 4,400 mm3, 48, 41 and 58% for the WBC, PCV, neutrophil and lymphocyte before infection, a value of 3,200 mm3, 63, 43 and 57% during infection and a value of 2,100 mm3, 25, 42 and 56%, respectively after infection. The control showed only a significant increase in WBC with a value of 4,000 mm3 before infection, to 6,100 mm3 after infection and back to 4,400 mm3 after infection. The urinalysis showed a pH value of 5, negative for glucose, Ascorbic acid, Ketone, Nitrite, Protein, Bilirubin, normal for urobilinogen and negative blood value for all the groups before infection. The infected rat without administration of extract showed a pH of 7 and became positive for ketone, nitrite, protein and bilirubin urobilinogen and blood value of Ca. 250 during infection while others remain the same. After infection, the pH turned to 6, became negative for other parameters except protein and bilirubin while the treated rats remain negative. The ethanolic leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum was found effective in inhibiting/preventing the disease condition after infection and capable of reducing excessive breakdown of red blood cells and neutralizing toxin produced by the organism.
  M.K. Oladunmoye
  The immunostimulatory effect of the ethanolic extract of Cassia alata was tested on Swiss albino rats infected with Staphylococcus aureus by evaluating the White Blood Cells (WBC), Packed Cell Volume and total differential WBC count. The rats were in 6 groups of 2 animals per cage. The first group was given the standard inoculum but not treated. The second group was given the standard inoculum and treated with the extract. The third group was given Cassia alata ethanolic extract only while the control was given normal saline. Increase in White Blood Count (WBC) from 5000 to 7600 mm3, decrease in Packed Cell Volume (PCV) from 51 to 21% and increase in neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio indicates active infection in the infected-untreated group. In the group treated with extract there was lower White Blood Count (WBC) of 5000 and 2900 mm3 before and during infection, respectively. Decrease in neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio indicates suppression of infection/inhibition of proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus infection. The group given extract only showed WBC, PCV, Neutrophil and Lymphocyte value of 5200 mm3, 45, 44 and 55% before infection; 2300 mm3. 32, 50 and 50% during infection and 3100 mm3, 32, 72 and 28% after infection, respectively. There is a boosting of the immune system as compared to the control. The result of the urinalysis showed a pH of 5, negative to glucose, Ascorbic acid, Ketone, Nitrite, Bilirubin, Protein and Blood, normal for Urobilinogen for all the groups before infection. The untreated rats showed a pH of 7 positive for nitrite and Bilirubin, negative for other parameters. The infected/untreated rats showed 6-8 pus cells/HPF, 2-4 casts/HPF, 6-8 crystals/HPF and 4-6 bacterial cells/HPF indicating active infection. The result of this study is significant for the development of Cassia alata to be utilized as an augment for the current antimicrobial therapy that is becoming less efficacious against Staphylococcus aureus.
  M.K. Oladunmoye and I.B. Osho
  The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya was investigated in Swiss Albino rats with induced multiple infections from Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The first group was given the standard inoculums of Staphylococcus aureus only while the second group was given the standard inoculum=s of S. aureus and treated with ethanol extract of Carica papaya. The rats in the third group were given standard inoculums of Salmonella typhi only and those in the fourth category were given standard inoculums of S. typhi and treated with the extract. The Albino rat in the last group was placed on basal diet and water only to serve as the control. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract as haematological indices was determined by monitoring the amount, occurrence and distributions of total and differential White Blood Count (WBC), haemoglobin level and Pack Cell Volume count (PCV) before and after infection with the pathogenic bacteria. The rats infected with Staphylococcus aureus without extract treatment gave a PCV value of 33%, a WBC of 3650 mm3, an Hb value of 2.2H1012 LG1, a neutrophil count of 60%, lymphocyte 40% and monocytes of 1%. The rats infected with Staphylococcus aureus and treated with C. papaya showed an increase in PCV count of 36%, the WBC increase to 4050 mm3, an Hb count 2.4H1012 LG1 and increase in neutrophil to 74% and reduction in lymphocyte to 24% while the monocytes count was 2%. The rats infected with S. typhi only gave a PCV count of 24%, WBC 2050 mm3, a RBC 1.0H1012 LG1, a neutrophil value of 60%, lymphocyte 38% and monocytes count of 2%. The rats infected with S. typhi and treated showed an increase in PCV value to 38%, reduction in WBC to 4275 mm3, an Hb count of 1.9H1012 LG1, neutrophil 67%, a lymphocyte count of 30% and Eosiniphils 1%. The control group gave values that were within the acceptable limit. The urinalysis showed that the rats infected with Staphylococcus aureus only had a pH of 6, negative to glucose and nitrite, positive to ascorbic acid, ketone, bilirubin, blood (Ca250) and normal urobilinogen with 100 mg mLG1 of protein. The group infected with Staphylococcus aureus and treated with the extract showed an increase in pH to 7, negative to glucose, ascorbic acid, ketoses and nitrite, 30 mg mLG1 of protein, bilirubin, blood (Ca50) and urobilinogen were in the normal range. The animals infected with Salmonella typhi only showed a pH of 6, negative to glucose, bilirubin and blood (Ca50) and permissible level of urobilinogen. The rats infected with Salmonella typhi and treated with the extract showed reduction in pH to 5, negative to glucose, ketone, nitrite and blood, positive to ascorbic acid, protein, bilirubin and normal urobilinogen. The values of all the urinary compositions were normal except blood (Ca250) for the control. The results obtained justify the scientific bases for the use of the plant in ethnomedicine.
  M.K. Oladunmoye and E.O. Dada
  Ethanolic leaf extract from Aframomum melegueta was accessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity as well as phytochemical constituents. Refuse dump materials were screened for resident micro floral with antagonistic activities against the pathogens. Thirteen pure isolates were obtained in all including nine bacteria and four fungi. Five pathogenic bacteria; Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae were tested for their susceptibilities to the antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract as well as the antagonistic potential of the isolates refuse Standard antibiotics were also tested on the pathogens and their susceptibilities investigated. The effectiveness of the antimicrobial phytoconstituents from Aframomum melegueta and microbial antagonisms was compared with that of the standard antibiotics in which the former fairly compete with the latter. The plant extract of Aframomum melegueta was found inhibitory to the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae while the refuse isolates were more effective than the bacteria as shown growth inhibitory indices. Seven of the nine isolates inhibited the growth of at least one of the pathogenic organisms; Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus being the most susceptible. The findings revealed that the extract from the plant and the refuse isolates offer an enormous potential as biocontrol of these pathogens and source of antimicrobial agent of therapeutic importance.
  M.K. Oladunmoye
  The effect of concentration change on the rate of killing of some selected microorganisms by ethanolic extracts from two varieties of Acalypha wilkesiana was carried out using the plate count technique. The haemolytic activities by the agar diffusion method was investigated. The killing rate was found to increase as concentration increases. This was shown by reduction in the amount of survivors in cfu mL-1 as the exposure time progresses. The rate of killing of the microbial population by the extract was also found to be concentration dependent as increase in concentration lead to reduction in microbial loads. The relationship was established to be exponential one as revealed by the concentration queficent The two varieties of the Acalypha wilkesiana also differ in the ability to kill the different bacteria species and fungus (Candida albicans) with the macrophylla showing higher degree of killing than the Hoffmanin. Generally, the rate of killing was found to vary among the different bacteria species with gram negative ones like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas being killed at a lower rate than the gram positive organism like Bacillus and Staphylococcus. Candida albicans being a fungus was killed at extremely lower rate than the bacteria. The haemolytic activity was found to be higher in Macrophylla than Hoffmanin and the values increase as the concentration increases.
  K.A. Oyeniran , M.K. Oladunmoye and H.O. Aladeselu
  The indigenous black soap possesses antimicrobial activities with varying mechanisms of action. In the present study, the comparative release of sodium and potassium ions from clinical isolates: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans by three different indigenous black soaps were investigated by flame photometry method. The black soaps were subjected to qualitative and quantitative screening for phytochemical using standard methods. Sodium ion was leaked to a value of 833 ppm for S. aureus while potassium ion to a value of 20 ppm for T. rubrum. Qualitative and quantitative screening for phytochemicals showed saponin was the highest with values between 20.50-33.31 mg g–1 while tannin the lowest between 1.05-2.05 mg g–1 across the black soap samples. This study has posited that the antimicrobial activities of the black soap may be attributed to its phytochemicals and that the soap has lytic effect on the pathogens.
  M.K. Oladunmoye , F.C. Adetuyi and F.A. Akinyosoye
  The rate of release of sodium and potassium ions by aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves of Cassia occidentalis was investigated for some selected pathogenic bacteria in the genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Echerichia, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Salmonella using flame photometer. The aqueous extract was found to be more effective in the leakage of Na+ and K+ ions than the ethanolic extract for all organisms investigated except Salmonella. The aqueous extract released 2.66 ppm sodium ions on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas ethanolic extract released 13.3 ppm while the K+ ions released are 9.282 and 49.980 ppm for ethanolic and aqueous extract, respectively. It was found that only Salmonella typhii gives higher leakages of sodium and potassium ions for ethanolic extract than the aqueous extract. Comparison of the amount of Na + and K+ ions release by the plant extract with two commercial antibiotic (Chloramphenicol and tetracycline) showed that the latter gives a higher value than the former. For sodium ion, Bacillus substilis gives 167 ppm and 164 ppm for chloramphenicol and tetracycline respectively where as 2.28 and 3.42 ppm was measured for ethanorlic and aqeous extract of the Cassia occidentalis responsively. There was no significant difference in the amount of leaked Na+ ions and potassium ions between the two antibiotics. For Na+, Salmonella typhi has 164 ppm for chloramphenicol and 163 ppm for tetracycline while the value for Proteus vulgaris was 160 and 163 ppm, respectively.
  M.K. Oladunmoye
  Comparative studies on the antimicrobial activities and phytochemical screening of two varieties of Acalypha wilkesiana were carried to investigate the inhibitory potential on some selected pathogens and determine the phytoconstituents of pharmacologic importance. Ethanol was used as the extraction solvent and the microorganisms used were Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Clostridium sporogenes, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Klebsiella pneunoniae, Trichophyton interdistale, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium camenberti and Fusarium solanni. Growth inhibition indicates on agar plate was used for the antimicrobial sensitivity. The extract was found to posses’ broad spectrum of activity on both fungi and the bacteria; the latter found was to be more susceptible. Generally Macrophylla variety was found to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of the organisms than Hoffmanin. The Gram- negative organisms like Klebsiella and Pseudomonas was found to be more resistance than the Gram-positive organism as indicated by zone of inhibition. The release of sodium and potassium ions was found to be the mechanism of action of the extract and the amount leaked vary from one organism to the other and is also dependent on the Acalypha variety. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) vary between 0.2-0.98 comparing the efficacy of the extract with commercial antibiotics showed that the latter was more potent but with narrow spectrum of activity only on the fungi unlike the former with broad spectrum of activity on both fungi and bacteria. The bioactive compounds in the extract include saponin, Tannin, Anthroquinine and glycoside.
  M.K. Oladunmoye
  The immunomodulatory properties of ethanolic leave extract from Tridax procumbens was investigated in Swiss albino rat orogastrically dosed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The animals were divided into six groups of four per group. The first group was given the standard inoculum of Pseoudomonas aeruginosa only and the second group was given 8 mL of the standard inoculum of the organism and treated with ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens. The third category was given the ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens only while the last group was given normal saline. The uninfected rats showed a (WBC) values of 4,080 mm3 which increased to 8,400 mm3 during infection and later dropped to 3,700 mm3 after infections was treated with the extract from Tridax procubens. The PCV was normal before infection, dropped during infection and increased after infection was treated with extract. The rats infected and treated with Tridax procumben showed a WBC, PCV, neutrophil lymphocyte and eosinophil count of 4,100 mm3, 53, 46, 53 and 1%, before infection; a count of 4,600 mm3, 29, 50, 50 and 0%, during infection and 3,400 mm3, 42, 62 and 32%, respectively after infection. The rats given extract only showed a WBC, PCV, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eopsinophil counts of 5, 840 mm3, 53, 51, 48 and 1%, before infection; a count of 5,400 mm3, 31, 49 and 51% during infection and 4,000 mm3, 36, 68 and 30%, respectively after infection. The control rat showed little or no increase in WBC, PCV, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil count. The urinalysis showed that the rats had pH of 6, Negative to glucose, ketone, nitrite, ascorbic acid, protein, bilirubin, blood and normal urobilinogen for all groups before infection. The control rats showed a pH of 6, negative to glucose, ascorbic acid, ketone, nitrite, protein, bilirubin, blood and normal urobilinogen which showed the same pattern with all groups before infection. The urine microscopy revealed large number of pus cells, casts, crystal and bacterial cells during infection in those infected with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. While infected - treated rats showed a reduced number of pus cells, casts, crystals and bacterial cells during infection. These results showed that ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens has immunomodulatory properties and it is able to inhibit proliferation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
 
 
 
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