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Articles by M.J. Ladan
Total Records ( 9 ) for M.J. Ladan
  R.A. Umar , S.W. Hassan , M.J. Ladan , I.K. Matazu , B. Shehu , R.A. Shehu , L.G. Muhammed and F.I. Molabo
  We studied the effects of acute and sub-chronic oral administration of nevirapine, lamivudine and stavudine on liver function in albino rats. Acute administration of nevirapine resulted in significant (p<0.05) increases in activities of Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT). Total proteins, albumin and globulin were significantly lowered. Upon sub-chronic administration of nevirapine, only AST and ALT activities were significantly raised. Acute administration of lamivudine was associated with significantly (p<0.05) lower albumin and globulin and higher total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin levels. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in liver function profiles associated with sub-chronic administration of the drug. However, acute and sub-chronic administrations of stavudine were not associated with significant (p>0.05) changes in liver function profiles. We conclude that while the use of stavudine is safe, acute and sub-chronic oral administration of nevirapine and lamivudine are associated with hepatotoxicity and hepatoprotective agents should be incorporated in the treatment regimens employing these drugs to avert life-threatening complications.
  S.A. Habibullah , L.S. Bilbis , M.J. Ladan , O.P. Ajagbonna and Y. Saidu
  Reducing cholesterol content of table egg may be important in curbing the risks of atherosclerosis. In this study, forty, (32 week old) Shika Brown laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces on serum lipid profile and egg yolk cholesterol. Groups 2 - 5 received 1, 2, 4 or 8 g L-1 solution of the extract. Group 1 (control) received tap water. All the animals were fed ad libitum with layers mash for twelve weeks. Blood samples and eggs were collected after every three weeks and sera and egg yolk were analyzed for total cholesterol, triglycerides (TAG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and egg yolk cholesterol respectively. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract caused a significant (p<0.05) non dose dependent increase in serum total cholesterol and egg yolk cholesterol but significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in serum TAG and HDL-C content. No strong correlation (0.2273) was found between serum and yolk total cholesterol. These results suggest that aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa may possess hypotriglyceridemic effect in Shika Brown laying hens but caused increase in serum and egg yolk cholesterol.
  R.A. Umar , M.J. Ladan , S.W. Hassan , Y. Sa`id , A.Y. Abbas and I.B. Oduolisaeme
  The sub-Saharan African region is home to the greatest burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Appropriate management of infectious diseases is the most cost effective intervention to reduce the burden of disease. Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART) is the mainstay for inhibiting the multiplication of the causative agent and improving quality of life of the victims. There is some doubt in the region regarding the safety of the drugs in the anti AIDS pharmacy. Local studies on the safety of these agents are few. We studied the effects of acute and sub-acute oral administration of Lamivudine, Nevirapine and Stavudine on haematological profiles in albino rats. The rats were administered acute and sub-acute doses of Lamivudine, Nevirapine and Stavudine. Packed Cell Volume (PCV), total white blood cell count and differentials were determined by standard haematological methods. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in the parametres except in PCV, eosinophils, neutrophils and leucocyte count associated with nevirapine and leucocytes and eosinophils associated with lamivudine. We conclude that acute and sub-acute oral administration of these drugs is associated with few haematological abnormalities and is therefore safe.
  M.J. Ladan , R.A. Umar , S.W. Hassan and B. Shehu
  Diabetes is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. The hyperglycemia is associated with various forms of dyslipidemia, all of which are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies indicate that tight glycemic control and administration of cholesterol lowering agents among others are beneficial to diabetic patients. Data are lacking on the impact of treatment on glycemic status and lipid profiles of Nigerian diabetics. We studied the levels of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL), Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides in 46 diabetics (on treatment) and ten treatment naive diabetics. Eighty apparently healthy individuals, matched for age, formed the controls. Serum glucose was determined by glucose oxidase kit method, total cholesterol by Trinder’s method, HDL and LDL by quantitative precipitation with phosphotungstate in the presence of Mg2+ ions and triglycerides by enzymatic method. Glucose and total cholesterol levels were 14.5±9.8 and 11.5±3.5 mmol L-1, 214.4±40 and 166.8±36 mg dL-1 for treatment naive and diabetics on treatment, respectively. Both were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. LDL and triglycerides levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the diabetics than in the controls. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean HDL levels between the diabetics and the controls. All the parameters were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the treatment naive diabetics. The results suggest that treatment has profound positive effect on the indices of diabetes and that strict glycemic and lipidemic control have not been achieved in the patients we studied.
  R.A. Umar , S.W. Hassan , M.J. Ladan , M. Nma Jiya , M.K. Abubakar and U. Nata`ala
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of K76T mutation in Pfcrt gene and chloroquine treatment failure following reports that the efficacy of chloroquine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Africa is seriously compromised by high levels of drug resistance. The occurrence of mutation on codon 76 of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) gene has been associated with development of resistance to chloroquine. We investigated the association of K76T mutation in Pfcrt gene in malaria-infected blood samples from a cohort of Nigerian children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with chloroquine and its association with clinical (in vivo) resistance. The Pfcrt T76 allele was very significantly associated with resistance to chloroquine (Fischer exact test: p = 0.0001). We conclude that K76T mutation in Pfcrt gene is significantly associated with chloroquine resistance and that it could be used as a population marker for chloroquine resistance in this part of the country.
  B.M. Agaie , P.A. Onyeyili , B.Y. Muhammad and M.J. Ladan
  Some toxic effects of the aqeous leaf extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus was evaluated in rats using changes in haematological and biochemical parameters as well as body weight changes. The results indicate that the extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on haematological parameters except the packed cell volume and lymphocytes. Significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent increase were observed in serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. Serum sodium and potassium were not affected by extract administration. However, total protein, bilirubin, urea and cholesterol as well as body weight values were significantly lower than in the control especially in groups that received higher doses. The results of this study therefore suggest that the leaf extract of this plant could affect feed intake and utilization and also elicit some changes in biochemical parameters of rats.
  R.A. Umar , S.W. Hassan , M.J. Ladan , M. Nma Jiya , I.K. Matazu , M.K. Abubakar , U. Nata`ala and K. Abdullahi
  In a prospective cross sectional study, the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine was assessed in children under the age of five years with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Sokoto, Nigeria, using the in vivo 14 day World Health Organization`s protocol (with some modifications). One hundred and twenty six children aged 2 to 59 months were enrolled, out of which 108 completed the study. Clinical, parasitological and haematological data at study start and end were obtained by standard methods. Children were treated with 25 mg kg-1 body weight over 3 days. Adequate clinical and parasitological response was 72.2%, clinical failure was 23.27 and total treatment failure 27.8%. Because of unacceptably high rate of treatment failures due to diminishing efficacy, chloroquine cannot remain the recommended first line drug for the treatment of P. falciparum malaria in pre-school children in Nigeria and the antimalarial treatment policy change from chloroquine to Artemisin-based combination was necessary and justified. Challenges to the success of the policy for control of malaria morbidity and mortality were discussed.
  A.Y. Bala , T. Adamu , U. Abubakar and M.J. Ladan
  The study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory activity of polar and non-polar extracts from Waltheria indica against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, the causative parasite of trypanosomosis, for the first time. The parasites Trypanosoma brucei brucei were cultured using 96 well micro titer plate and maintained at 37°C. About 20-25 parasites per microscope field were dozed with 1, 2 and 4 mg mL-1 of the extracts of the plant. Two controls were set up; one is Berenil (the reference drug), which was used as positive control and a negative control group without extract/Berenil. Results showed that the ethanol extract was the most active with Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) value of 0.5-1 mg mL-1 while the petroleum ether extract was moderate against the trypanosome parasites with IC50 value of 3.8-4.0 mg mL-1. The results also showed that the parasites survived more than 4 h when no plant extract/berenil was present. Phytochemical screening revealed a range of compounds including, alkaloids, terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, among others, which could be responsible for the trypanocidal activity of the extracts. Further studies including in vivo assays for the determination of efficacy and toxicity are planned and will be carried out.
  A.Y. Bala , T. Adamu and M.J. Ladan
  A study was conducted to investigate the amelioration potential of trypanosome infection induced alterations in rat serum cholesterol, triglycerides and proteins by hydro-ethanolic extract of Waltheria indica L. The results from the study showed that infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei resulted in significant (p<0.05) increases in the concentrations of serum triglycerides (hyperglyceridemia), total protein (hyperproteinaemia) and globulin (hyperglobulinaemia) while the levels of cholesterol and albumin were significantly reduced leading to hypocholesterolaemia and hypoalbuminaemia, respectively. However, treatment with the hydro-ethanolic extract of W. indica significantly (p<0.05) ameliorates these infection induced biochemical changes in fashion comparable to the standard trypanocide Berenil®. The corrective action of the plant may revolve around reduction in parasite load coupled with some hepato-protective properties that need further research to ascertain.
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