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Articles by M.J. Wineland
Total Records ( 6 ) for M.J. Wineland
  V.L. Christensen , M.J. Wineland , I. Yildirum , D.T. Ort and K.M. Mann
  The plateau stage in oxygen consumption of turkey embryos occurs at 25 and 26 days of incubation when many embryos die. The plateau stage creates hypoxia, hypercapnia and presents a paradox for growth and embryo metabolism. Prior to the plateau, vital tissues accumulate glycogen to ensure embryonic survival through anaerobic metabolism during the plateau. Intestinal maturation at the plateau demands great amounts of energy. Therefore, the objective of the study was to define the temperature and oxygen concentrations at the plateau that affect intestinal maturation. Three experiments were conducted to test incubator conditions during the plateau stage and their affect on intestinal maturation. In Experiment 1, turkey embryos at the plateau stage were exposed to 36, 37, 38 or 39°C. In Experiment 2, embryos at the plateau stage were exposed to 17, 19, 21 or 23% oxygen concentrations, and in Experiment 3, the extreme levels of temperature and oxygen treatments were combined to test interaction effects on intestinal maturation. Elevating temperature depressed intestinal weight but not length. The elevated temperature also depressed intestinal maltase and alkaline phosphatase activities indicating inhibited function. Increasing oxygen had little effect on intestinal weight or length, but hypoxia increased maltase and decreased alkaline phosphatase activities in hatchlings. When examined in a factorial arrangement, temperature and oxygen displayed independent effects on growth and function and did not interact. Thus, incubator temperature greater than 37°C and oxygen concentrations less than 19% during the plateau stage delay intestinal maturation.
  V.L. Christensen , M.J. Wineland , I. Yildirum , B.D. Fairchild , D.T. Ort and K.M. Mann
  Avian embryo thyroid responses to incubator temperature and oxygen concentrations during the plateau stage in oxygen consumption were measured. It was hypothesized that turkey embryo thyroid responds in a limited way at this critical time to environmental conditions to modulate basal metabolism. Turkey embryos were exposed to one of four incubator temperatures (36, 37, 38 or 39oC) beginning on the 25th day of incubation at the onset of the plateau, a time when plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations normally increase. Blood was collected and thyroid hormone concentrations were measured at pipping (27th day) and hatching (28th day). Elevated temperatures depressed T3 and T4 concentrations and increased the T3 to T4 ratios. In a second experiment four oxygen concentrations (17, 19, 21 or 23% oxygen) were provided to the embryos using identical procedures. The 21% treatment significantly reduced T3 and T4 at pipping compared to all other treatments, but 23% oxygen increased plasma T3 and the T3 to T4 ratio compared to all other treatments. The 17% oxygen treatment elevated T3 compared to all other treatments. At hatching, 23% oxygen elevated T3 and T3 to T4 ratios compared to all other treatments. When temperature and oxygen treatments were applied together in a factorial arrangement, temperature and oxygen affected T3 and T4 hormone concentrations independently but did not interact. Therefore, we conclude that temperature and oxygen are independent stimuli of the avian embryonic thyroid gland during the plateau stage, and that incubator temperature and oxygen concentrations can modulate development of turkey embryos by changing plasma T3 and T4 concentrations.
  V.L. Christensen , M.J. Wineland , D.T. Ort and K.M. Mann
  Eggshell conductance (G) and incubator ventilation (VENT) were hypothesized to affect embryo viability and growth of poults following hatching. Nearly 6,000 eggs were weighed on the day of oviposition to determine eggs of like weight but of different G. From the 6,000 eggs, 4,000 were selected that were within 2 standard deviations of the mean. The eggs were randomly divided equally between two incubator cabinets. One cabinet operated with a closed VENT and a second operated with it open. At the completion of the 24th day of development, all eggs were weighed a second time to determine eggshell G. Three groups were formed at that time exhibiting high (Hi), average (Avg) or low (Low) G. The eggs within each group were placed into hatching trays of 100 eggs each and placed into he same incubation cabinet for hatching. Weights were recorded for cardiac, hepatic and intestinal tissues, and blood was collected from each treatment. The tissues were subsequently assayed for energy substrates. Embryo viability was noted and growth was observed up to 6 wk of age. More embryos in eggs of Hi or Avg G survived than did those in Low G eggs, but neonates at 6 wk from Hi G eggs weighed less than those from Avg or Low G eggs. Low G embryos had reduced heart, liver and intestinal weight and function. Embryo thyroid hormone concentrations were elevated in Hi G eggs but suppressed by Low G and Closed VENT. Thus, in the developmental process of the embryonic turkey, G may determine energy balance and maturity of each hatchling and may affect its survival and growth rates following hatching.
  M.J. Wineland , V.L. Christensen , I. Yildrum , B.D. Fairchild , D.T. Ort and K.M. Mann
  We hypothesize that temperature and oxygen in conjunction with genetic lines of broilers regulate embryo thyroid function. Thyroid response of broiler embryos of the two lines was measured at different incubator temperature and oxygen concentrations at the plateau stage in oxygen consumption (days 17 to 20 of embryo development). Each of the lines showed different eggshell conductance (G) values. Eggs of the same weight from the lines of broilers were incubated identically until the 17th day of development. On the 17th day (plateau stage in oxygen consumption), eggs were randomly distributed by line into four incubators operating at 36, 37, 38 or 39oC in trial 1 or at 17, 19, 21 or 23% oxygen in trial 2. At external pipping (the end of the plateau stage in oxygen consumption) as well as at hatching ten embryos or chicks per treatment were sampled for blood plasma. Plasma was analyzed for thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations. In trial 3, temperature line of broiler and oxygen treatments were arranged factorially. Increasing temperatures suppressed hormone concentrations in embryos, and the suppression was greater with low G. Increasing oxygen increased hormone concentrations in low G embryos to a greater degree than high G. It can be concluded that incubation temperature suppresses plasma thyroid hormone concentrations in low G lines whereas oxygen increases it.
  V.L. Christensen , M.J. Wineland , D.T. Ort , K.M. Mann and E.R. Neely
  Eggshell conductance (G) and incubator humidity (RH) were hypothesized to affect poult embryo survival and hatchling growth. Nearly 4,000 fertilized eggs of the same weight were selected (within 2 standard deviations of the mean). Selected eggs were divided randomly between two incubators. One cabinet operated at 65% RH whereas the second operated at 50% RH, and both cabinets had the same temperature (37.2oC). At the completion of the 24th day of development, all eggs were weighed a second time to determine eggshell G. Three groups were formed at this time by calculating eggshell conductance and sorting into groups of eggs exhibiting high (Hi), average (Avg) or low (Low) G. The eggs were then placed in the same incubation cabinet for hatching. Measurements were made of embryo cardiac and intestinal physiology. Samples were collected at external pipping and hatching from each of the groups. Tissues were assayed for plasma glucose and lactate, cardiac and hepatic glycogen and lactate. The RH and G effects on survival were noted, and poult weights were recorded for the first 6 weeks of age. More embryos from eggs of Hi or Avg G survived than Low G eggs, but poults from Hi G eggs did not grow as well as those from Avg or Low G eggs. Low G poults showed depressed cardiac glycogen and elevated lactate and had less mature intestines. Thus, in the developmental process of turkey embryos, G and RH may determine organ maturity at hatching thereby influencing survival and growth.
  V.L. Christensen , L.G. Bagley , J. Prestwich , T. Olson , M.J. Wineland and D.T. Ort
  The relationship describing eggshell conductance constants (k) suggests that eggshell conductance (G) is directly related to the length of the incubation period, but inversely with the weight of the egg. Prior studies showed clearly that G is a factor in cardiac health. We tested the hypothesis in the current study that the length of the incubation period may be a factor along with G that affects cardiac physiology and embryo survival. Incubation temperatures were reduced stepwise by 0.2oC in three treatments (37.5, 37.3 and 37.1oC) to prolong embryo developmental periods. The length of the developmental period was increased concomitantly in preliminary trials by 6 and 12 h, respectively by the 37.3 and 37.1oC treatments compared to 37.5oC. Fertilized eggs were incubated using the three temperatures in each of three independent trials. The time of hatching was closely noted and embryo survival was compared among treatments. Embryo heart rates and cardiac physiology in each group were observed. Long developmental periods reduced heart rates in a stepwise fashion and improved embryo survival and cardiac physiology. Thus, cardiomyopathy may be influenced by the length of the developmental period of turkey embryos because longer periods facilitated energy metabolism for myocardial function. Longer developmental periods would be easier to manage than G and may contribute to better turkey embryo viability late in development
 
 
 
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