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Articles by M.I.A. Karim
Total Records ( 3 ) for M.I.A. Karim
  M.S. Madihah , A.B. Ariff , M.S. Khalil , A. A. Suraini and M.I.A. Karim
  The starch degrading enzymes, alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, obtained from direct fermentation of sago starch to solvent by C. acetobuylicum P262 were partially purified and some of the biochemical characteristics were identified. The alpha-amylase was found to have maximum activity at pH 5.3 and was stable in a pH range from 3 to 9. The optimum temperature for -amylase activity was 40°C and only 50 % of its original activity was retained after incubation for 1 h at 60°C. The alpha-amylase Km and Vmax values for soluble starch was 0.31 g/L and 10.03 U/mL, respectively. Hydrolysis rate of partially purified alpha-amylase was illustrated by the relative values of starch (100%), amylopectin (68%) and amylose (42%). The optimum pH and temperature for glucoamylase was 4.4 and 40 C, respectively. Glucoamylase was stable at a wide pH range (4-8). The enzyme was also stable at high temperatures where 80% of its activity was retained after 1 h incubation at 60 C. Glucoamylase has high affinity towards soluble starch (Km= 0.039 g/L), followed by maltose (Km = 4.39 g/L) and maltotriose (Km= 10.43 g/L).
  M. Rosfarizan , A.B. Ariff , M. A. Hassan and M.I.A. Karim
  The influence of pH on kojic acid fermentation by Aspergillus flavus Link 44-1 in submerged fermentation and resuspended cell system was investigated separately. Although the highest growth in submerged fermentation was obtained at initial culture pH between 6 to 7, the optimum kojic acid production was achieved at initial culture pH 3. At initial culture pH 2, growth was greatly inhibited and kojic acid was not produced. In resuspended cell system using buffered glucose solution, in which the production of cell material was carried out at initial culture pH 3, the optimum kojic acid production was also obtained at pH 3. Kojic acid production in fermentation using 50 L stirred tank fermenter with pH control strategy (fermentation was started with pH 3 and without pH control during growth phase and culture pH was controlled at 3 during the production phase) was improved by about 20% as compared to fermentation without pH control. The maximum kojic acid concentration in fermentation with pH control strategy was 62.00 g/L and this gave yield and productivity of 0.516 g/g and 0.22 G/L h, respectively.
  K. H. Kok , M.I.A. Karim , A. Ariff and S. Abd-Aziz
  Batch sorption equilibrium experiments using biomass of Aspergillus flavus as biosorbent were conducted using shake flask experiment. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of metal concentration, biosorbent concentration, pH and temperature on biosorption of cadmium, copper and lead in tri-metals system. Results showed the presence of other cations in the solution that affected the uptake of the selected metal by the biosorbent. It has been suggested that direct ionic competition occurred within the same class of divalent cations and alteration of the solution chemistry.
 
 
 
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