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Articles by M.H.D. Mareko
Total Records ( 4 ) for M.H.D. Mareko
  M.H.D. Mareko , A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile and M. Mokhudu
  Twenty five Tswana goats of 7 months of age were obtained from Botswana College of Agriculture farm. The goats were balanced out for weight (average weight; 20.1±0.1 kg) and sex (3 females and 2 males per set) and were randomly allocated to the treatments. They were individually housed and fed browses (Teminalia sericea and Boscia albitrunca) for 63 days, at two levels; high (800 g) and low (400 g), resulting in the following treatments; TS 800, TS 400, BA 800 and BA 400. The control group (C 800) was instead supplemented with lurcene at 800g daily. Grass hay (Cenchrus celiaris) and wheat bran were offered as a basal diet and as an energy source, respectively, to all the treatments. On day 63, feed was withdrawn overnight and the goats were transported to the Botswana Meat Commission (BMC) on the 64th day. Goats were processed according to the standard abattoir procedures and their carcasses were cut up into 5 primal cuts (rib, chuckblade, flank, leg and neck), which were thereafter weighed. Lean tissue, free from visible fat, was obtained from the right thigh part of the leg for chemical analyses. Dry Matter (DM), moisture, ash, Organic Matter (OM), Crude Protein (CP) and crude fat was done on the lean tissue. The data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range tests were used to separate means. Final live weights ranged from 24.2 to 27.8kg, with C800 having significantly higher weights compared to all treatment groups. Dressing percentage ranged from 45.9 to 51.2% and TS400 had higher value (p<0.05) compared to BA400. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in primal cuts weights between the treatments. Meat moisture content showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between BA400 goats and other treatments. However when BA400 was compared with C800, no difference (p>0.05) was observed (77.94 vs 76.04%, respectively). Meat ash content for BA800 was found to be higher (p<0.05) than that of other treatments but similar (p>0.05) to that of C800. Meat dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fat averaged 24.00, 97.77, 71.06 and 6.90%, respectively, without any significant differences (p>0.05) observed between the groups. Meat mineral contents averaged 0.058, 0.133, 1.037, 0.833 and 0.224% for calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium, respectively and again no without significant differences (p>0.05) were observed between the groups. Goats supplemented on browses performed relatively like the lurcene supplemented goats though the browses are known to contain tannins. B. albitrunca and T. sericea can be successfully used by farmers as supplements during the dry seasons to raise goats for good quality meat.
  M.H.D. Mareko , S.J. Nsoso and K. Thibelang
  Guinea fowls (Numidia meleagris) exist in the wild in large numbers in Botswana and in the South African region, therefore their domestic rearing can be exploited as an alternative to existing poultry systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of floor finish on carcass yield and sensory characteristics of guinea fowl keets (Numidia meleagris) at different ages in Botswana. Over sixty keets hatched over a period of 2 days in a commercial incubator were raised together under an intensive system in a poultry house with a dwarf wall and roofing of corrugated metal sheets for four weeks. The keets were fed commercial chick starter mash and water ad lib. At week five, keets were randomly allocated to two treatments; a typical poultry house with concrete finish (n = 30) and the other group to a house with bare soil floor (n = 30). Keets in the house with concrete floor finish were raised under the deep litter system and saw dust was used as litter and was replaced every two weeks. The two groups were offered growers’ mash and water ad lib until 14 of age. At weeks 10, 12 and 14, four birds were randomly picked from each treatment weighed and slaughtered according to standard abattoir procedures and thereafter re-weighed after evisceration to obtain carcass weight. From each set of birds, drumsticks (8 pieces) were obtained and cooked for one hour using the broiling system of cooking. The drumsticks were cut into pieces of about 2x5 cm tubes and meat evaluated for; colour, odour, odour intensity, juiciness, tenderness, firmness and overall acceptability by a group of 15 taste panelists. Live and carcass weights data was analysed using proc ANOVA, whereas data for taste panelists was analysed using the Proc FREQ (SAS, 2000). Carcass yield for the guinea fowl was high at about 90% for all the treatments across killing points. Meat rankings were over 60% (fair to good) for most of the parameters evaluated, showing that guinea fowl meat can be marketed successfully as one of the meat alternatives.
  M.H.D. Mareko , S.J. Nsoso and N. Lebetwa
  The present study was conducted to determine the effects of floor finish on carcass yield and meat chemical composition of guinea fowls (Numida meleagris) at different ages in Botswana. More than 60 keets were raised under an intensive system for four weeks. Keets were fed starter mash and water ad lib. At week 5, keets were allocated to 2 treatments (n=30 each); concrete and bare soil floor partitions within a house. Keets on concrete floor were raised under deep litter. Growers` mash and water were fed ad lib until week 26. From weeks 16-26, three birds were slaughtered from each treatment. Moisture, Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP) and ash were determined on the breast muscle. Minerals potassium (K), sodium (Na), Phosphorus (P) and Calcium (Ca) were also determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA. Dressing Out Percentage (DOP) ranged between 48.64-74.47% for the soil floor group and 69.32-86.71% for the concrete floor. DM increased significantly with age for both concrete (25.48-45.56%) and soil (27.09-43.07%) floors. Moisture content decreased significantly with age for both concrete (74.53-54.44%) and soil (72.92-56.94%) floors. CP ranged from 68.18-86.65% for concrete floor and 80.34-87.24% for soil floor. The soil floor birds had significantly higher ash content throughout the study period. Generally CP, K, Na, P and Ca contents were comparable for both groups with age. Birds` DOP of over 70% and meat composition compared well with conventional meats, thus their meat can be successfully marketed as a `white` meat alternative.
  S.J. Nsoso , M.H.D. Mareko , S. Manyanda and P.P. Legodimo
  The prersent study were to investigates the effect of housing type i.e., Poultry House (PH), Semi-Poultry House (SPH) and a Fenced Open Natural area (FON) on body parameters, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of guinea fowl keets from 5-42 days of age and chemical composition of their meat at 3 and 5 weeks of age in Botswana. A total of 117 5-day old keets were randomly allocated to 3 housing types, which were replicated 3 times (n =13/replicate). All keets were fed commercial chick starter and grower’s mashes ad libitum for 4 and 2 weeks, respectively. Water was provided all the time. Body weight, body length, shank length and its circumference and feed intake were measured weekly on 5 keets randomly selected per replicate. Feed conversion ratio was calculated. Two keets from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered at 3 and 5 weeks of age. Dry matter, crude protein, ash, phosphorus, sodium and potassium were determined for each carcass. Procedure ANOVA in Statistical Analysis System was used to analyse the data. Generally, housing type did not affect (p>0.05) all parameters including chemical composition of meat at the same age. However, all parameters significantly increased from 5-42 days of age, respectively. Keets raised under different housing types can bring the same output hence for better profit it is best to choose FON than both PH and SPH, which increase production costs because of the purchase of building materials required for the latter housing types.
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