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Articles by M.D. Dhanaraju
Total Records ( 6 ) for M.D. Dhanaraju
  S. Ramachandran , G. Thirumurugan and M.D. Dhanaraju
  The present study aimed at the formulation of biodegradable chitosan microspheres loaded with ranitidine to overcome the poor bioavailability and frequent dose administration. Chitosan microsphere was prepared by simple emulsification technique by glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Various process variable and formulation variable such as speed of emulsification, cross linking time, drug/polymer ratio, volume of cross linking agent and volume of surfactant were optimized. Formulated microspheres were characterized for its entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release, Kinetics of drug release, surface morphology, particle size analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) thermal analysis. The characterized ranitidine microsphere formulations were investigated for in vivo gastric and duodenal antiulcer activity. The characterization of the fabricated microspheres showed smooth surface with narrow particle size distribution and entrapment efficiency upto 84%. The prepared microspheres exhibited a controlled drug release of 74% over a period of 24 h with initial burst release of 35% in the first 2 h. The FTIR and DSC reports showed that there was no potential drug interaction between the drug and polymer. In vivo studies shows that gastric volume, pH, total acidity and ulcer index of formulated ranitidine microspheres were significantly reduced as 2.67 mL, 5.59, 110 mEq L-1 and 1.74, respectively and also there is no evidence of extra tissue damage as seen in the biopsy report. From the data obtained it can be concluded that the chitosan microspheres could be considered as a potential biodegradable carrier for controlled drug delivery of ranitidine.
  S. Ramachandran , M. Vamsikrishna , K.V. Gowthami , B. Heera and M.D. Dhanaraju
  The essence of the present study is to focus on the cytotoxicity of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the Indian medicinal plant Agave cantula belonging to the family Agavaceae. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay method was established for the present study and the cytotoxicity was reported in terms of lethality concentration (LC50). The shrimps were hatched and active shrimps were collected and used for the assay, 10 active shrimps were added to the 0.5 mL diluted test solution and the surviving (larvae) shrimps were counted after 24 h and lethality concentration LC50 was assessed. In the present study, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Agave cantula exhibited potent brine shrimp lethality LC50 as 15 and 12.5 mg, respectively. The present study supports that brine shrimp bioassay is simple, reliable and convenient method for assessment of bioactivity of medicinal plants and extends the support for further research.
  T.M. Vijayakumar , D. Sathyavati , T. Subhashini , S. Grandhi and M.D. Dhanaraju
  Medically inappropriate and economically inefficient use of medicines is observed throughout the world. This study was carried out to evaluate the prescription rationality and drug prescribing practice of physicians in East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Prescriptions of 690 patients were collected over a period of three months. Average number of drugs per prescription was found to be 3.01. Only 27.3% of drugs were prescribed in generic names. More than four drugs were prescribed in 208 prescriptions. The 17.3% of cardiovascular drugs were prescribed commonly. A total of 26 drug-drug interactions were detected in 18 of the prescriptions. The 41.6% drugs were not in accordance with WHO essential drug list. Approximately 32% of Prescriptions were not mentioned about strength, dose, frequency and duration of administration of the drugs. The 16.8% of prescriptions contain Fixed Dose Combination (FDC). Majority of fixed dose combinations were prescribed for cardiovascular patients and diabetic patients. The drugs prescribed in the generic names were remarkably lower. Majority of the prescribed drugs were not followed the WHO model essential list. Irrational prescribing can be avoided by sticking to the ideal prescription writing. This study revealed that a lot of scope for prescriber education to improve prescribing patterns.
  T.M. Vijayakumar , G. Poovi , Thonda VSS Swaroop , G. Thirumurugan and M.D. Dhanaraju
  This study was carried out to find the drug prescribing pattern and rationality of cardiovascular Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) at out patient department of private hospitals in East Godavari District andhrapradesh, India. Prescriptions of 620 patients suffered by cardiovascular diseases were collected over a period of five months and analysed for average number of drugs per prescription. Collected prescriptions were screened for fixed dose combinations and it classified according to patient’s age, gender, duration of drug therapy, cost effectiveness was compared with monotherapy, dosage forms, therapeutic category and dose strength was taken into consideration for evaluate prescribing pattern. Average number of drugs per prescription was 3.65±0.08. Out of 620 cardiovascular prescriptions 234 prescriptions found to have FDCs. In 234 (37.7%) prescriptions, 17 different FDCs were prescribed. Among 234 FDC prescriptions, 124 (52.9%) FDC prescriptions were prescribed for the age group 51-60 years. All the cardiovascular FDCs were prescribed in oral solid dosage forms. Majority of FDCs (46.2%) were prescribed for 1-2 months. In 17 different FDCs, 14 (82.4%) were belongs to antihypertensive category. Out of 17 FDCs analysed, 76.4% were found to be more cost effective than their total cost of individual components. For few FDCs like Telmisartan with Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), Enalapril with HCTZ, Bisoprolol with HCTZ, the total cost of combination was found to be less than that of FDCs. Most of the cardiovascular prescriptions contain Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) and most of the FDCs were cost effective but out of total FDCs studied none of them was in accordance with WHO essential medical list and National List of Essential Medicine. So, the rationality behind these combinations was questionable. It seems to be further more clinical trials need for these FDCs to substantiate their safety and efficacy.
  S. Ramachandran , G. Poovi and M.D. Dhanaraju
  In the present study controlled release formulation of famotidine was investigated for its gastric and duodenal antiulcer activity in rats. Ulcers were produced in rats by pyloric ligation method and aspirin induced ulcer in rats. The animals were divided separately for both experiments. In each method animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 served as normal control that received only distilled water. Group II served as disease control in which the animals were maintained under same environmental conditions but surgical manipulations done like other groups. Group III received standard drug famotidine 12 mg kg-1 orally. Group IV received famotidine formulation respectively with a dose equivalent to Famotidine 12 mg kg-1 orally as suspension. The antiulcer activity of pyloric ligated and aspirin induced animals were correlated for the reduction in ulcer levels. Parameters like volume of gastric secretion, pH, total acid and ulcer index were calculated and was concluded that the group received famotidine formulation exhibited significant antiulcer activity by both methods as compared to standard drug famotidine. The stomach biopsy of all the groups were analyzed and was found that rats which received famotidine formulation and standard famotidine showed good healing of ulcers when compared to disease control group of animals. The mean volume of gastric secretions, mean pH mean total acid and ulcer index for famotidine formulation treated group was calculated as 2.76 mL, 5.65, 112 mEq L-1 and 1.68, respectively. From the results it can be concluded that famotidine formulation exhibited significant antiulcer effect and the histopathology report also supports and confirm its effect.
  I. Ulaganathan , D. Divya , K. Radha , T.M. Vijayakumar and M.D. Dhanaraju
  Hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activity of Ethanol Extract of Luffa acutangula (var) amara (EELA) and were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extract were administered orally at dose dependent manner of 200, 400, 600 mg kg-1, b.wt, p.o. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Serum alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total cholesterol and total protein were restored towards normalization significantly by the extract. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced haptotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Luffa acutangula (var) amara leaves extract have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. Ethanolic extract was found more potent hepatoprotective. Mean while in vivo antioxidant activities were also screened which were positive for EELA extract. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities which may be due to the presence of flavanoids in the extract.
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