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Articles by M.B. Ngassoum
Total Records ( 5 ) for M.B. Ngassoum
  Adjoudji Ousman , M.B. Ngassoum , J.J. Essia-Ngang , L.S.T. Ngamo and R. Ndjouenkeu
  Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) and Xylopia aethiopica Dunal A. Rich. (Annonaceae) are common spicy plant species in many recipes in Cameroon. A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from their fresh leaves or dried fruits against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera, Circulionidae), the principal weevil of stored maize and grain products in the tropics. The assays were carried out using the ingestion and contact techniques. After the extraction of essential oils by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus, formulations as dustable powder were prepared at 5 and 10%. Probit analysis was employed in evaluating the LD50 response. Insect mortality was recorded after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Results showed that, significant insect mortality was obtained with all the essential oils used and all the treatments had effective insecticidal activity by ingestion and contact after 96 h compared to untreated control and pirimiphos-methyl (actellic Super 2% dust) formulations. For all the formulations tested, a significant difference (p< 0.05) was observed between contact and ingestion assays, the contact test being the most active. The mortality rate of S. zeamais increased with increase in the concentration of essential oil of the three plants and the duration of exposure of the weevils on the treated substrates. By contact, the essential oil extract from P. nigrum fruits was the most effective insecticide (97.2▒4.6%) whereas X. aethiopica’s (97.3▒3.7%) was the most effective by ingestion. Results are discussed with regard to the use of the essential oils from the fruits of these plant species by the small-scale farmers as sustainable alternatives and maize grain preservatives against S. zeamais during storage to synthetic insecticides. The potential of these non toxic products to protect stored maize against attacks of S. zeamais is hereby appraised.
  T.S.L. Ngamo , M.B. Ngassoum , P.M. Mapongmestsem , W.F. Noudjou , F. Malaisse , E. Haubruge , G. Lognay , H. Kouninki and T. Hance
  Post harvest losses of crops during storage are mainly due to insects. To prevent their stored products from insects attacks, farmers often used in the past some traditional tools which are nowadays disappearing without sufficient valorisation. The present research aims to make an inventory of stored grains pests present and of the botanicals used in the protection of stored grains. From these investigations, it clearly shows that, Insects associated to stored grains in Northern Cameroon are primary or secondary pests, detritivores, predators or parasitoids feeding on other insects mainly pests. The major pests of stored grains are the weevils Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for cereals and Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) for legumes. To protect their stored grains from losses, 29 plants are introduced in the granaries during their filling with crops, 12 of these are aromatic plants producing essential oil by hydrodistaillation. Nine of these essential oil have insecticidal properties towards S. zeamais, S. oryzae and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) which are the most important pests of cereal in grains and in flour. In order to designate an essential oil for the pest control by farmers, the criteria define was the relation between the insecticidal activity and the rate of extraction of essential oil from plant material. With this consideration, essential oil of Lippia rugosa (Verbenaceae) is among the 4 most used the suitable tool to prevent attacks of S. zeamais and S. oryzae. In the other hand to control T. castaneum, essential oils of Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) Vepris heterophylla (Rutaceae) and L. rugosa are adviced.
  T.S.L. Ngamo , M.B. Ngassoum , P.M. Mapongmestsem , F. Malaisse , E. Haubruge , G. Lognay and T. Hance
  In northern Cameroon, small holders stored their crops for long period in permanent granaries. According to their architecture, these granaries could be grouped in 7 prototypes. During storage in these granaries, to prevent loss of harvested crops due to attacks of insect pests, farmers have a relish for industrial or natural insecticides. These tools are introduced in the granary at the same time they fill it with crops. In the studied area, 17 industrials insecticides are currently used. They are from 4 chemical families: chlorinated hydrocarbons 57%; organophosphates 30%, carbamates, 12% and pyrethrynoids 12%. In the other hand, farmers also introduce plants in their granaries. An amount of 27 plants were identified they belong to 13 botanical families. The 2 most important are Poaceae with 6 species and Lamiaceae with 5 species. The northern part of Cameroon where the storage is fairly conducted is characterised by 67% of farmers using plants as protectant of stored grains, they use mostly bottle-shape granary where the storage can last without significant losses for 48 months.
  W.M.L.Fezeu , M.B. Ngassoum , G. Echevarria , M. Cretin and C.M.F. Mbofung
  Wakwa is an intensive cattle-grazing area in Northern Cameroon. The present study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of different samples of spring waters commonly consumed by cattles in this area. Water samples were collected in dry season (February and April) of 2002 from four (Wakwa Palestine, Massagali, Djomtari and Lahoré Vina) springs and analysed for their mineral (NO3, Cl, PO43-, HCO3-, Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Zn, Cu, Fe, ammoniacal nitrogen) and organic matter content using appropriate and current analytical methods (Absorption spectrophotometer, Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Colorimetry). Mineral content of the waters was found to vary very significantly (p<0.05) with sources. Of all the springs, that of Lahoré Vina was found to contain the highest levels of such elements as HCO3-, Na, Ca, the Mg, Na and K. In general, the levels of Mn and organic matter (0.05 mg, l.4 mg of O2/l, respectively) found in the Lahoré Vina springs were higher than the E.P.A recommended levels. Equally high in these waters were the levels of such trace elements as Al and Mn. Zinc concentrations were highest in waters obtained from Wakwa Palestine Springs. Iron levels in the different waters did not vary with source. Based on an average daily consumption of 21 litres a day water from the Lahoré Vina springs grazing animals could meet their requirements of Na and Ca. On the same basis, the other sources can supply only about 14 and 5% of daily requirements for Na and Calcium.
  T.S.L. Ngamo , W.F. Noudjou , M.B. Ngassoum , P.M. Mapongmestsem , A.B. Aminatou Boubakary , F. Malaisse , E. Haubruge , G. Lognay and T. Hance
  Leaves of Vepris heterophylla (Rutaceae) are used traditionally as medicine and in crop protection for the reduction of post harvest losses due to insect pests. The present research aims to investigate the chemical composition, the toxicity and the repellent activities of the essential oil leaves of V. heterophylla collected in 2 localities (Mokolo and Meri). The research pointed out that, the 2 essential oils differ in their chemical composition. Sabinene and E- -ocimene are the most common important compounds. Sabinene is particular to the essential oil from Meri (19.1%). E-caryophyllene, -humulene, elemol and germacrene, are the comon lowest compounds. E-carryophyllene (3.1%) and safrole (3%) are active compounds more present in the essential oil from Mokolo. Evaluation of the insecticidal properties of these 2 oils pointed out that the volume of essential oil killing half of the insect population tested (VL50) is not the same for the 2 oils. That from Mokolo is 49.44 ÁL from Meri is the highest, 61.2 ÁL. This useful plant is also cited as endangered, it is therefore an emergency to search strategy of exploitation that preserves this important component the local biodiversity.
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