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Articles by M.A. Razzaque
Total Records ( 8 ) for M.A. Razzaque
  M.A. Razzaque , S.A. Mohammed , T. Al- Mutawa and M. Bedair
  Problem statement: Imported Holstein Friesian dairy cattle are exposed to hot arid climate in feedlot management in Kuwait. Desert climate is extreme reaching high 45-50°C in summer and low -4°C in winter at day and night respectively. High calf mortality, poor reproduction and milk yields were main constraints to viable dairying. The objectives of this study were to assess the magnitude of calf mortality, its causes; implement strategic intervention measures for improving calf survival rates and evaluate dairy herd performance. Approach: Two scenarios were used: (1) studying dairy herd performance without applying intervention measures and (2) introducing improved management with interventions. Performance of the herds of situations 1 and 2 were compared. Three classes of dairy herds, pre-weaned calves, heifers and first lactation cows born in Kuwait were used. Results: Implementing intervention measures resulted in significant (p = 0.001) reduction of crude calf mortality rates from a mean of 43.6% to a low 4.67%. Growth rates of calves and heifers increased significantly, resulting in breeding of locally raised heifers at 15 mo age instead of usual practice of breeding at 18-22 mo. Feed cost was significantly reduced by 14-25% by early breeding of heifers. Herd culling rate was reduced from 62-33% and conception rates increased by 41%. The milk yield was increased by 1.25-1.50 fold through replacing the imported cows by locally born heifers. Adult cattle mortality rates reduced from high 9 to a low 1%. Case study showed that locally born and reared dairy herd formed a mean of 65.8% of total dairy cattle in cooperating farms. Conclusion: A systematic applied research studies in the commercial dairy farms had resulted in a visible improvement in the performance of all categories of locally born dairy herds and they were better adapted to the local hostile climate.
  M.A. Razzaque , T. Al-Mutawa and S.A. Mohammed
  Problem statement: In many hot arid countries, pregnant Holstein Friesian heifers are imported for herd replacement. The calves obtained from exotic cows are exposed to adverse climate in feedlot system resulting in very high morbidity and mortality rates. Diarrhea, dehydration and deaths are causing a major loss to the producers. This study examines the Risk Rates (RR) for morbidity and mortality in pre-weaned calves. Approach: Thirteen commercial dairy farms of small, medium and large sizes were surveyed using 1,280 newborn calves. A survey was conducted for calves from their birth to weaning at 90 day. Parameters of the study were birth weights, colostrum feeding, growth rate, incidences of diseases, clinical symptoms, post-mortem findings and results of laboratory investigations of samples obtained from sick and dead calves. Calf housing and feeding management of 13 farms were investigated. Results: RR for morbidity and mortality ranged from 0.3-1.00 and being highest during the first week. Most common disease was diarrhea representing 90.6% of the total calves affected. Common pathogens causing diarrhea were E. coli, Salmonella sp. Klebsiella, Pasturella and rotavirus. Relationship between calf management and morbidity RR for diarrhea was significant (r2 = 627, p = 0.01) and the growth rate was positively correlated (r2 = 0.761, p = 0.1). Diarrhea caused a significant negative impact on gross margins of the calf enterprises. Conclusion: Colostrum feeding and housing management were the key factors for causing a high RR for morbidity and mortality. Gross margin loss was significantly influenced by morbidity and mortality RR of calves.
  M.A. Razzaque , T. Al-Mutawa , S. Abbas and M. Bedair
  Problem statement: A high mortality rate (crude mortality 43.6%) of pre-weaned dairy calves resulted in unavailability of replacement heifers in Kuwait. Dairy producers resorted to import pregnant heifers for herd replacement. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dam vaccination and age, serum Immunoglobulin (Ig) on disease syndromes and mortality in pre-weaned calves. Approach: Late pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows and heifers of five commercial dairy operations were divided into two herds: Treatment (T) vaccinated using Lactovac against Rotavirus, Coronavirus and Escherichia coli and Control (C) unvaccinated herds. Total of 1,088 newborn calves of above herds were also divided as T and C for studies from their birth to weaning at 90 days. Calves weighed at birth, fed colostrum, serum proteins and Ig (IgG, IgM and IgA) were determined; disease syndromes, morbidity and mortality rates were investigated. Results: Mean birth weight (34.25±SE 0.21 kg) of calves did not differ significantly (p<0.01) between treatments. Crude mortality rates differed significantly (p<0.01) ranging from 2.83-22.83% in calves among herds. Highly significant differences were observed in Ig classes of blood serum of calves: IgG (F 3.47 p<0.010), IgM (F 3.52 p<0.009) and IgA (F 3.66 p<0.008). The effects of Ig levels on calf morbidity rates were significant (p<0.05) on three disease syndromes: pneumonia, diarrhea and pneumo-enteritis. Vaccination of pregnant dams and oral administration of antibodies to newborn calves reduced calf morbidity and mortality rates. Major disease syndromes were pneumo-enteritis (34.6%) and pneumonia (33.8%). Younger calves were greatly affected by these diseases. Conclusion: Inadequate levels of passive immunity of young calves were commonly found in Kuwait’s farms. This study demonstrated the importance of passive immunity of calves by ensuring adequate levels of serum Ig and protein levels.
  M.A. Latif , M.A. Razzaque and M.M. Rahman
  The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of selected insecticides used for controlling brinjal shoot and fruit borer on soil microorganisms and to find out the insecticides or nontoxic to soil microorganism the impact of nine selected insecticides on soil microbial respiration was studied in the laboratory. After injection of different insecticides solutions, the soil was incubated in the laboratory at room temperature for 32 days. The amount of CO2 evolved due to soil microbial respiration was determined at 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 days of incubation. Flubendiamide, nimbicidine, lambda-cyhalothrin, abamectin and thiodicarb had stimulatory effect on microbial respiration during the initial period of incubation. Chlorpyriphos, cartap and carbosulfan had inhibitory effect on microbial respiration and cypermethrin had no remarkable effect during the early stage of incubation. The negative effect of chlorpyriphos, cartap and carbosulfan was temporary, which was disappeared after 4 days of insecticides application. No effect of the selected insecticides on soil microorganisms was observed after 24 or 32 days of incubation.
  M.A. Razzaque , N.M. Talukder , M.S. Islam , A.K. Bhadra and R.K. Dutta
  The effect of salinity on morphological characters of salt tolerant genotypes PVSB9, PVSB19, PNR381, PNR519, Iratom24 and salt sensitive genotype NS15 along with one standard check salt tolerant rice cultivar Pokkali were assessed in two factors Completely Randomized Design with four replications. Seven rice genotypes in combination with six levels of salinity (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 dS m-1) were randomly assigned in 168 experimental plastic pots. The different morphological characters studied include plant height, total number of tillers, Root Dry Weight (RDW), Shoot Dry Weight (SDW) and Total Dry Matter (TDM) content of the selected rice genotypes in view to evaluate their response at different salinity levels. The results on the effect of morphological characters indicated that plant height, total tillers, root, shoot and total dry matter were significantly decreased by the application of salinity. The genotypes Pokkali, PVSB9, PVSB19 showed significantly higher values and the lowest value of all these characters were recorded in NS15. A sharp decrease in percent relative- plant height, RDW, SDW, TDM, total tillers were found in susceptible genotype NS15 after 3 dS m-1 level of salinity, but these characters were found to decrease slowly in tolerant genotypes.
  M.A. Razzaque , Z.A. Saud , N. Absar , M.R. Karim and F. Hashinaga
  Polyphenoloxidase (PPO), an important oxidative enzyme which played a vital role in the brewing of guava after infection with fruit-rot disease was purified from disease-affected guava. The method was accomplished by ion exchange chromatography of crude enzyme extract on DEAE-cellulose followed by CM-cellulose. The purified enzyme was found to be homogeneous as judged by polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 178 kDa and 180.5 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE respectively. The enzyme appeared to be a single polypeptide chain as revealed by SDS-PAGE either in presence or in absence of reducing agent. Optimum activity of the enzyme was at 48°C and pH around 8. Activity was destroyed completely in presence of EDTA, a metal chellator. Purified PPO showed an estimated km value of 4.4 mM for catechol as substrate.
  S.A. Mohammed , M.A. Razzaque , R.C. Malik and N.M. Al-Khozam
  The body measurements and carcass composition of 35 Naeemi x Border Leicester Merino (NaeemixBLM) crossbred and 9 Naeemi straightbred lambs were investigated. The Naeemi lambs were, on average, 2 kg heavier and had the Body Conditioning Scores (BCS) that were 0.78 points lower and body lengths that were 10.2 cm shorter than the crossbred lambs. There were no significant differences between the genetic groups for (GR) or (BT) but crossbred lambs had significantly more kidney fat. They also had 5.5% higher dressing percentages and 14% higher carcass yields than the Naeemi lambs. Carcass moisture and protein were 6.3 and 1.6% higher and fat was 7.8% lower in the whole carcasses of the Naeemi lambs than in those of the crossbred lambs. It is concluded that the Naeemi x BLM lambs produce heavier carcasses but also accumulate more carcass fat than straight Naeemi lambs.
  M.A. Razzaque , S.A. Mohammed , T. Al-Mutawa and M. Bedair
  Kuwait’s dairy producers import pregnant Holstein Friesian Heifers and they thrive for 2.3 lactations with poor milk yield. Offspring of imported dams are subjected to high mortality, poor growth and reproduction. This study investigated growth, reproduction, milk yield and composition of locally born heifers fed two types of diets. Total 92 weaned 90 d old heifers born in Kuwait from imported dams were assigned to two different diets. Control (C): 25 heifers were fed commercial diet and Treatment (T): 67 heifers were fed balanced improved diets containing 17.5% and 15.1% CP, respectively. T diet was also balanced with vitamins and minerals, where, as C diets were not. Both herds were individually monitored for their heights and live weights; followed by reproductive and lactation performance. Herd T gained significantly (p<0.05) better live weight (T: 0.88 Kg vs. C: 0.71 Kg/h/d) than that of C and reaching significantly (p<0.01) better heights (T: 59% vs. C: 15%) of total standard height of 132 cm. Farm to farm differences in first service (mean±SD) conception rate and pregnancy rate did not differ between C and T herds (p = 0.05). Milk yield differences for C and T herds were 16.86±0.70 and 18.30±1.40 L/cow/day, respectively as well as Milk composition were not significant (p= 0.05). Milk Urea Nitrogen (MUN) concentration was significantly higher (p<0.001) in T herd than that of C reflecting a better protein nutritional status in T than that of C herd.
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