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Articles by M.A. Rahman
Total Records ( 26 ) for M.A. Rahman
  M.A. Rahman , S.M.M. Rahman , M.A. Jalil , Sarder Nasir Uddin and M.M. Rahman
   This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31). Highest level of Nei’s[1] gene diversity value (0.4898) was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei’s[1] genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.
  M.A. Hamid , S. Ahmed , M.A. Rahman and K.M. Hossain
  The present study attempts to examine the scenario of buffalo production in SAARC countries. The buffalo plays a very important role in the SAARC countries which constitutes 73.77% of world buffalo population. The SAARC region has a great biodiversity of buffalo germplasm, including the world famous buffaloes Murrah and Nili-Ravi-renowned for high milk production potential. The SAARC countries share 93.19% of world buffalo milk production where India and Pakistan contributes 67.99 and 23.96%, respectively. About 71.4% of world buffalo meat is produced in South Asian countries. Although, buffalo is an essential part of livestock in SAARC countries, it has never been addressed in Bangladesh and always neglected despite their important role in the national economy. In Bangladesh, the total buffalo population are 1.457 million heads that are managed in household subsistance farming and extensive bathan farming in saline coastal region that are used as a draught animal and partially for milk and meat production. This study has tried to unreath the present scenario of buffalo production in SAARC countries and find out the constraints of buffalo production and recommendations of buffalo development in Bangladesh. This study has also explored the further development of buffalo in SAARC countries as well as in Bangladesh.
  M.A. Rahman , N.A. Siddquie , M.Robiul Alam , A.S.M.M.R. Khan and M.S. Alam
  Genetic analysis of yield and quality characters in spring wheat was studied in seven cultivars and their F1s obtained from a diallel cross without reciprocals at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Graphical analysis revealed the presence of epistasis for the characters plant height, spikes per plant, spike length, grains per spike, 1000-grains weight, grain yield per plant and protein content. Partial dominance was showed by the characters days to maturity, plant height, grains per spike, 1000-grains weight and protein content. On the other hand the characters spikes per plant and spike length were controlled by over dominance. Among these gene actions partial dominance could easily be exploited through conventional breeding.
  M.A. Rahman , M.A. Taleb and M.M. Biswas
  The present study was carried out to evaluate the botanical products viz. leaf powder and extract of Nishinda (Vitex negunda Linn.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus macrorhyncha F.muell.), Bankalmi (Ipomoea sp.), ash of babla wood (Acacia arabica Willd), oil of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), sesame (Sesamum indicum) and safflower (Carthmus tinctorius) against the attack of grain weevil (Sitophilus granarious) on wheat. The results showed that the higher concentration of oil (0.25-1.0%) indicated the lower infestation, less emergence of adults, less seed damage, less weight loss and higher inhibition rate. Neem oil was most effective in checking the insect infestation and allowing the least number of F1 adults emerged from the seed. The wood ash was found highly effective in prohibiting the adult emergence (F1) with higher inhibition rate and showed reduction in seed damage and weight loss(%) over other treatment. It was concluded that botanical product acted as insect antifeedant and the order of toxicity of three plant leaf extracts on grain weevil were : nishinda> eucalyptus> bankalmi.
  M.A. Rahman , J. Kadir , T.M.M. Mahmud , R. Abdul Rahman and M.M. Begum
  Of the 27 antagonistic bacteria isolated from the fructosphere of papaya and screened by dual and concomitant test, four isolates of bacteria (B23, B19, B04 and B15) had high antagonistic activities against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of papaya. Using the Biolog system, isolates B23 and B19 were identified as Burkholderia cepacia and B04 and B15 as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both B. cepacia and P. aeruginosa strongly inhibited the fungal growth by an average of 74.13 and 68.45%, respectively during in vitro screening on PDA medium. The bacteria also produced volatile as well as diffusible substances. Malformation of hyphae occurred in the presence of both bacteria. Hyphae were thickened, vacuolar and many swellings occurred in them or at the tips of hyphal strand. However, B. cepacia was found most efficacious biocontrol agent in this study. Total inhibition (100%) in spore germination was noted in presence of B. cepacia at 24 h after treatment. Filter sterilized culture filtrate of B. cepacia also significantly inhibited the mycelial growth (59.2%) and spore germination (100%) of the test fungus, thus suggesting that an antibiotic substance (s) may be produced by the bacterium. Therefore, in vitro activities of the B. cepacia against C. gloeosporioides of papaya in this study suggested that the bacterium can be an effective biological control agent.
  M.A. Hamid , M.A. Rahman , S. Ahmed and K.M. Hossain
  The present study attempts to examine the scenario of poultry industry and the role of private sector for its development in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, more than half of the people is based on agricultural and livestock farming. The poultry sector is an integral part of farming systems and has created both direct and indirect employment opportunity, improved food security and enhanced supply of quality protein to people’s meals, contributing country’s economic growth and reducing poverty level in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. The present meat and egg production can meet only 68 and 64% of the national demand. The demand for meat, egg and meat and egg products have been expanding dramatically with income growth, population growth, urbanization and dietary changes. Recognizing this fact, the government and the private sector are working together to solve the problem in poultry industry through various development activities. Apart from this, government is encouraging private sectors and NGOs to undertake steps for the development of poultry by liberalizing its present policy. This review study has tried to unearth the present scenario of poultry industry in Bangladesh, contribution of private enterprises for the development of poultry sectors, marketing of poultry and poultry products, problems and constraints of poultry industry and explores the scope and opportunity of poultry industry of Bangladesh. This study has also explored the status of poultry business development through various programs designed and implemented by private sectors.
  S. Dilruba , M. M.Alam , M.A. Rahman and M.F. Hasan
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  M.A. Rahman , E. Haque , M. Hasanuzzaman and I.Z. Shahid
  The present study investigated pharmacological activities to provide scientific basis to traditional usage of Tamarix indica. Phytochemical analysis of the dried roots of Tamarix indica (Tamaricaceae) indicated the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. The pharmacological interest of these compounds, coupled with the use of this plant in traditional medicine prompted the researchers to check for its possible antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities in animal models. The antinociceptive activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice while anti-inflammatory tests were studied by using carrageenin induced rat paw edema model. Moreover, antibacterial activities were studied by using the disc diffusion method. The extract produced significant writhing inhibition in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice at the oral dose of 500 mg kg-1 body weight (p<0.001) comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium at the dose of 25 mg kg-1 of body weight. When given orally to rats at dose of 200 and 400 mg kg-1, the extract showed a significant (p<0.001) anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin induced paw edema in rats comparable to the standard drug aspirin. Moreover, The extract of Tamarix indica exhibited significant in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Shigella sonnie, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Streptococcus epidermidis, Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus with the zones of inhibition ranging from 10.76 to 16.34 mm. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine and its further investigation.
  S.M.A. Haque , I. Hossain and M.A. Rahman
  The experiments were conducted in the laboratory of Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI), Manik Mia Avenue, Dhaka; Seed Pathology Center, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh, Oil Seed Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI). The experiments were conducted during the period 15 January 2010 to 5 March 2012. Nine different types of containers viz. tin pot, plastic pot, poly bag, gunny bag, gunny bag lined with polythene, earthen pot, cloth bag, brown paper and IRRI poly bag, two level of moisture contents viz. farmers’ condition (16%) and recommended moisture condition (9.5%) by Bangladesh Gazette in 2010 and seed treatment with Provax-200 and control (untreated) were used for the present study. Seeds were stored for 12 months and examined after 4, 8 and 12 months of storage. Among the nine containers, tin pot was found better in respect of moisture content, germination, mean germination time, vigour index and 1000 seed weight. Health condition of seeds was also superior compared to other containers. The poorest performance was observed in earthen pot regarding moisture content, germination, mean germination time, vigour index, 1000 seed weight and seed borne infection. The findings of the present study also reveal that recommended moisture content (9.5% moisture content in seed) was better than moisture content at farmers’ condition. Provax-200 treated seed also resulted better performance than non treated (control condition) seed. So, quality of jute seeds can be maintained by storage in tin pot with provax-200 treated and recommendation moisture content (9.5%).
  S.M.A. Haque , I. Hossain and M.A. Rahman
  The experiments were conducted in the field of Jute Agriculture Experimental Station (JAES), Manikgonj and Kishoregonj Regional Station (KRS), Kishoregonj of BJRI. The experiments were conducted during the period April 2012 to January 2013. Top cutting method in respect of different parameters of seed quality differed significantly under different treatments in the present study. Here, before planted cuttings were treated with Dithane M-45 and BAU-Biofungicide. In top cutting method, lowest mortality 4.76% of cuttings were found with BAU-Biofungicide treated cuttings while, highest mortality 8.03% of cuttings were found under control condition. The highest seed yields 709.09 kg ha-1 was obtained with BAU-Biofungicide treated cuttings and lowest seed yields 600.35 kg ha-1 was recorded under control treatment.
  S.M.H. Jahan and M.A. Rahman
  The study was conducted to know the diverse response on growth stages of mustard varieties to mustard aphids. Among ten mustard varieties, the maximum aphid population was recorded on Tori-7 at flowering stage but the population reached to the peak in BS-5 variety. Pod formation stage was more vulnerable for aphid infestation and increased population. Aphid infestation received higher at pod formation stage than flowering stage and consequently produced lower yield. Moreover, experiment indicated that aphid infestation were severe in 2007 as compared to 2006 in respect of percent infestation and number of aphids per plant under study.
  B.C. Roy , M.S. Rahman and M.A. Rahman
  Amorphous silica-alumina catalyst samples of different Si:Al ratio as of 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 were prepared from sodium metasilicate and aluminum sulphate by co-precipitation and gelation methods without pore regulating agent. Surface acidity of these catalyst samples were determined by Tamele method (amine titration method) using n-hexane and n-heptane as solvent instead of benzene used in Tamele method that having a carcinogenic effect and using n-butylamine solution as adsorbate. The effects of concentration of adsorbate, amount of catalyst sample and types of catalyst sample on the surface acidity were studied. Investigation of reproducibility measurement indicated that by selecting a moderate amount of sample and concentration of n-butylamine solution as minimum as possible surface acidity of the silica-alumina catalyst sample could be estimated with a fair degree of confidence. The total surface acidity of all the catalyst samples was greater in n-hexane than that of in n-heptane used as solvent. This result reveals that n-hexane or n-heptane can be used for the measurement of surface acidity of catalyst sample, as solvent instead of benzene in Tamele method but n-hexane is better.
  M.A. Rahman and S.M.H. Jahan
  A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of different approaches of chemical and biological control against Brown Plant Hopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.). The insecticide carbofuran 5G was applied at 50 and 75 days after transplanting in need base and this insecticide at 25 and 75 days along with Ripcord 10EC at 50 days after transplanting was also applied in schedule base. Natural biological control had no insecticide application and the control was largely due to the activities of naturally occurring predators and parasitoids. High level of predatory spiders and lady bird beetles were found in the fields of natural biological control compared to field of need and schedule base protection. The population of natural enemies was minimum at 60 days after transplanting in schedule base protection when population of brown plant hopper was also high. Need base protection approach was found to be superior in terms of control approaches than that of schedule base protection and naturally biological control approaches. The benefit-cost ratio (1.48) and grain yield (4.45 t ha-1) of need based protection were significantly higher than other control approaches.
  M.A. Rahman , Y.J. Kwon , S.J. Suh , Y.N. Youn and S.H. Jo
  Two species of the genus Pochazia, P. albomaculata and P. shantungensis, are redescribed and illustrated from Korea. Among them, the exotic species P. shantungensis, assumed to be invaded from China recently, is known for the first time in Korea. A sudden outbreak of the latter is observed in the western part of Korean peninsula which is injurious to various fruit plants, many other trees and wild herbs. Hitherto unknown male genitalic characters of the two species are given and keys to genera of the Ricaniidae and species of Pochazia from Korea are provided.
  M.A. Rahman , E. Haque , M. Hasanuzzaman , S.R. Muhuri and I.Z. Shahid
  Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) is a Bangladeshi medicinal plant used traditionally to treat a various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate of antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activity of methanolic extract of the leaves of Pistia stratiotes. The extract produced significant writhing inhibition in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice at the oral dose of 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight (p<0.001) comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium at the dose of 25 mg kg-1 of body weight. The extract showed antidiarrhoeal activity on castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice, it increased mean latent period and decreased the frequency of defecation significantly at the oral dose of 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight (p<0.01) comparable to the standard drug Loperamide at the dose of 50 mg kg-1 of body weight. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine and its further investigation.
  D. Kamal , A.N. Khan , M.A. Rahman and F. Ahamed
  Biochemical composition of seven small indigenous fresh water fishes namely Magur (Clarias batrachus), Shingi (Heteropneustes fossilis), Koi (Anabas testudineus), Foli (Notopterus notopterus), Royna (Nandas nandas), Taki (Channa punctatus) and Tangra (Mystus vittatus) from the Mouri river Khulna, Bangladesh was studied in order to evaluate their nutritional values. The mean value of protein, fat, moisture and ash content was found as 14.87±0.63, 7.90±1.91, 73.49±0.69 and 3.74±0.46% in C. batrachus; 17.34±0.51, 3.45±0.92, 76.06±2.24 and 3.15±0.25% in H. fossilis; 19.63±0.5, 7.79±2.73, 69.27±1.04 and 3.31±0.83% in A. testudineus; 18.30±0.79, 4.98±1.71, 72.68±1.08 and 5.82±0.82% in N. notopterus; 16.09±2.66, 7.34±0.49, 75.75±0.78 and 5.19±.029% in N. nandas; 19.13±2.40, 4.55±1.18, 70.55±1.89 and 6.81±0.94% in C. punctatus and 15.62±0.32, 7.53±1.10, 73.99±3.13 and 6.50±0.63% in M. vittatus. Considering the result of the present study, it can be concluded that all the species are rich in food value.
  D. Kamal , A.N. Khan , M.A. Rahman and F. Ahamed
  Water sample were collected from six different point of the Mouri River Khulna, Bangladesh with a regular intervals in the months of January-March 2002 for the analyzing different physicochemical parameters of the water. Total 22 different physicochemical parameters were investigated. Correlation and the t value among the parameters were also determined. In the present investigation the minimum and maximum value of water temperature, Transparency, Turbidity, TSS, TDS, Electric Conductivity, water pH, dissolve oxygen, free Carbon dioxide, Alkalinity, Acidity, Hardness, BOD, COD, Sulphate, Phosphate, Nitrite, Sodium, Calcium, Potassium, Manganese and Iron were noted as 21.6 and 32.2°C; 15 and 66 cm; 16 and 22 NTU; 74 and 125 mg L-1; 255 and 305 mg L-1; 159 and 275 μS cm-1; 1.10 mg L-1 8.18 mg L-1; 7.5 and 8.3; 1.1 and 8.3 mg L-1; 27.5 and 35.5 mg L-1; 350 and 610 mg L-1; 32.4 and 171 mg L-1; 310 and 529 mg L-1; 13 and 31 mg L-1; 290 and 365 mg L-1; 42046 and 57.35 mg L-1; 4.89 and 11.46 mg L-1; 0.54 and 1.82 mg L-1; 16.8 and 33.9 mg L-1; 1.5 and 6.9 mg L-1; 49 and 94 mg L-1; 31 and 59 mg L-1; 2.6 and 3.8 mg L-1, respectively. River water did not show any significant pollution during the present study. During the study period dissolved oxygen show direct relation with water temperature but inverse with BOD and COD.
  Md. Kalim Uddin , K.M. Khalequzzaman , M.A. Rahman , M.M. Begum and M. Zibon Nessa
  Seven different fertilizer combinations on cropping system basis were studied to develop a fertilizer package for mustard-boro rice-transplant aman rice cropping system. Significantly higher grain yield of mustard, boro rice and transplant aman rice were obtained when the recommended rate of fertilizer was applied. When P or K was not applied in boro rice after full NPKS application in the preceding mustard, gave similar yield to when received its recommended dose but when P or K was not applied for two consecutive boro (spring rice) and transplant aman rice (monsoon rice) it significantly reduced the transplant aman rice yield indicating that P or K had residual effect up to one succeeding crop. On the other hand, transplant aman need an extra application of both P and K fertilizer. Sulfur had a residual effect up to two succeeding crops if applied in full dose along with NPK in the preceding mustard. After application of full recommended dose of NPKS in the preceding mustard, a reduced (50%) dose of P + K along with a full N in the succeeding boro and transplant aman rice gave a similar yield to when recommended NPKS or NPK was used. To maintain soil fertility and to sustain crop yield this fertilizer practice may be considered as a good alternative compared to recommended fertilizer dose.
  M.A. Rahman , T.H. Ansari , M.B. Meah and Tetsushi Yoshida
  Guava anthracnose was found more prevalent during the main season (April-September) than in off-season (November-February). Pestalotiopsis psidii, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae were established as causal organisms of guava anthracnose. On potato dextrose agar medium, the growth of P. psidii was observed to be too slow as against the very quick growth of B. theobromae. All the pathogens grew well at 28 and 300C except only the P. psidii at 300C. No varieties were found resistant against all three pathogens tested but local variety I, II and IV proved resistant only against Pestalotiopsis psidii both in vitro and in situ. The Pear shaped fruits had less susceptibility than elliptical round fruits. Local varieties were less susceptible than commercial ones. In inoculated condition, variety kanchannagar showed less susceptibility in comparison with the variety sarupkati and kazipayara. Immature fruits of local variety showed decline in ascorbic acid content when diseased.
  M.A. Rahman , M.D. Hossain , M.S. Islam , D.K. Biswas and M. Ahiduzzaman
  Genetic variability, heritability and path coefficient analysis were studied in 24 genotypes of snake gourd. The genotypic coefficient of variation was high for fruit yield, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, stem length and flesh thickness. High to moderate heritability as well as genetic advances were estimated in fruit yield, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, stem length, flesh thickness and average fruit weight. Correlation studies revealed that fruit yield had significant positive correlation with number of fruits per plant, fruit length and stem length. The highest direct positive effect were recorded for number of fruits per plant. For selecting high yielding genotypes emphasis should be given on number of fruits per plant, stem length, fruit length and average fruit weight.
  M.A. Rahman , N. Islam , A. Islam , M.K. Hassan and M.M.R. Talukder
  A field experiment was conducted at the Regional Agricultural Research Station of Barisal, Bangladesh during the Kharif season of the year 2000 to find the optimum fertilizer rate for summer mungbean cv. Barimung-4 in an attempt to maximize the yield potential. In this regard, various combinations of NPK fertilizers and Rhizobium inoculation (N20P40K20 kg ha–1, P40K20 kg ha–1, N20K20 kg ha–1, N20P40 kg ha–1, N20 kg ha–1, Rhizobium + P40K20 kg ha–1, Rhizobium, and control) were imposed to the experimental plots. Results revealed that Barimung-4 produced the maximum seed (1270.21 kg ha–1) and straw yields (2434.36 kg ha–1) when the crop was fertilized with N20P40K20 kg ha–1 followed by Rhizobium + P40K20 kg ha–1 (1220.30 and 2406.14 kg ha–1, respectively. The lowest seed and straw yields were obtained from the control (887.01 and 1864.68 kg ha–1, respectively). Different plant characteristics such as plant height, branches/plant, pods/plant, pod length, seeds/pod, 1000-seed weight and harvest index increased significantly due to the application of various combinations of NPK fertilizers and Rhizobium inoculation over the control.
  M.A. Rahman , M.A.I. Khan , S.M. Jobair Hossain , M. S. Hossain , M.A. Hossain and S.S. Haque
  The chromosomes were identified individually and standard karyotype of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Oxheart was formulated. Roots were collected from germinating seeds and were pre-treated in a saturated aqueous solution of monobromonaphthalene. After iron-alum mordanting, standard hematoxylin method was followed. 2n = 24 chromosomes were found. Karyotype analysis was carried out following a quantitative method using scatter diagram technique. Only two chromosomes were identified individually and the rest were morphologically characterized. One of the two identified chromosomes had mean total length 3.1μ and mean arm ratio 1.3 whereas, the other one had mean total length 2.5μ and mean arm ratio 2.0. The length of the prometaphase chromosomes ranged from 1.3 to 3.1μ. The karyotype of the studied tomato genotype consists of 8 metacentric and 4 sub-metacentric chromosomes. One pair of satellited chromosomes was also observed.
  M.A. Rahman , M.A. Rashid , M.M. Hossain , M.A. Salam and A.S.M.H. Masum
  Resistant rootstock of six Solanum species and 21 cultivated eggplant varieties were identified against bacterial wilt and the graft compatibility of eggplant varieties was studied with wild Solanum rootstocks. Solanum torvum and Solanum sisymbriifolium showed resistance against bacterial wilt. Most of the cultivated varieties showed susceptibility against bacterial wilt. Three cultivated eggplant varieties viz. sufala, singnath and uttara were grafted on Solanum torvum and Solanum sisymbriifolium. The highest grafting success was 95% in case of Solanum torvum x sufala and the lowest 85% in Solanum sisymbriifolium x singnath. The success of grafting was not affected significantly due to the effect of scion and rootstocks. The grafted plants showed resistance against the disease while the scion plants showed susceptibility in the sick beds. The grafted plants also showed resistance reaction against the disease in the field conditions. The fruit maturity was delayed due to grafting but grafting at least 15 days prolonged the harvesting period. The grafted plants also out yielded the scion plants. The grafting combination Solanum torvum x sufala gave the highest yield compared with other grafting combinations and non-grafted plants.
  M.A. Rahman , M. Shahjalal , M. Al-Mamun and K.M. S. Islam
  The effect of different sources of nitrogen supplementation on growth and reproductive performance of female goats and sheep under grazing condition. In addition to grazing, goats were allocated at random to three approximately iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic supplemental diets. Average daily dry matter intake and live weight gain did not differ significantly both in goats and sheep received various sources of dietary N supplementation. The digestibility of all proximate components and nutritive value of supplemental diets was similar in goats and sheep. The results of the present studies showed that supplemental diets containing either soybean meal or till oil cake increased the growth rate of female goats and sheep. Therefore, feeding of goats and sheep with supplemental diet may be suggested under grazing condition.
  M.M. Begum , M. Sariah , M.A. Zainal Abidin , A.B. Puteh and M.A. Rahman
  Histopathological studies on natural infections by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. glycines in soybean seeds were conducted using Light Microscopy (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Asymptomatic (healthy) seeds were found free from pathogens. Infected seeds were slightly irregular in shape and appeared whitish moldy. The fungus mycelia colonized the external surface and inner tissues of the seed coat, but not in cotyledon or in embryo. Upper surfaces of seeds showed profuse colonization by mycelia and seed coat tissues became ruptured and distorted in the severely infected seeds. Vigorous mycelial growth was found in the hourglass layer of the seed coat. Effect of artificial inoculation on soybean seed germination and seedling survivability under glasshouse conditions was also studies. F. oxysporum f. sp. glycines reduced seed germination and seedling survivability by 40% and caused pre-emergence damping off of seedlings. Trichoderma harzianum isolate UPM40 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate UPM13B8 were most effective candidates in inhibiting the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. glycines in vitro.
  K. Apun , K.L. Kho , Y.L. Chong , F.H. Hashimatul , M.T. Abdullah , M.A. Rahman , M.B. Lesley and L. Samuel
  This study was carried out to assess the occurrence of Escherichia coli and to detect the pathogenic strain Escherichia coli O157:H7 in birds, bats and rodents from disturbed habitats comprising of two urban forests and an oil palm plantation habitats located along the Rejang Basin, Sibu in the state of Sarawak, using both standard microbiological and molecular techniques. A total of 105 bird hosts, 44 of rodent hosts and 84 bat hosts represented 48 species of birds, one species of rodent and ten species of bats were screened for the presence of Escherichia coli. The representative isolates were cultured on a highly selective agar, Cefaxime-tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. From the microbiological analysis, the overall occurrences of Escherichia coli in the hosts were 43% in rodents, 18% in birds and 11% in bats. The isolates were tested for the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain by multiplex PCR method targeting the slt-I, slt-II, rfbE and fliCH7 genes. The slt-I, slt-II, rfbE genes were not detected in any of the E. coli isolates. This study indicated that bats, birds, or rodents from these habitats in Sarawak did not serve as an important reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and thus were of no risk in the epidemiologic cycle of emerging enteric bacterial zoonoses in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia.
 
 
 
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