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Articles by M.A. Ghaffar
Total Records ( 5 ) for M.A. Ghaffar
  Z.C. Cob , A. Arshad , J.S. Bujang , W.L.W. Muda and M.A. Ghaffar
  Strombus canarium is a commercially important gastropod that has great potential for advancement into aquaculture. In this study, the metamorphosis response of Strombus canarium larvae to various metamorphosis cues associated with conch nursery habitat and to KCl and GABA, were tested. Bioassays were run as static, no choice experiment and adopting a continuous exposure approach. Strombus canarium larvae showed strong metamorphosis responses when sediment (i.e., conch nursery habitat sediment/SD-NU) and detrital substrata (i.e., Thalassia detritus leachate/T-LC) from their nursery habitat were used (p<0.05). There was no metamorphosis in treatments using sterilized conch nursery habitat sediment (SD-ST) and sediment taken from outside conch nursery habitat (SD-OT). Experiments using fresh macrophyte blades of Enhalus acoroides (EA), Thalassia hemprichii (TH), Halophila ovalis (HA) and Ulva (UL) and adult conditioned seawater (SD-SW) also showed negative respond. Conch larvae demonstrate active habitat selection during metamorphosis and no spontaneous metamorphosis was observed. Settlement in S. canarium is associative in nature where epibionts associated with conch nursery habitat could be the cue for the metamorphosis. However, the specific epibionts/inducers and mechanisms underlining the process were not studied and therefore are subjected to more detailed investigation. The use of KCl was comparable with treatments using natural inducers (SD-NU and T-LC), thus was suggested for application in hatchery spat production of the species.
  Z.C. Cob , A. Arshad , J.S. Bujang and M.A. Ghaffar
  The age, growth, mortality and population structure of Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 were examined in the Johor Straits, Malaysia from January to December 2005. A total of 2088 conchs were sampled where females were more abundant than males with monthly sex ratio of 1.72±0.17 (N = 12). The estimated growth parameter showed higher asymptotic length (L) and growth coefficient (K) in females (L = 70.20 mm, K = 1.50 year-1) compared with the males (L = 69.30 mm, K = 1.20 year-1). This resulted in better overall growth performance of females (φ’ = 3.81) compared with the males (φ’ = 3.48). The growth pattern of females and males showed positive allometric nature of growth (b>3, p<0.05), with estimated maximum life span of 2.0 and 2.5 year, respectively. The recruitment pattern was continuous, displaying only a single major peak event per year. The estimated natural mortality rate (M) was 0.95 year-1 in females and 0.86 year-1 in males, while the total mortality rate (Z) was 2.56 and 2.72 year-1, respectively. The fishing mortality rate (F) was 1.61 year-1 in females and 1.86 year-1 in males, which were higher than the natural mortality rates, thus indicating an unbalanced position of the stock. In addition, the exploitation rate (E) was higher than the maximum allowable limit of exploitation (EMSY), which was a further indication of overexploitation. For sustainable utilization of the resource, serious efforts should immediately be taken in reducing the exploitation rates of S. canarium in the study area.
  A. Arshad , S.M. Nurul Amin , G.T. Yu , S.Y. Oh , J.S. Bujang and M.A. Ghaffar
  The population structure, length-weight and length-length relationships of Acetes vulgaris were examined based on 1141 specimens collected in the months of June and July 2006 from Pontian, Johor Bahru. The morphological characteristics of A. vulgaris were examined and the result was found to be similar when compared with the previous research. Mean length of males was 23.18 ± 2.95 mm while for females was 23.91 ± 3.53 mm. The range of total length for the males and females was 14.00-33.00 and 13.00-32.00 mm, respectively. The relationship between the total length and body weight of A. vulgaris was W = 0.0178L2.6368 (r2 = 0.829) for males and W = 0.0082L2.9144 (r2 = 0.902) for females. The carapace length and total length, relationship for males and females were CL = 4.1844TL + 2.3983 (r2 = 0.732) and CL = 4.0872TL + 1.8879 (r2 = 0.732), respectively. The sex ratio of female to male was found to be at 1: 3.27 with the number of males exceeded that of the females.
  A.S. Sarimin , M.A. Ghaffar and C.A.R. Mohamed
  A study on elemental composition in the otolith of giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, was done from June to October 2003. Specimens were obtained from the mangrove areas of Kuala Selangor, Sepang and Melaka in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 70 sagitta otoliths were analyzed to detect variation of Sr, Ba and Mg, replacing the natural chemical composition of the otolith, which is the calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The average ratio of Sr:Ca was 0.11x10-4, Ba:Ca was 5.7x10-3 and Mg:Ca was 0.2x10-3. Strong correlation (R>0.8) between fish body size and otolith weight of mudskipper (p<0.01) also found during this study.
  Z.C. Cob , A. Arshad , J.S. Bujang and M.A. Ghaffar
  This study was conducted to analyze variation in Strombus canarium larvae development, growth and survivals when cultured during wet (main reproductive period) and dry seasons. Larvae were reared at 200 larvae L-1 in filtered seawater (0.22 μm) and fed with Isochrysis galbana at 1000 cells mL-1 ad libitum. The culture environment was maintained at 29 ± 1°C, salinity of 30 ± 1 PSU and photoperiod of 12:12 light dark cycle. Growth of the larvae was described on a length-at-age basis using the modified Gompertz regression. There was high correlation in shell length-at-age relationship for both wet season (R2 = 0.99) and dry season (R2 = 0.98) culture experiments. The maximal growth rate (M) and survival rate (S) were higher for larvae cultured during wet season (M = 62.44 μm day-1, S = 14.36 ± 2.31%), compared with dry season (M = 43.05 μm day-1, S = 5 ± 1.15%). The maximal attainable larval size (a) was however lower during wet season (950.19 ± 66.93 μm shell length) compared with dry season (1343.05 ± 586.51 μm shell length), which might be due to significantly low larvae density in the latter. Further studies are needed to investigate variation in bio-chemical composition of the egg mass, which was suggested as the main reason for the differences.
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