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Articles by M.A. Elwakil
Total Records ( 6 ) for M.A. Elwakil
  M.A. Elwakil , I.M. El-Refai , O.A. Awadallah , M.A. El-Metwally and M.S. Mohammed
  This study was undertaken to study the seed-borne fungi of faba bean that attack the plants and reduce their yield in Egypt. The results provide a database for further study to control the pathogens. Twenty-six seed samples representing six faba bean cultivars collected from different parts of Egypt were used in this investigation. The blotter and deep-freezing methods were used. Surface- and non-surface-sterilized faba bean seeds were tested to detect and isolate the associated seed-borne fungi. The following 20 fungal species belonging to 13 genera were observed and identified: Aspergillus flavus (Link ex. Gray), Aspergillus niger (Van Tieghem), Aspergillus ochraceus (Wilhelm), Penicillium digitatum (Pers.:Fr.) Sacc., Penicillium italicum (Wehmer), Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Botrytis faba (Sardina), Cephalosporium sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides (Frensen. de Vries), Epicoccum nigrum (Link), Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechlendahl), Fusarium semitectum (Berkeley and Ravenel), Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Fusarium verticillioides (moniliforme) (Sheld), Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn), Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehr. ex Fr.), Stemphylium globuliferum (Vestergr.) E.G. Simmons), Trichothecium roseum (Pers.) Link, Verticillium dahliae (Ehrenp) Vuill. The blotter method yielded a greater number of fungi than the deep-freezing method on both surface and non-surface sterilized seeds, but the deep-freezing method was better for slow-growing fungi. The pathogenicity test revealed that the most commonly isolated fungi from pre- and post-emergence damping-off and stunted seedlings were F. verticillioides, R. solani, Cephalosporium sp. and V. dahliae. These fungi significantly reduced the photosynthetic pigments in faba bean leaves. Fusarium verticillioides caused the greatest reduction in chlorophyll content (A, B and total chlorophyll). Fusarium oxysporum and V. dahliae significantly reduced carotenoid content. R. solani significantly reduced total phenols content when compared with the other tested fungi.
  M.A. Elwakil , O.A. Awadallah , I.M. El-Refai , M.A. El-Metwally and M.S. Mohammed
  Present objective was to study this phenomenon on the common seed-borne fungi of faba bean in soil amended with composted organic wastes and infested with the most commonly isolated fungi from Vicia faba seed. In vitro studies showed that the yeast was effective in reducing the linear growth of Cephalosporium sp., F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum,. F. solani, R. solani and V. dahliae. Pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Cephalosporium sp., F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum, F. solani, R. solani and V. dahliae was reduced significantly when seeds of faba bean were coated with a water suspension (109 cfu mL-1) of the yeast before sowing in soil supplemented with compost type (1) (prepared by Mansoura manufacturer with organic waste from city garbage) or type (2) (consisted of 1 ton of horticultural waste and 100 kg sheep manure). Soil was artificially infested with the fungi isolated from faba bean seeds. The above treatment significantly increased plant growth parameters including height, shoot and root length, number of branches/plant, number of pods/plant, pod weight/plant, fresh weight and dry weight. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B and carotenoids) were also increased by the treatments. Total phenols content in the treated plant leaves was higher than in the control plants.
  K.M. Ghoneem , M.A. Elwakil and A. El-Sadek Ismail
  Routine seed health inspection of anise seeds showed Puccinia pimpinellae to be a commonally observed fungus on seed samples collected from different locations and the commercial markets of Egypt. Symptoms were shown as black discolorations on seeds. Masses of uredio- and teliospores of the fungus were visually seen. In some samples, a seed washing technique was essential to inspect for the presence of the fungal spores. This is the first report of Puccinia pimpinellae as a seed-borne pathogen of anise in Egypt.
  M.A. Elwakil , Z.A. Baka , Hoda M. Soliman and Marwa S. Sadek
  Both biological control and the use of antioxidants represent a modern tactic to induce disease resistance in plants against several pathogens especially when applied together. In the present study, cucumber plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum were inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and /or seed presoaked in antioxidant GAWDA® formulation at concentration of (3 g L-1) for 12 h before sawing in infested soil with the fungus. Results revealed significant increases in growth parameters, levels of mycorrhizal colonization, content of the photosynthetic pigments. The results suggested that the combined treatment of antioxidant GAWDA®+AM may be used as a tactic to enhance plant resistances against Fusarium oxysporum, improve plant growth and increase the phenolic compounds in the vegetative growth of cucumber.
  M.A. Elwakil , M.A. El- Metwally , Elsherbiny A. Elsherbiny and K.N.M. Eisa
  The current methods for controlling root rot and wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum, F. solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina, the most destructive fungi on cucumber are not yet rely. Salicylic Acid (SA), tartaric acid, GAWDA® formulation, compost, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma viride and Gliocladium virens were used in this investigation as promising methods for controlling such diseases. Results illustrated that soaking seeds in the antioxidants for 12 h before sowing followed by coating them with a combination of Trichoderma and compost, significantly reduced the disease incidence. It was also found that the triple combination of salicylic acid at 4 mM, T. harzianum and compost (2 t/fed) showed to be an intelligent tactic to enhance the resistance of cucumber plants against the root rot and wilt diseases. Moreover, this approach significantly promoted both yield and quality of the fruits.
  M.A. Elwakil , M.A. El-Metwally and S.I. Abd Elhamid
  Background and Objective: Soybeans are a globally important crop consumed by both man and animal. Worldwide production in 2019/2020 was 358 million metric t. The current research aimed at testing the possible correlation between treating seeds and plants of soybean with antioxidants and retreading the disease severity that occurred by the pathogenic fungi. Materials and Methods: Soybean seeds collected from different locations in Egypt were used to isolate seed-borne plant pathogenic fungi. Antioxidants were selected for further testing that produced the greatest growth reduction of target fungi from in vitro tests. Effective antioxidants were then applied as seed treatments (soaks) and sprays to soybean plants in field tests. Plant growth parameters and seed yield and quality were then recorded. An analysis of variance was performed on the collected data using CoStat 6.311. Means were compared using Least Significant Difference (LSD) according to Duncan. Results: Soaking seeds in salicylic acid (3 g L–1), citric acid (6 g L–1), benzoic acid (6 g L–1) and a combination of these before planting, followed by two plant spray applications at the same concentrations reduced disease incidence and increased yield by 48%. Conclusion: The results showed a strong correlation between use of antioxidants and decreased disease incidence and resulted in increased yields. This research suggests the potential for benefits using antioxidants as seed treatments and plant sprays to control soybean diseases resulting in increased yields of high quality seeds.
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