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Articles by M.A. El-Metwally
Total Records ( 18 ) for M.A. El-Metwally
  M.E. Tarabih , E.E. EL-Eryan and M.A. EL-Metwally
  Exogenous application of silicon (Si) in the form of potassium silicate at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) were investigated for maintaining quality and control disease development caused by Penicillium expansum on Anna apple fruits stored 60 days at 0°C±1 with 90-95% R.H (Experiment 1) and held for 6 days at room temperature conditions at 28°C±2 with 65-70% R.H (Experiment 2). It was noticed that the reduction in linear growth and dry weight were positively correlated to the increase in potassium silicate concentrations. So, potassium silicate at 0.3% treatment indicated complete inhibition of the linear growth and dry weight of P. expansum. The disease infection decreased as storage period advanced at cold storage and under marketing conditions. The lowest significant values of disease infection percentage of P. expansum were recorded by dipping fruit at potassium silicate at 0.3% after 60 days of cold storage and 6 days at marketing in the two seasons. Generally, significant changes were observed in potassium silicate at 0.3% which reduced the loss of weight, decay, total loss, respiration rate and PPO activity with respect to the other treatments or the control. Meanwhile, potassium silicate at 0.2% gave a higher fruit firmness. In addition, all silicon treatments reduced SSC, acidity, SSC/acid ratio and total sugar compare to the untreated fruits. The values of hue angle increased with the progress of potassium silicate concentration. These results show that potassium silicate can be used to delay ripening, keep quality and control disease development caused by P. expansum on apple fruits.
  M.E. Tarabih and M.A. El-Metwally
  This study intended to revise the effect of postharvest dipping in boric acid and/or jojoba oil alone on quality of Washington Navel orange fruits through marketing period at 18°C. The experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 seasons. Results showed that all dipping treatments of orange increased fruit quality when compared with the control. Boric acid (1.0%)+jojoba oil (0.1%) treatment gave maximum reduction in linear growth and dry weight of Penicillium digitatum and P. itelicum, as well as disease infection (0.0%) caused by both fungi in the two seasons. The same treatment decreased weight losses percentage, fruit decay, total losses in fruit, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid oxidase. On the other hand, increased soluble solids, SSC/acid ratio, ascorbic acid content, peel thickness and juice percent. The recommendation of this study, the combination treatment of boric acid (1.0%) plus Jojoba oil (0.1%) was the most effective treatment in decreasing disease infection percentage of the tested pathogenic fungi as well as weight losses, fruit decay, total loses in fruit, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid oxidase. However, increasing the quality of fruits was reported by such treatment.
  I.A.A. Abou Ayana , A.A. Gamal El Deen and M.A. El-Metwally
  Pesticides can pose risks and technological problems of dairy products if used improperly or frequently. The present work aims to investigate the effect of two fungicides (Anadol and Tasolen), herbicides (Round up and Saturn) and insecticides (Lannate and Reldan) commonly used in Egypt on certain lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus H, Lactobacillus acidophilus (Type 145), Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium spp. 420) and their impact on acid, acetaldehyde and diacetyl production by yogurt and ABT cultures. The concentrations of pesticides (1-10 ppm) were added to selective media immediately before inoculation with tested bacteria, incubated then colonies of bacteria were counted. The Pesticides were added to inoculated skim milk with tested bacteria then incubated, acidity development was determined. Yoghurt and ABT yoghurt were made in the presence of previous pesticides concentrations, acid, acetaldehyde and diacetyl production were estimated. The two insecticides caused the greatest harmful effect on acid production of most strains and acid, acetaldehyde and diacetyl production in yoghurt and ABT yoghurt followed by herbicides then fungicides, the effect of 2 ppm concentration on acetaldehyde, diacetyl and acid production was negligible reverse (8 and 10 ppm) concentrations. Nevertheless, L. acidophilus was more resistant to Anadol. While, Bifidobacterium spp. 420 was the most sensitive for Anadol and Tasolen. However, L. bulgaricus was the most resistant to Tasolen. St. theromophilus was the most sensitive for herbicides unlike L. acidophilus. L. bulgaricus surpassed other bacteria in tolerance insecticides, on the contrary, Bifidobacteria spp. exhibited excessive sensitive toward insecticides.
  I.A.A. Abou Ayana , A.A. Gamal El-Deen , K.M.K. Ayyad and M.A. El-Metwally
  The fungi play an important role in cheese manufacture such as Penicillium roqueforti nevertheless subsequent development of filamentous fungi occurs during cheese ripening on its surface, this accompanied with production of some bad flavors and tastes, as well as some mycotoxins. In this study, 125 samples of cheeses were collected to determination of fungi and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The results indicated that percentages of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ocnrecious and Aspergillus oryzae were 18.6, 12.4, 8.6 and 5.3%, respectively. Rhizopus spp., Penicillium spp., Mucor spp., trichoderma spp. and Fusarium moniliforme recorded 22.1, 16.8, 11.5, 2.4 and 0.5%, respectively. Aged Ras cheese was the highest contamination with AFB1 (from 8.3a to 19.5a ppb) average 13.9a ppb, fresh Domiate cheese recorded the lowest contamination with toxin with average 0.95f ppb. A. flavus produced the highest quantity of AFB1 in broth medium for 2 months unlike Penicillium spp. was the lowest Production of toxin (0.6c ppb). Counts of fungi and AFB1 production affected by tested anti-fungi, Ascorbic acid and Broken Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells after Freezing (BSCAF) were stronger set but Salicylic acid and Citric acid were the weaker set anti-fungi in this point. Aspergillus flavus was the greatest resistant to Salicylic acid.
  Abeer A. Ali , K.M. Ghoneem , M.A. El-Metwally and K.M. Abd El-Hai
  Root rot caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks lupine plants. Isolation trials from diseased plants in some areas of Dakahlia Province (Egypt) was carried out. Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani proved to be the most dominant isolates. Meanwhile, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii were less frequent. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors vis: chitosan (CHI), salicylic acid (SA) and hydroquinone (HQ) in comparing to the fungicide Rhizolex T-50 as seed treatments showed significant reduction in the fungal growth in vitro. Chitosan at 8 g L-1 and fungicide completely inhibited the growth of all isolated fungi, while SA at 1.4 g L-1 and HQ at 1.2 g L-1 inhibited the growth of Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, respectively. The greenhouse experiments showed that S. rolfesii (No. 6) and R. solani (No. 2) followed by F. solani (No. 5) and F. oxysporum (No. 9) were the most aggressive root rot fungi. Soaking susceptible lupine seeds (Giza 1) in each one of the three selected elicitors showed a significant reduction in seedlings mortality. CHI at 8 g L-1 was superior in increasing the percentage of healthy plants to record 72.5, 80.9, 62.7and 64.3%, when seeds were grown in soil infested with of F. solani, F. oxysporum, R. solani and S. rolfesii, respectively. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i.e., Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow Research Stations. CHI 8 g L-1 proved to be the best elicitor after fungicide, in reducing lupine root rot disease. It showed 41 and 60% reduction in the plants mortality comparing to 56.37 and 69.13% in case of Rhizolex-T in Tag El-Ezz and El-Serow locations, respectively. The treatments were accompanied with a significant increase in lupine growth parameters, yield components and physiological aspects. Application of CHI at 8 g L-1 or HQ at 1.2 g L-1 was the most potent in this respect as compared to check treatment.
  M.T. Sakr and M.A. El-Metwally
  Two field experiments were carried out during the two growing seasons (2005/2006; 2006/2007) to investigate the role of some plant antioxidant materials such as ascorbic acid, glutathione, α-tocopherol and spermine in alleviating the harmful effects caused by soil salt levels (3840 and 6080 mg L-1) on wheat plant. The grains were pre-soaked then the plants sprayed with any of antioxidants used. Moreover, the data showed that 6080 mg L-1 soil salt level alone or in combination with any of applied antioxidants increased the activity of total peroxidase, ascorbic peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in wheat leaves. In addition, salinity level (6080 mg L-1) alone or in combination with any of applied antioxidants increased the endogenous contents of ascorbic acid and glutathione and total phenols but decreased carotenoids. It could be concluded that salt soil stress depressed all of growth parameters and yield components. The data also revealed that the different antioxidants could partially alleviate the harmful effect of salinity stress which reflected on growth and yield of wheat plant.
  A.M. Kazamel , R.M.E. Gamel , S.A. Haroun , A.M. Bader and M.A. El-Metwally
  Background and Objective: Seed-dressing or coating substances play a role to control underground pests, having ability to kill seed and seedling diseases, promote seedling healthy growth, improve the crop quality and seed germination rate. Materials and Methods: This investigation was carried out in order to study protein banding pattern, antioxidant enzymes activity, leaves ultrastructure in maize and wheat coating with fungicides, hattrick (6%) and premis (25%), respectively during three vegetation stages. Results: The protein profile of maize and wheat showed the appearance of 6, 4, 23 and 21 monomorphic bands at the 2nd and 3rd stage, respectively. Catalase and peroxidase activities of treated plants were increased. In ultrastructure measurement treatment caused decrease or increase in the measured parameters, with appearance of starch grains in treated maize and disappearance in treated wheat. The soil properties and soil microflora showed marked differences in response to the used treatments. Conclusion: From results we can concluded that dressing maize and wheat grains with the prospective dose of hattrick and premis, respectively enhance growth and the response was more pronounced in maize plants.
  M.A. Elwakil , I.M. El-Refai , O.A. Awadallah , M.A. El-Metwally and M.S. Mohammed
  This study was undertaken to study the seed-borne fungi of faba bean that attack the plants and reduce their yield in Egypt. The results provide a database for further study to control the pathogens. Twenty-six seed samples representing six faba bean cultivars collected from different parts of Egypt were used in this investigation. The blotter and deep-freezing methods were used. Surface- and non-surface-sterilized faba bean seeds were tested to detect and isolate the associated seed-borne fungi. The following 20 fungal species belonging to 13 genera were observed and identified: Aspergillus flavus (Link ex. Gray), Aspergillus niger (Van Tieghem), Aspergillus ochraceus (Wilhelm), Penicillium digitatum (Pers.:Fr.) Sacc., Penicillium italicum (Wehmer), Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Botrytis faba (Sardina), Cephalosporium sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides (Frensen. de Vries), Epicoccum nigrum (Link), Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechlendahl), Fusarium semitectum (Berkeley and Ravenel), Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Fusarium verticillioides (moniliforme) (Sheld), Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn), Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehr. ex Fr.), Stemphylium globuliferum (Vestergr.) E.G. Simmons), Trichothecium roseum (Pers.) Link, Verticillium dahliae (Ehrenp) Vuill. The blotter method yielded a greater number of fungi than the deep-freezing method on both surface and non-surface sterilized seeds, but the deep-freezing method was better for slow-growing fungi. The pathogenicity test revealed that the most commonly isolated fungi from pre- and post-emergence damping-off and stunted seedlings were F. verticillioides, R. solani, Cephalosporium sp. and V. dahliae. These fungi significantly reduced the photosynthetic pigments in faba bean leaves. Fusarium verticillioides caused the greatest reduction in chlorophyll content (A, B and total chlorophyll). Fusarium oxysporum and V. dahliae significantly reduced carotenoid content. R. solani significantly reduced total phenols content when compared with the other tested fungi.
  K.M. Abd El-Hai , M.A. El-Metwally , S.M. El-Baz and A.M. Zeid
  Seed soaking method or foliar spray of antioxidants (citric acid and salicylic acid at 10 mM) and microelements (manganese and zinc at 2 g L-1) were tested to control of the damping-off and charcoal rot diseases of sunflower (varieties Sakha 53 and Giza 102). Field treatments in two different localities i.e., Tag El-Ezz, Dakahlia province and El-Serow, Damietta province were carried out. The high frequency isolated fungi (M. phaseolina and R. solani) presented in Tag El-Ezz location. On the other hand, M. phaseolina was isolated at a high frequency compared with R. solani in both locations. Sakha 53 was highly susceptible compered with Giza 102 when artificially infected with both M. phaseolina and R. solani. Laboratory results showed that salicylic acid alone or in combination with citric acid completely inhibited the linear growth of both pathogens i.e., M. phasoliana and R. solani in vitro. A positive correlation between the concentrations of Rizolex-T 50 and its effect on the fungal growth were recorded. The dose of 3 g L-1 prevented the growth of R. solani linear growth in vitro. The greenhouse results revealed that Giza 102 variety was highly susceptible to the infection by R. solani. M. phasoliana showed severe symptoms in both sunflower varieties. On contrary, Giza 102 variety was tolerant to damping-off and charcoal rot diseases than Sakha 53 under field conditions. The application of Rizolex-T 50 followed by citric acid showed a highest percentage of healthy plants followed by the combination of citric acid and salicylic acid. The application of manganese combined with zinc was more effective than the microelements alone. All treatments of antioxidants and microelements significantly reduced the incidence of charcoal rot disease. On the other hand, no significant differences between Rizolex-T 50 and salicylic acid treatments was shown. Sakha 53 variety gave the highest values of plant height and number of leaves plant-1 while Giza 102 recorded the highest values of stem diameter and flower head diameter. The application of citric acid combined with salicylic acid maximized the plant height followed by the mixture of manganese and zinc. Manganese treatment followed by the mixture of citric acid and salicylic acid then zinc were the most effective in increasing the number of leaves plant-1. While, Rizolex-T 50 had no significant effect on plant height and number of leaves plant-1. Microelements were more effective than antioxidants on enhancing the stem and flower head diameters. The combination between manganese and zinc followed by Rizolex-T 50 recorded the maximum values of the stem and flower head diameters. Giza 102 variety recorded the highest values of 100 seeds weight, total phenols, photosynthetic pigments and the percentage of seed oil when the above applications were carried out. Sakha 53 variety showed the highest plant yield under the above treatment. The mixtures of citric and salicylic acids were highly effective in increasing plant yield. The highest values of photosynthetic pigments were shown in salicylic acid treatment followed by Rizolex-T 50. Total phenols content was highest due to Rizolex-T 50 application followed by salicylic acid. Except zinc, seed oil concentration increased significantly in both antioxidants and microelements treatments on oil concentration.
  M.A. Elwakil , O.A. Awadallah , I.M. El-Refai , M.A. El-Metwally and M.S. Mohammed
  Present objective was to study this phenomenon on the common seed-borne fungi of faba bean in soil amended with composted organic wastes and infested with the most commonly isolated fungi from Vicia faba seed. In vitro studies showed that the yeast was effective in reducing the linear growth of Cephalosporium sp., F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum,. F. solani, R. solani and V. dahliae. Pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by Cephalosporium sp., F. verticillioides, F. oxysporum, F. solani, R. solani and V. dahliae was reduced significantly when seeds of faba bean were coated with a water suspension (109 cfu mL-1) of the yeast before sowing in soil supplemented with compost type (1) (prepared by Mansoura manufacturer with organic waste from city garbage) or type (2) (consisted of 1 ton of horticultural waste and 100 kg sheep manure). Soil was artificially infested with the fungi isolated from faba bean seeds. The above treatment significantly increased plant growth parameters including height, shoot and root length, number of branches/plant, number of pods/plant, pod weight/plant, fresh weight and dry weight. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B and carotenoids) were also increased by the treatments. Total phenols content in the treated plant leaves was higher than in the control plants.
  M.A. El-Metwally and M.T. Sakr
  Two field experiments were carried out to investigate the role of Spermine (SP) as seed soaking and/or foliar application of K and/or Zn in reducing the harmful effects of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina and damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani as well as improving the productivity of sunflower plant in calcareous-saline soil. From five tested locations of Maryout region, Egypt, M. phaseolina and R. solani were isolated from infected plants. Both fungi were pathogenic and cause typical symptoms of damping-off. Macrophomina phaseolina showed to be highly virulent fungus. It gave the highest values of pre- and post-emergence damping-off compared with R. solani. Application of SP+Zn+K increased germination percentage and reduced damping-off by both fungi under greenhouse conditions. Under greenhouse and field conditions, all treatments of SP and/or K and/or Zn significantly reduced the incidence of damping-off disease compared with control treatment. Presoaking of seeds in SP and foliar spraying of K and/or Zn increased most of growth parameters, yield and its components and oil content of seeds, as well as the contents of K, Ca, P and Zn and K/Na ratio, whereas decreased Na concentration. All treatments significantly increased the activity of total peroxidase, ascorbic peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes in plants, in addition to the improvements in the content of chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, caroteinoids and total phenols compared with control plants in both seasons. Therefore, application of SP+Zn+K could be recommended to alleviate the harmful effects of damping-off and charcoal rot diseases in calcareous-saline soil by enhancing the tolerance of sunflower plant to these adverse conditions.
  K.M. Abd El-Hai , M.A. El-Metwally and S.M. El-Baz
  The causal pathogens of root rot and stalk rot of soybean were isolated from infected plants. Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani were the main causal pathogens of pre- and post-emergence damping-off. The isolated fungi especially R. solani caused anatomically deformation in the basal portion of infected stem including complete disruption in epidermal cells and degradation of primary cell wall in cortical cells. The growth substances; Ethrel, Indole Butyric acid (IBA) and Cycocel (CCC) were tested in vitro on the growth of the pathogenic fungi. Ethrel at 200 ppm was the most effective in reducing fungal growth. During two successive growing seasons (2008 and 2009) of soybean under different salinity stress (1000 to 3000 ppm), the application of growth substances led to significant reduction in pre- and post-emergence damping-off as well as root and stalk rot diseases. Ethrel, CCC and IBA increased significantly branches number plant-1, photosynthetic pigments, total phenol, proline content, yield and seed quality (oil and protein %). Ethrel and CCC at 200 ppm were the best treatments. Soaking soybean seed in Ethrel, CCC or IBA at 200 ppm is recommended to be incorporated into the production program of soybean to decrease root and stalk rots and increase productivity and seed quality under salt stress conditions.
  M.A. El-Metwally , Kh.M. Ghanem and K.M. Abd El-Hai
  There is an urgent need to improve faba bean yield since this plant remains an important part of the human diet. So, experiments have been designed to determine the effect of some bio-compounds on faba bean growth, chemical composition and chocolate spot disease. In vitro, results revealed that Bio Zeid and Bio ARC completely inhibited the linear growth, mycelia dry weight and sporulation of Botrytis fabae. Plant oils (cumin, cornation, garlic and rocket oils) completely inhibited the sporulation only. In vivo, results (2007/2008 and 2008/2009 seasons) confirmed the positive return of the tested compounds in which, the highest increase in fresh weight was recorded with Bio ARC, while in dry weight the highest increase was recorded with rocket oil. Plant height, number of branches, pods/plant and seeds/pod increased significantly with Acadian-C plant. The weight of 100 seeds reached to the maximum with aminogreen. In addition to the general improvements in N, P, K, Zn, Fe and Mn content. Total chlorophyll reached to the maximum values when using Bio Zeid, Bio ARC, Acadian-C plant and rocket oil. Bio ARC, Bio Zeid and garlic oil revealed the most superior positive effect among other additions on total phenolic compounds. Bio ARC and Bio Zeid led to maximum reduction of chocolate spot disease severity. Bio-, organic and natural additives were found to be most effective in increasing growth, chemical composition and yield parameters of faba bean and decrease the disease severity of chocolate spot disease.
  M.A. EL-Metwally , M.E. Tarabih and E.E. EL-Eryan
  The effect of application β-Aminobutyric Acid (BABA) on Crimson Seedless grape vine was studied in 2012 and 2013 seasons, as an alternative to traditional chemical compounds that are harmful to the environment to control the pre and postharvest diseases. The vines were sprayed with three levels of BABA (200, 250, 300 ppm) two weeks before harvest. The linear growth and dry weight of Botrytis cinerea isolated from Crimson Seedless grape were greatly influenced by the increase in BABA concentration up to 300 ppm. In both seasons, prolonging the marketing stage resulted in decreased in disease infection with the increase in concentrations, at 300 ppm concentration, BABA gave the maximum reduction in disease infection caused by Botrytis cinerea, in addition to the improvement of fruit quality at harvest and during cold storage (for 60 days at 0±1°C with 90-95% RH), as well as 3 days marketing period at room temperature. Clusters treated with 300 ppm BABA developed less decay shatter and total loss. Moreover, it was more effective in rising SSC, titratable acidity, total sugar and anthocyanin accumulation in the skin of berry during cold storage conditions and marketing period compared with the other treatments. While, BABA 250 ppm showed high berry firmness and adherence strength.
  K.M. Abd El-Hai , M.A. El-Metwally and Naglaa T. Mohamed
  Isolation of pathogenic fungi from both cultivars of diseased lupine was carried out in five districts of Dakahlia governorate. The high frequency isolated fungi presented in Temi El-Amdeed followed by Bani-Ebeed district. Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum proved to be the most dominate isolated followed by Rhizoctonia solani . In greenhouse, Giza 1 was high susceptible cultivar for infected with root rot pathogenic fungi. Sclerotium rolfsii followed by R. solani then F. solani were the most aggressive damping-off disease. In the field experiment, Giza 2 cultivar was the best in germination% and more tolerant of damping-off than Giza 1. The application of Rhizolex-T50 followed by H2O2 at low concentrate (0.50 mM) showed a highest percentage of germination within lowest percentage of damping-off. With considerable that, no significant differences between Rhizolex-T50 and low concentrate of H2O2. The high photosynthetic pigments and phenolic content were obtained from the application of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) at moderate concentrate (15 mM) in both cultivars. Giza 2 gave the highest values in these parameters. Soaking both cultivars of lupine seeds in both tested materials increased significantly growth parameter, yield components and seed quality. The moderate concentration of ASA (15 mM) was the most effective followed by the low concentration of H2O2 (0.50 mM). The data suggested that the application of H2O2 at 0.50 mM and ASA at 15 mM as seed soaking could be considered as fungicide alternatives for controlling lupine root rot disease as well as improve growth and productivity.
  M.E. Tarabih and M.A. EL-Metwally
  Background and Objective: Flame seedless is the earliest ripening red seedless cultivar of table grapes cultivated in the Egyptian vineyards for both exportation and local market. This cultivar has the ability of exporting and marketing, but appears to be very susceptible fungal infection during postharvest handling. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of Aloe vera and grapefruit seed extracts (GSE extracts to control decay formation caused by grey mould (Botrytis cinerea), in vitro and in vivo during cold storage to enhancement the storability of flame seedless grape. Materials and Methods: For this, bunches of flame seedless grape were sprayed with aloe vera and grapefruit seed extracts before harvest. In addition to control gray mold and improvement fruit quality after harvest and during cold storage for 40 days at 0°C±1 with 90-95% R.H. Results: The results indicated that all natural extracts have demonstrated good results for inhibiting the growth of pathogens over untreated. Similarly, all extracts reduced physiological loss in weight, decay, berry shatter and rachis browning. All the extracts were able to retain postharvest quality of berries without any adverse effect on quality parameters such as TSS, total acidity and total sugar percentage. Overall, the uses of aloe vera and GSE are 2 promising examples of treatments that are beginning to be adopted on a commercial scale. Conclusion: Thus, it is evident from this study that, combination of aloe vera at 250 mL L1 and grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) at 0.1% have the potential to control gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea without causing any injury or harmful effects on bunches. Organic extracts of aloe vera and grapefruit seed can be recommended as a safe method for maintaining berry quality as anthocyanin, pectin methyl esterase (PME) and total phenol and extending storage life at the same time.
  E.E. Eleryan and M.A. EL-Metwally
  Background and Objectives: Grapefruit cv. Star Ruby has the ability of exporting and marketing but appears to be very susceptible fungal infection during post-harvest. This study was carried out in order to reduce pathogenic fungi resistant by using biological control to be fungicide alternatives. Materials and Methods: For this, Star Ruby grapefruit were coated with pomegranate peel extracts (PPE) and gelatin after harvest during 2017 and 2018 seasons to control post-harvest diseases and improvement fruit storability during cold storage for 45 days at 8°C±1 with 90-95% RH. Results: Our results indicate that all natural extracts have demonstrated good results for inhibiting the growth of pathogens over untreated. Similarly, all extracts reduced physiological loss in weight, decay inhibit the decay fungi and supply a long protection to treated fruits during storage and handling processes. All the extracts were able to retain post-harvest quality of fruits without any adverse effect on quality parameters such as; TSS, total acidity and total sugar (%). Overall, the uses of pomegranate peel extracts (PPE) and gelatin extracts are two promising examples of treatments that are beginning to be adopted on a commercial scale. Conclusion: Thus, it is evident that, combination of pomegranate peel extracts (PPE) and gelatin can be recommended as a safe method for maintaining fruit quality, control post-harvest diseases and extending storage life at the same time.
  M.A. Elwakil , M.A. El-Metwally and S.I. Abd Elhamid
  Background and Objective: Soybeans are a globally important crop consumed by both man and animal. Worldwide production in 2019/2020 was 358 million metric t. The current research aimed at testing the possible correlation between treating seeds and plants of soybean with antioxidants and retreading the disease severity that occurred by the pathogenic fungi. Materials and Methods: Soybean seeds collected from different locations in Egypt were used to isolate seed-borne plant pathogenic fungi. Antioxidants were selected for further testing that produced the greatest growth reduction of target fungi from in vitro tests. Effective antioxidants were then applied as seed treatments (soaks) and sprays to soybean plants in field tests. Plant growth parameters and seed yield and quality were then recorded. An analysis of variance was performed on the collected data using CoStat 6.311. Means were compared using Least Significant Difference (LSD) according to Duncan. Results: Soaking seeds in salicylic acid (3 g L–1), citric acid (6 g L–1), benzoic acid (6 g L–1) and a combination of these before planting, followed by two plant spray applications at the same concentrations reduced disease incidence and increased yield by 48%. Conclusion: The results showed a strong correlation between use of antioxidants and decreased disease incidence and resulted in increased yields. This research suggests the potential for benefits using antioxidants as seed treatments and plant sprays to control soybean diseases resulting in increased yields of high quality seeds.
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