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Articles by M.A. Brown
Total Records ( 4 ) for M.A. Brown
  X. Yu , X.X. Huang , W.J. Liu , Y. Fang , L. Shi , W.T. Xing , C.W. Tang and M.A. Brown
  The genetic variability and genetic relationship of the fifteen sheep breeds were studied. The genotypes of 14 indigenous Chinese sheep breeds and one crossbreed of wild sheep were investigated using 13 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG) through PCR. The allele frequency, heterozygosity and Genetic Differentiation Index (Fst) were computed to estimate the genetic variation of each population. To determine the genetic relationships among the breeds, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on Nei’s genetic distance using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and neighbor-joining method. A total of 15 breeds were clustered into three groups. The first group included Altay sheep and Duolang sheep, the second group was very large and complicated, the third group was a Kazark sheep. The thirteen microsatellite loci were effective markers for the analysis of genetic relationship among sheep breeds. In addition, genetic distance among groups is not according with their geographic distribution and groups or breeds with low production performance can easily impacted by breeds with better production performance. As for the results, it may be result from applying on artificial insemination and extension of commercial cross breeding technique in sheep production system recent years in China.
  L. Yang , L.P. Zhang , J.P. Wu , M.A. Brown , B. Liu , B.Y. Ma and L. Wang
  Metallothionein-III (MT-III) as a new member of the Metallothionein (MT) family has specific physiological effects different from known MT-I and MT-II. In this study, the yak MT-III gene coding region was amplified and cloned by RT-PCR from brain tissue of yak using YMT-IIISP1 and YMT-IIISP2 as specific primers. The isolated cDNA sequence of MT-III was 207 bp in length (Genbank Accession, NO, DQ323545) and was subjected to BLASTn searching in NCBI. Results of the search indicate that nucleotide sequences of yak share 98, 97, 96, 92, 91, 90, 89, 88 and 86% sequence similarity with cattle, milk goat, hair goat, pig, sheep, chimpanzee, human, dog and house mouse, respectively. Comparing homologies of MT-III sequences with MT-I and MT-II in yak, we found 69 and 67% homologies, respectively. The MT-III protein was composed of 68 amino acids, including 19 cysteines, similar to the number of cysteines of sheep but not human and mouse which lack the conserved ninth cysteine and have no aromatic amino acids. There were conserved motifs of MTs, such as C-X-C, C-C-X-C-C, C-X-X-C and KKS and specific motifs including MDPE, CPCP in MT-III. This conservation of motifs suggests a conservation of MT-III in molecular evolution. The MT-III in yak had no signal peptide and represented a form of cytoplasmic protein similar to MT-I/II. There were few sheets in secondary protein structures, obvious helices in 39-46th AA and mainly irregular curling in the 2D-structure of MT-III protein. The lack of the conserved ninth cysteine in yak MT-III merits further research.
  H.L. Wan , L.P. Zhang , M.A. Brown , X.J. Wu , J.H. Wang , L. Yang , Z. Deng and J.P. Wu
  Meat from yak (Bos grunniens) is a primary staple in diets of people in western China. Yak meat has low-fat content, high protein and good amino acid and fatty acid profiles. However, meat from yak may be less tender than meat from Bos taurus cattle. Gannan Black yaks (n = 181) were used to investigate the effects of age at harvest and aging days on meat quality characteristics of M. longissimus dorsi. Yaks were harvested at 2, 3 and 4 year of age and muscles of each yak carcass were aged for 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 or 21 days at 4°C and frozen at -20°C until analyzed. Age at harvest affected shear force and percentage fat, protein and moisture (p<0.05). Aging days affected shear force, retort cooking loss, pressing loss, moist cooking loss, pH, percentage fat, moisture (p<0.01) and protein (p<0.10). There were interactions between aging days and age at harvest for shear force, moisture and protein (p<0.01). Aging days appeared to have a greater effect on shear force than age at harvest and tended to moderate the age at harvest effect on shear force. When cooked in retortable bags, cooking loss decreased until 3 days postmortem after which it remained relatively constant. When steam cooked, meat aged 7 days had the lowest cooking loss (p<0.05). Pressing loss decreased until 3 days postmortem then remained relatively constant. After thawing, pH decreased during the 21 days period of postmortem aging with the greatest decline in the first 24 h (6.68-5.73 from 2-24 h postmortem). Results suggest that aging yak meat 7 days is sufficient for acceptable tenderness and meat quality.
  E.L. Walker , S.A. Nusz , D.H. Keisler and M.A. Brown
  Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a high quality, abundant warm-season grass grown in temperate regions of the United States. While research data exists to support protein supplementation of steers grazing bermudagrass pastures, no such data exists for management of lambs and meat goat kids. The objective was to evaluate growth response of lambs and meat goat kids grazing bermudagrass with or without access to a commercial 21% CP protein tub (PT vs. NPT). Two trials were conducted in El Reno, Oklahoma, starting in June and ending in August in 2007 and 2008. In 2007 and 2008, respectively 29 and 54 meat goat kids (90±5 days of age) and 68 and 62 lambs of wool and hair breeds (and reciprocal crosses; 100±5 days of age) were utilized. Animals were stratified by weight, breed and gender and randomly assigned to 1.2 ha of common bermudagrass pasture with (n = 2) or without (n = 2) access to a commercial 21% CP protein tub. Growth of animals was assessed by change in body weights and serum concentrations of leptin every 2 weeks during grazing periods of 71 days for 2007 and 56 days for 2008. Sheep had greater ADG than goats (p<0.05) and breeds of sheep differed in ADG (p≤0.05). Ad libitum protein supplementation tubs had no effect on ADG or serum leptin of either lambs or kids grazing bermudagrass. These data do not support the need for protein supplementation of lambs and meat goat kids grazing bermudagrass.
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