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Articles by M.A. Arain
Total Records ( 4 ) for M.A. Arain
  Muhammad Tahir Abbas , Muhammad Arif , Muhammad Saeed , M. Reyad-ul-ferdous , Muhammad Adeel Hassan , M.A. Arain and Abdur Rehman
  A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of fat emulsifier on fat utilization in broiler chickens using 240 days old chicks which were divided into 24 replicates in a 3×2 factorial arrangement under Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Experimental diets were formulated using 1, 2 or 3% fat with or without fat emulsifier (Lecithin) at 350 mg kg–1. The trial lasted for 35 days and was divided into starter and finisher phases. Statistical analysis of the data collected during the trial revealed that feed intake was not affected (p>0.05) by fat and fat emulsifier. Increasing fat levels resulted in a linear decrease (p<0.05) in starter weight gain but it didn’t affect (p>0.05) finisher and overall weight gain. Fat emulsifier affected (p<0.05) finisher, final and overall weight gain but starter weight gain remained unaffected (p>0.05). Starter Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) increased (p<0.05) with increasing fat levels but finisher and overall FCR remained unaltered (p>0.05). Fat emulsifier didn’t affect (p>0.05) starter FCR but finisher FCR was improved with fat emulsifier supplementation (p<0.05). Dietary fat didn’t affect (p>0.05) Dry Matter (DM) and Ether Extract (EE) digestibility but fat emulsifier significantly improved (p<0.05) DM and EE digestibility. The carcass composition study results revealed that fat emulsifier affected (p<0.05) the heart weight and linearly increasing fat levels resulted in a linear decrease (p<0.05) in gizzard weight. The combination of fat and fat emulsifier affected (p<0.05) finisher FCR, finisher weight gain, DM digestibility and EE digestibility. This investigation reveals that dietary fat should be avoided in starter diets and supplementation of fat emulsifier in broiler diets may improve DM and EE digestibility.
  M. Khaskheli , A. Jamali , M.A. Arain , A.H. Nizamani , A.H. Soomro and H.H. Arain
  Study was conducted to evaluate the chemical and sensory quality of indigenous milk-based product "Rabri". Samples were purchased from randomly selected Sweet/Dairy shops (25) situated at different areas at Hyderabad city and Latifabad. A total of 50 Rabri samples, two from each Sweet/Dairy shop were purchased and brought to the laboratory of Dairy Technology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam for achieving the objectives of present study. The concentration of different components of Rabri varied greatly sample to sample. The percentage of moisture content ranged between 24.33 and 38.85%, fat 16.23 and 22.55%, protein 9.94 and 12.01%, lactose/sucrose 27.08 and 43.72% and ash 2.09 and 2.84%. Overall mean values were observed as 31.76±0.96%, 19.42±0.33%, 10.74±0.10%, 35.82±0.99% and 2.43±0.03% for moisture, fat, protein, lactose/sucrose and ash, respectively. Energy values of Rabri varied between 315.59 and 400.15 Kcal/100g with an overall mean of 361.05±4.73 Kcal/100g. Sensory quality of Rabri was within the acceptable range. Score rated by panel of Judges averaged 3.21±0.08 from the score of 5 for appearance, 5.43±0.17 from 10 for aeroma, 18.87±0.28 from 30 for taste/flavour, 18.68±0.29 from 30 for body/texture, 5.49±0.15 from 10 for overall sweetness and 5.29±0.27 from 10 for overall acceptability.
  M. Khaskheli , R.S. Malik , M.A. Arain , A.H. Soomro and H.H. Arain
  The present study was conducted to evaluate the extent of β - lactam antibiotics residues in unprocessed market milk during the year 2006. Milk samples were randomly collected from Hyderabad city, Latifabad and Qasimabad. Microbial screening test (Bacillus subtilus Field Disc Assay) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods were used to detect, identify and quantify the β-lactam residues in milk. A total of 137 milk samples were screened. Among these 63.50% were negative and 36.50% positive for β - lactam antibiotics residues. The zones size of positive samples appeared between 5.0 and 15.0mm (mean 8.91 ± 0.36mm). Residues level quantified between 0.4 to 400 µg/L for Penicillin G, between 1.0 to 190µg/L for Amoxicillin, between 0.5 to 141µg/L for Ampicillin and between 2.1 to 122µg/L (40.74 ± 10.59µg/L) for unknown antibiotics. The residues of Penicillin G (mean 59.53µg/L) in unprocessed milk was 14.9 and 11.9 fold, Amoxicillin (mean 36.11µg/L) 9.03 and 3.61 fold, Ampicillin (mean 46.91µg/L) 11.73 and 4.69 fold higher than (MRL`s) standards of EU (4µg/L) and FDA (5 and 10µg/L), respectively.
  H.H. Arain , M. Khaskheli , M.A. Arain , A.H. Soomro and A.H. Nizamani
  Study was carried out to evaluate the heat stability and quality characteristics of buffalo colostrum during its transition to normal milk. A total of 140 postpartum milk samples of 20 buffaloes (in seven postpartum milking) were collected to observe the heat stability at boiling temperature during transition period. Gradual change (coagulation/precipitation) was observed up to sixth postpartum milking when heated at boiling temperature. The heat stability of first postpartum milk was < 5.5 min and gradually increased in consequent milking i.e. second (< 8.75min), third (< 15 min), fourth (< 20.25), fifth (< 24 min) and sixth (< 30min). No coagulation/precipitation was occurred in 7th postpartum milk heated for 1h at boiling temperature. Average acidity, specific gravity and viscosity of first postpartum milk was 0.39 ± 0.01%, 1.061 ± 0.001 and 6.80 ±0.05cP, respectively and significantly declined to 0.26 ± 0.004%, 1.037 ± 0.0002 and 1.64 ± 0.01cP, respectively in sixth postpartum milk. Average pH value of colostrum was 6.30 and significantly inclined to 6.46 in sixth postpartum milk. TS, SNF, total protein, casein, ash and chloride contents of colostrum averaged 28.52 ± 0.33%, 23.08 ± 0.31%, 18.75 ± 0.30%, 5.06 ± 0.31%, 1.64 ± 0.04% and 0.20 ± 0.01%, respectively and significantly declined to 17.63 ± 0.18%, 11.75 ± 0.16%, 6.90 ± 0.12%, 4.16 ± 0.10%, 0.89 ± 0.004% and 0.121 ± 0.002%, respectively in sixth postpartum milk. Fat and lactose content of colostrum after initiation of lactation were 5.41 ± 0.21% and 2.70 ± 0.05%, which significantly increased to 5.88 ±0.95% and 3.97 ± 0.08%, respectively in sixth postpartum milk.
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