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Articles by M.A. Al-Harthi
Total Records ( 3 ) for M.A. Al-Harthi
  M.A. Al-Harthi
  The objective of this study was to improve the nutritive value of mangrof leaves meal in order to increase its allowance in layer diets. The meal was subjected to boiling in an attempt to improve its nutritive value. The study also included testing the effect of supplementing the experimental diets containing the mangrove meal (boiled or raw) with Natugrain or a mixture of spices on laying performance and biological responses associated with egg production. Four hundred and fifty 30- week old Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to 15 groups each contained 5 replicates of 6 hens under the same environmental conditions throughout the period of 20 wks. Dietary treatments included 3 levels of either raw or boiled mangrof leaves meal (0, 5 and 10%) for 30 minutes. Each group was received one of these diets and with or without Natugrain and/or spices mixture. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and iso-nitrogenous. Laying performance, quality of fresh and stored eggs (stored for one month in the refrigerators), intestinal characteristics, chemical composition of eggs and cholesterol contents of yolk as well as some blood plasma constituents were determined. Results obtained showed that mangrof leaves meal contains reasonable amount of the essential nutrients which play an important role in layers nutrition. Boiling process had an enhanced effect on the nutritive value by converting the deleterious materials to less toxic form. Mangrof leaves meal at level of 5% had no adverse effect on body weight gains of Hy-line hens during the laying period. However, increasing dietary Mangrof leaves to 10% adversely reduced weight gain by 19.7% compared to control group. Irrespective of Mangrof meal and feed additives, boiling treatment had no effect on weight gain of laying hens during 30-49 wk of age. Also, regardless of mangrove meal and boiling treatment, only Natugrain® increased weight gain by 24 and 9.6% compared to the negative control and spices supplemented group, respectively. Increasing inclusion level of mangrof leaves meal up to 10% significantly decreased laying rate percentage and egg mass during most of the experimental periods. Also, boiling or adding the feed additives did not stop this reduction. Irrespective of boiling treatment and feed additives, Mangrof leaves meal had no significant impact on egg weight during 30- 49 wk of age. Neither inclusion levels of the tested material nor boiling process nor Natugrain and spices supplementation had an enhancing effect on feed intake. Consequently, feed conversion was the worst as feeding diets containing un-boiled or boiled mangrof meal at level 10%. The impairment in FCR amount to 10.7% compared to control group. The opposite was true with feed additives supplementation which showed an enhanced effect. Increasing dietary mangrof leaves meal up to 10% significantly improved Haugh unit score, yolk color and shell thickness of fresh eggs and those stored for 30 days in the refrigerator, whilst there is different trend with yolk index. Boiling treatment and feed additives supplementation had no significant effect on egg quality traits. Also, mangrof meal levels, boiling process and feed additives had no adverse effect on chemical composition of egg components and plasma constituents. There were no significant interactions between Mangrof meal and boiling treatment and / or feed additives on rate of laying, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and feed conversion. However, there is a trend for rate of laying, egg mass and feed conversion to improve when Natugrain® or mixture of different spices were added to diet containing 10% of boiled Mangrof leaves. Also, similar finding was observed with the parameters of fresh egg quality of 41 or 49 wk-old hens and those stored in the refrigerators as well as those of intestinal characteristics and reproductive organs. 7-There was a significant effect as feeding boiled Mangrof leave meal-containing diet on plasma albumin, total lipids and yolk protein. Yolk lipid showed an opposite trend to that shown in yolk protein. In general, it may be recommended to incorporate mangrof leaves meal at level 5% as a non-traditional ingredient in laying hen diets without adverse effect on their performance in order to get higher economic return as well as to control excessive body fat deposition and to improve productive and reproductive performance.
  A.A. El-Deek and M.A. Al-Harthi
  The effect of feeding different dietary levels of Dried Whole Eggs (DWE) processed by various ways during 14-20 wk of age on the performance of pullets up to 25 wk of age was investigated. Eggs that are not approved for human consumption were collected and then were dried at 55oC. DWE were processed by freezing at -18oC, freezing with boiling and autoclaving at 121oC. It was included in the pullet diets at 2.5 and 5%. There was also, a control diet that was fed without DWE. Thus, the experimental design was factorial (2 x 3) with added a control group (0% DWE). Each diet was fed to three replicates of 8 pullets each. Pullet's performance, egg production and quality traits and absolute and relative weight of reproductive organs was studied. Growth of pullets up to 25 wk of age was not significantly affected by various processing techniques, however, age at 50% production significantly decreased due to autoclaving compared with freezing with boiling technique. Level of 5% DWE increased growth of pullets up to 20 wk of age and this effect diminished at 25 wk of age. Laying rate, egg weight, egg mass and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were significantly improved due to feeding DWE processed by freezing with boiling compared to the other methods and this was obvious within each DWE level. Age at 50% production significantly decreased and egg production traits significantly improved due to inclusion of 5% DWE. Egg quality traits of fresh eggs were not significantly affected by DWE level and/or technique of processing. However, freezing technique maintained better Haugh unit score and freezing with boiling maintained better yolk index after stored for one month in the refrigeration. On the other hand, 2.5% DWE maintained shell thickness and Haugh unit score of eggs stored for one month in the refrigeration. Absolute and relative weight of organs were significantly affected by processing methods and/or DWE levels and 5% DWE significantly increased absolute and relative weight of blood, intestinal length and leg color while significantly decreased absolute and relative weight of liver and absolute weight of intestinal. In conclusion, up to 5% frozen with boiled DWE can be included in the pullet's diets during 14-20 wk of age without adverse effect on pullet's performance and egg production and quality traits up to 25 wk of age.
  M.A. Al-Harthi , A.A. El-Deek and Y.A. Attia
  Rejected eggs were collected and dried at 55oC. Thereafter, Dried Whole Eggs (DWE) were processed by different methods e.g. freezing for 48 h at -18oC, freezing with boiling for 15 min at 100oC or autoclaving for 20 min at 120oC with a pressure of 1 kg/cm2. The DWE processed by different methods were fed to broiler chickens during 3-41 d of age at 0, 3.5 and 7.0%. Diets were fed without or with Growth Promoting Mixture (GPM) containing probiotic 0.5 g, Vit C 0.5, black pepper 0.5 g, red pepper 0.5 g/kg diet), thus there were fourteen experimental treatments. Growth was not affected by level of DWE and/or processing way, while GPM significantly increased growth. Feed intake significantly increased by autoclaving, whilst inclusion of DWE at either level significantly decreased feed intake and there was a significant interaction between DWE level and processing method for feed intake. DWE at either 3.5 or 7% significantly improved FCR similarly. Moreover, GPM supplementation improved Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) within each level. Supplementation of GPM significantly increased absolute and relative weight of bursa, while the opposite trend was shown in thymus parameters. Abdominal fat, plasma total protein, albumin significantly decreased although plasma total lipids significantly increased due to GPM supplementation. Abdominal fat significantly decreased, and plasma total lipids significantly increased due to autoclaving, whilst freezing with boiling increased plasma cholesterol. Heart and pancreas significantly increased, however skin colour significantly decreased due to inclusion of frozen with boiled DWE. Increasing DWE level resulted in significant linear increase in heart and pancreas, whilst skin colour significantly decreased due to 3.5% DWE and GPM supplementation. Plasma cholesterol exhibited a significant linear increase with increasing DWE level.
 
 
 
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