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Articles by M.A. Samad
Total Records ( 9 ) for M.A. Samad
  M.T. Islam and M.A. Samad
  The Participatory Livestock Development Project (PLDP) has been implemented in Bangladesh for the alleviation of poverty through livestock production, employment, income generation and intake of nutrition in rural people. The management and disease problems with cost-benefit analysis of the layer chick rearer package programme of the PLDP have been evaluated in randomly selected 10 layer chick rearing units (n=3100 chicks) from day-old chicks up to 60 days to marketing of Muktagacha areas in the district of Mymensingh during the period from August to December 2002. It appears from the results of this study that 12.87% chicks died within 60 days of age inspite of chick reared in intensive management system and provided vaccines against common infectious diseases. The diagnosed diseases associated with mortality of chicks included infectious bursal disease (37.6%), coccidiosis (13.28%), chronic respiratory disease (13.28%) and other conditions (35.84%). The highest mortality rate (37.6%) in layer chicks, caused by infectious bursal disease (IBD), which were double vaccinated with Nobilis® Gumboro D-78 vaccines (Intervet) that indicates vaccination failure against IBD which deserve further investigation. Cost-benefit analysis of the outcome of the 10 layer chick rearing units varied, and it was found loss in one unit (-3.17%) and the highest profit of 45.66% with an average profit of 27.33%. However, profit was recorded in all the layer chick rearing units except one unit due to outbreak of IBD which could be due to vaccination failure. Therefore, it may be concluded from the results of this study that the ‘layer chick rearer package programme` could be economically prospective for the alleviation of poverty of rural people if the major infectious diseases of poultry are controlled in Bangladesh.
  M.A. Islam , M.A. Samad and M.B. Rahman
  The alum precipitated formalin killed fowl cholera vaccines (FCV) are locally produced from the Livestock Research Institute (LRI), Mohakhali, Dhaka and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh which are being used to control fowl cholera in chickens and ducks in Bangladesh. Efficacy of these two vaccines has been evaluated mostly in chickens but reports on ducks are very limited. Four weeks old 50 Jinding breed of ducks were used to evaluate the efficacy and immune responses of fowl cholera vaccines during the period from October 2002 to March 2003. These 50 ducks were divided into three groups (A = 20, B = 20 & C = 10 ducks) and each duck of group A was inoculated with FCV (LRI) @ 0.5 ml subcutaneously at the age of 8 weeks, and each duck of group B received FCV (BAU) @ 1.0 ml intramuscularly at the age of 12 weeks as manufacturer instruction, whereas ducks of group C served as unvaccinated control. Each duck of group A and B was also injected booster dose after two weeks of primary vaccination with their respective FCV. Each duck of all the three groups (A, B and C) was challenged after two weeks of post-booster vaccination with 1.0 ml inoculum containing 5.4x106 CFU of virulent Pasteurella multocida intramuscularly. The results of challenged experiment revealed that one (5.0%) duck of group A, two (10.0%) ducks of group B died within 2 to 3 days of post-challenged, whereas 10 (100%) unvaccinated control ducks of group C died within 1 to 3 days of post-challenged. Therefore, the FCV® (LRI) conferred protection to 95% and FCV (BAU) conferred protection to 90% of vaccinated birds against challenged infection after two weeks of booster vaccination. The mean values of Total leukocytic count (TLC), Total serum protein (TSP) and Passive haemagglutination assay (PHA) antibody titre of ducks in both the groups A and B were found significantly (p < 0.01) increased at two weeks of post-primary and two weeks of post-booster vaccination, and also two weeks of post-challenged infection in comparison to the respective pre-vaccination values. These results indicate that the FCV of LRI induced comparatively higher TLC, TSP and PHA antibody titre than FCV of BAU in ducks. These results showed that the locally prepared fowl cholera vaccines induced sufficient cellular and humoral immune responses which resulted satisfactory level of protection against duck cholera and therefore both the locally prepared FCV could be recommended to control duck cholera under filed conditions in Bangladesh.
  M.A. Islam , M.A. Samad , M.B. Rahman , M.T. Hossain and S. Akter
  The duck plague vaccine (DPV) is locally produced from the Livestock Research Institute (LRI), Mohakhali, Dhaka which is used to control the duck plague viral disease in ducks in Bangladesh. Efficacy of this vaccine reports has no, so to say on ducks in Bangladesh. Three weeks old 50 Khaki Cambell Ducks were used to evaluate the induced of immune responses of duck plague vaccine during the period from February to April 2003. These 50 ducks were divided into three groups (A = 15, B = 15 and C = 5 ducks) and each duck of group A and group B were inoculated primarily with duck plague vaccine @ 1.0 ml. intramuscularly at the age of 4 weeks and whereas ducks of group C served as unvaccinated control. Then each duck of group A was also injected booster dose after 2 weeks of primary vaccination with same vaccine, dose and route. The mean value of TLC, TSP and PHA antibody titre of ducks of group A was found significantly (p < 0.1) increased at two weeks and four weeks of post-primary vaccination and two weeks and four weeks of post-booster vaccination in comparison to the pre-vaccination values. The mean value of TLC, TSP and PHA titre of ducks of group B was also found significantly increased (p < 0.1) at two, four, six and eight weeks of post-primary vaccination in comparison to the pre-vaccination values. These results indicate that booster vaccination of duck plague vaccine induced comparatively higher TLC, TSP and PHA antibody titre than single primary vaccination in ducks. The mean value of TLC, TSP and PHA in unvaccinated control group C was more or less nearer at the age of four weeks and 12 weeks in ducks. These results showed that the locally prepared duck plague vaccine induced sufficient both cellular and humoral immune responses with booster-vaccination than primary vaccination in ducks. Therefore, it could be recommended to booster dose of vaccination of duck plague vaccine to control duck plague under field condition in Bangladesh.
  M.Y.A. Pramanik , M.A.R. Sarkar , M.A. Islam and M.A. Samad
  An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during the period from May to November 1998 to investigate the effect of green manures and different levels of nitrogen on the yield and yield components of transplant aman rice (cv. BRRI Dhan32). The experiment comprised of 3 green manuring crops viz., Sesbania rostrata, Sesbania aculeata and Crotalaria juncea and 5 levels of N viz., 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1. Among the green manuring crops Sesbania rostrata produced the highest grain yield of transplant aman rice compared to other green manuring crops. The highest grain yield was obtained when the crop was fertilized with 40 kg N ha-1 in combination with Sesbania rostrata. Sesbania aculeata exhibited similar behaviour as that of Sesbania rostrata but Crotalaria juncea showed lower performance in respect of yield and yield components of transplant aman rice. Sesbania rostrata also showed the best performance in respect of plant height, total number of tillers hill-1, number of effective tillers hill-1, number of grains panicle-1, weight of 1000 grains and straw yield compared to other green manures.
  M. Nasimul Gani , A.K.M. Maqsudul Alam , M. Rahman , Shafi Iqbal , M.A. Samad , M. Asaduzzaman , Isidore Gomes and Rebeca Gomes
  The study was conducted to estimate the chemical and physico-mechanical characteristics (quality of fibre) of jute fibre, the popular variety of O-9897 was grown with the application of water hyacinth, chemical fertilizer in soil and control under proper agricultural management. The water hyacinth responded comparatively better in enhancing the fibre quality than chemical fertilizer. Lower chemical constitutes the non-cellulosic portion (lignin and hemicellulose) in fibre indicates good quality, which found with water hyacinth. The percentage of lignin and hemicellulose in fibre with water hyacinth 12 and 20% with chemical fertilizer 13 and 21% and with control 13.6 and 21.20% respectively. The enriched physico-mechanical properties obtained with water hyacinth over the chemical fertilizer and control. The lower values of fineness (35φ) and higher values of whiteness (22.3%), bundle strength (7.61 lbs/mg), tensile strength (80.30 lbs/mg) and breaking tenacity (39.50 lbs/mg) ascertain the high quality of fibre found with water hyacinth. And the values found in fibre with chemical fertilizer, fineness-36.50φ, whiteness 21%, bundle strength-6.99 lbs/mg, tensile strength-78.98 lbs/mg and breaking tenacity- 39 lbs/mg. Thereby the study showed that chemical and physico-mechanical properties of fibre increased with water hyacinth. Study also indicates that the sole chemical fertilizer application in soil may not be possible to maintain the quality of fibre, it may be need an integration of organic matter and chemical fertilizer application in soil to enrich the fibre quality.
  D. Dutta , M.A.R. Sarkar , M.A. Samad and S.K. Paul
  The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of row arrangement and nitrogen level on the yield and yield components of transplant aman rice (cv. BRRI dhan 32). The highest plant height at harvest, number of total tillers hill -1, number of effective tillers hill -1 number of non bearing tillers hill -1, grains panicle -1 and total spikelets panicle -1 were obtained in single row arrangement followed by double, triple and haphazard row system. The maximum grain and straw yield were obtained in double row arrangement. The highest number of effective tillers hill -1, grains panicle -1 and grain yield were found where the crop was fertilized with 120 kg N ha -1. These results were statistically identical when 60 and 90 kg N ha -1 were applied. So, cultivation of transplant aman rice (cv. BRRI Dhan 32) in double row arrangement appeared to be beneficial practice and fertilization with 60 kg N ha -1 was more economic in respect of grain yield.
  M.S.U. Khan , M.M. Rahman , M.A. Samad , M. M. Khatun and M.H. Rahman
  The study was carried out to determine the efficacy of neem oil and common salt as curing agent to control biodegradation of green hides. A total number of nine intact hides were obtained from slaughtered cattle of 4 and 4 1/2 years of age. Three types of curing treatments were employed using various concentrations of neem oil and common salts. T1 provides 40% neem oil and 10% common salt, T2 includes 10% neem oil and 20% common salt and T3 contains 10% neem oil and 10% common salt. The hides of each treatment were kept at 10, 20 and 30 days storage periods. After every 10 days of storage hides were subjected to bacteriological examinations. Storage properties of hides were also determined by the evidence of spot, color changes and sliminess of the skin. The mean value of total bacterial count was recorded lowest 6.96±0.30 in T2. Total coliform counts were found almost nil in T2. None of the treatment was found effective to control the growth of staphylococci. No signs of bacterial spoilage in hides were evident in T1 upto 10 days of storage. However indication of some sliminess could be noticed in the regions of neck and butt after storage of 20 and 30 days. T2 exhibited more or less changes in color on the 10th day of storage and sliminess was noticed fairly distributed on the neck and belly regions on the 30th day of storage. T3 exhibited some noticeable changes in the butt region. Putrefactive action started and there was indication of tissue changes, which could be marked, from the 10th day of storage. At the butt region foul odor was perceptible and few hair slip was evidenced on the 30th day of storage. It is concluded that the treatment using combination of neem oil and common salt showed antibacterial activity against the growing contaminating putrefactive organisms but less effective against halophiles.
  Md. Abul Kashem Tang , K.A. Salam , M.A. Samad and N. Absar
  The nutritional composition such as moisture, ash, lipid, protein, carbohydrate, total chlorophyll, crude fibre, phenol, β-carotene, vitamin-B1, vitamin-B2, vitamin-C, Ca, P and Fe contents of four varieties of healthy and disease infected mulberry leaves at mature stage were analyzed. The mulberry leaves are considered as good source of starch, protein, crude fibre, minerals, vitamin-C and β-carotene and their contents in healthy leaves were found to be about 6-7, 4.0-4.6, 3.0, 3.0-3.5%, 115-132 and 100-120 mg%, respectively. Of the nutrients analyzed, dry matter, ash, lipid, crude fibre, carbohydrate and mineral contents were decreased but moisture, protein and phenol contents were increased after infection of fresh healthy mulberry leaves with fungus.
  M.A. Samad , M.A. Islam and M.A. Khaleque
  An attempt was made to determine the effect of stocking densities on the growth of Magur (Clarias batrachus) fry (5.1 ± 0.10 mg) for a period of 28 days in trays in laboratory. Clarias batrachus fry were stocked at the rate of 30, 40, 50 and 60 fry/tray i.e. 3, 4, 5 and 6 fry/litre of water. Stocking density of 30, 40, 50 and 60 fry/trays were designated as treatment I, II, III and IV respectively the fry was feed by grounded tubifex. The survival rate of C batrachus fry upto 28 days were found 92.3, 90.3, 89.3 and 80.1% at the stocking density of 30, 40, 50 and 60 fry/tray, respectively. The treatment had no significant effects on the ADG, SGR and weekly growth increment in length. Average daily gain of Clarias batrachus was found 20.80, 21.80, 19.46, 19.31 in treatment I, II, III and IV. The value of SGR (%) was 17.58, 18.68, 17.33 and 17.30% in the above treatments. The final cumulative gain in length were 39.50 ± 0.51, 39.90 ± 0.10, 38.60 ± 0.60 and 37.60 ± 1.20 (mm) and fry reached to 588.3 ± 33.29, 604.3 ± 16.01, 550.0 ± 25.00, 546.6 ± 28.00 mg over a period of 28 days in treatment I, II, III and IV, respectively. The second experiment was performed to determine the effects of two selected feeds on the growth and survival rate C. batrachus fry in different nursery ponds for a period of 28 days. The protein level of the supplemental diet was 32.24% in feed I and 27.75% in feed II which were designated as treatment I and II. The feed was supplied daily at the rate of 10% of the body weight of the stocked C. batrachus fry. C. batrachus having an average initial length of 3.86 ± 0.05 cm reached to the final length of 7.26 ± 0.05, 7.12 ± 0.02 and in the gain in body weight and 3.38 ± 0.02 g under feeding treatment I and II, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that a significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in case of ADG, SGR, survival rate, cumulative growth increment in length and weight.
 
 
 
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