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Articles by M. Woodward
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. Woodward
  R Huxley , C. M. Y Lee , F Barzi , L Timmermeister , S Czernichow , V Perkovic , D. E Grobbee , D Batty and M. Woodward
 

Background  Coffee consumption has been reported to be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Similar associations have also been reported for decaffeinated coffee and tea. We report herein the findings of meta-analyses for the association between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption with risk of diabetes.

Methods  Relevant studies were identified through search engines using a combined text word and MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) search strategy. Prospective studies that reported an estimate of the association between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or tea with incident diabetes between 1966 and July 2009.

Results  Data from 18 studies with information on 457 922 participants reported on the association between coffee consumption and diabetes. Six (N = 225 516) and 7 studies (N = 286 701) also reported estimates of the association between decaffeinated coffee and tea with diabetes, respectively. We found an inverse log-linear relationship between coffee consumption and subsequent risk of diabetes such that every additional cup of coffee consumed in a day was associated with a 7% reduction in the excess risk of diabetes relative risk, 0.93 [95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.95]) after adjustment for potential confounders.

Conclusions  Owing to the presence of small-study bias, our results may represent an overestimate of the true magnitude of the association. Similar significant and inverse associations were observed with decaffeinated coffee and tea and risk of incident diabetes. High intakes of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea are associated with reduced risk of diabetes. The putative protective effects of these beverages warrant further investigation in randomized trials.

  C. C. Lee , R. P. Stolk , A. I. Adler , A. Patel , J. Chalmers , B. Neal , N. Poulter , S. Harrap , M. Woodward , M. Marre , D. E. Grobbee and J. W. Beulens
  Aims  We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and diabetic retinopathy and deterioration of visual acuity in individuals with Type 2 diabetes.

Methods  We conducted a cohort analysis of 1239 participants with Type 2 diabetes aged 55-81 years enrolled in the AdRem study, a sub-study of the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial. Current and past consumption of wine, spirits and beer was measured by self-report. Moderate and heavy alcohol consumption was defined as 1-14 and > 14 drinks/week, respectively. Diabetic retinopathy, measured by mydriatic stereoscopic seven-field retinal photography, was defined by a 2-step progression in the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) score or the presence of any retinal vascular lesions. Deterioration of visual acuity was defined by a decrease of two lines in best vision in either eye, measured corrected, or through a pinhole using a Snellen chart.

Results  In a mean follow-up of 5.5 years, we identified 182 participants with a 2-step progression in the ETDRS score, 640 participants with the presence of any retinal vascular lesions and 693 participants with a deterioration of visual acuity. Current moderate consumption of alcohol, compared with no current consumption, was not associated with presence or progression of diabetic retinopathy; however, it was associated with higher risk of deterioration of visual acuity (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.34-2.48; P < 0.001).

Conclusions  Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of deterioration of visual acuity, but not with retinopathy in individuals with Type 2 diabetes.

  M. J. Zaman , A. Patel , J. Chalmers , M. Woodward , P. Clarke , Q. Li and S. Zoungas
 

Aims

The ADVANCE trial recruited participants from 20 countries worldwide. We analyse here regional variations and causes of hospitalization for people with Type 2 diabetes from Asia, Established Market Economies and Eastern Europe.

Methods

A cohort analysis examining the effects of region on causes of first hospitalization, and the association of participant characteristics on all-cause first hospitalization across regions, using multivariable (adjusted for clinical, physiological, behavioural and socio-demographic factors) Cox models.

Results

Of 11 140 individuals (6407 men), all-cause hospitalization rates were highest in Established Market Economies, followed by Eastern Europe then Asia. Eastern Europe had rates of hospitalization for diabetic causes four times greater than Established Market Economies [multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio 4.02 (95% CI 2.86-5.63)]. There were no significant regional variations in hospitalization rates for cardiovascular disease (P = 0.534), but much lower rates for musculoskeletal and non-specific causes in Eastern Europe [multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio 0.44 (95% CI 0.32-0.60) and 0.19 (95% CI 0.12-0.29)] and Asia [hazard ratio 0.21 (95% CI 0.16-0.29) and 0.09 (95% CI 0.06-0.14)] compared with Established Market Economies. In all regions, participants hospitalized for any cause were more likely to be older, male, hypertensive, smokers, have higher glycated haemoglobin and a history of macrovascular or macrovascular disease.

Conclusions

Across three markedly different regions of the world, regional rates and causes of hospitalization varied widely in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Adjustment for a range of patient characteristics did not explain these regional differences in hospitalization, which appear to be attributable to health system factors.

 
 
 
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