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Articles by M. Shivazad
Total Records ( 9 ) for M. Shivazad
  A.R. Seidavi , S.Z. Mirhosseini , M. Shivazad , M. Chamani and A.A. Sadeghi
  In the present study, a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (mPCR)-based assay was developed for the simultaneous identification of Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli and Bifidobacterium sp., that isolated from broiler gastrointestinal in Iran. In order to detect these bacteria species, we were used a set of specific primers that produce different fragment size. Our results showed that all tested gastrointestinal segments were contaminated by these species and therefore the mPCR method is a appropriate method to identify these species directly from poultry gastrointestinal samples. There was no difference in the sensitivity of this method between samples of different gastrointestinal segments. This method has the potential to save considerable time and effort within the laboratory. Our developed mPCR is fast, sensitive, specific and can be used as a reliable choice for routine detection method of these bacteria species in chick gastrointestinal contents.
  M. Zaghari , R. Gaykani , M. Shivazad and R. Taherkhani
  An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of phytase supplementation on old layer hens performance and evaluation of using phytase nutrient equivalency values with comparison to those fed conventional diet. In this experiment 288 Hy-line W-36 hens were used from 60 to 72 weeks of age. The treatments consisted of a control diet (C) without phytase, control diet supplemented with 300 FTU kg-1 phytase over the top (C+P) and the third diet contained 300 FTU kg-1 phytase which calculated nutrient equivalency values for phyatse (100 E). Hen day egg production for the C, C+P and 100 E group were 75.25, 77.25 and 66.0%, respectively. As egg production declined, FCR increase significantly (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in egg specific gravity, egg shell thickness and breaking strength, egg and toe mineralization among dietary treatments. Results indicated that using phytase nutrient equivalency did not prove energy and protein utilization but improved phosphorus utilization in old layer hens.
  M. Ghaffari , M. Shivazad , M. Zaghari and R. Taherkhani
  An experiment was conducted to investigate effects of different level of ME in diets of as hatched broiler chicks with respect to method of formulation of Amino Acid (AA) requirement based on total and digestible AA requirements. The experiment was carried out using a complete block design with factorial arrangement. Main factors were included method of formulation of AA requirement (total and digestible) and different ME level (7 dietary ME from 3175 Kcal diluted to 2575 Kcal). Experimental period began at 10 days of age and lasted in 47 days of age. Weight gain and feed consumption were recorded for grower (10-28 days of age) and finisher (28-47 days of age) separately and then feed conversion ratios were computed. In grower period chicks received high ME diets had significantly lower feed intake, but they had higher weight gain and they also utilized their feed more efficiently compared to those received lower levels of ME. Method of formulation of AA requirement had no significant effect on none of the measured parameters during grower period. In finisher period, chicks fed diets formulated on digestible AA requirement had significantly lower feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Different levels of ME had no significant effect on feed intake and weight gain during finisher period. Results obtained in present study suggest that whereas method of formulation of AA requirement in grower period have no beneficial effect, formulation of diets based on digestible AA is advantageous in finisher period.
  M. Ghaffari , M. Shivazad , M. Zaghari and R. Taherkhani
  In order to evaluate the effects of different levels of energy and method of formulation of Amino Acid (AA) requirements of diets, this experiment was conducted using 294 male broiler chicks. The experiment was carried out using a complete block design with a 7×2 factorial arrangement. Factors were included different level of energy (7 energy levels) and method of formulation of diets AA requirements (total and digestible). Method of formulation of AA requirement had no significant effect on cumulative feed consumption. Formulation of diet based on total or digestible AA had no significant effect on weight gain whereas high ME diets resulted in higher weight gain. Diets formulated based on total or digestible AA had feed conversion ratios that were not significantly different. Abdominal fat pad were significantly lower in chicks fed diets formulated on digestible AA basis. Energy content of diets affected fat pad significantly. Abdominal fat pad increased significantly as ME content of diets increased. Results obtained in our study suggest that even whit corn soybean meal based diets, formulation of diets AA requirement may be a beneficial tool for optimization of performance.
  F. Zaefarian , M. Zaghari and M. Shivazad
  An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary threonine (Thr) and crude protein (CP) on growth performance, gut measurements and morphology and to estimate Standardized Ileal Digestible (SID) Thr requirements of Ross 308 males at 0-21 days of age. The SID Thr levels were 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0 and 1.1% with two levels of protein 16 and 19%. Chicks were randomized into 64 battery pens (5 chicks per replicate). FI was lower for broiler given the high CP diets compare to those fed on the low CP diets. BWG and FCR improved up to 0.7% Thr in both CP levels. Weight gain improved non-linearly suggesting optimum dietary SID Thr levels between 0.89 and 0.84% (quadratic) at 16 and 19% ideal protein, respectively. Significant interaction was found between CP and Thr on relative weight and length of duodenum and jejunum (p<0.05). Thr supplementation had significant effect on villus height, epithelial thickness, goblet cell number and crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum (p<0.01). Low CP diets adequate in Lys, TSAA supplemented with Thr may result in optimal BWG and FCR as well as growth of intestinal length non-linearly. Parameters of gut functionality such as microvilli height, crypt depth and epithelia thickness seemed to be improved with even higher levels of dietary SID Thr level.
  I.H. Khodadadi , H. Moravej , M. Shivazad and H. Mehrabani-Yeganeh
  A total of 400 Single Comb White Leghorn hens at 80 weeks of age were used in present study. Four treatment groups that were consisted of six replications with 10 hens per each replication were considered. In the first treatment, food and water were removed for the first 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. However, on days 3, 5, 7, 9 and on day 10 until day 28 hens were fed 45 g of food per hen (ON-OFF group). In the second and third groups, food was withdrawn for 10, 14 days, respectively and oyster shell and water were provided for ad libitum until day 28 (California and North Carolina treatments (CAL, NC groups)). The last group (full-food treatments (FF group)) was the hens that were non-food-deprived and were fed corn molt diet for 28 days ad libitum. In all treatment groups at day 29, hens were returned to a full food layer ration and received 16 h of light day-1. Body weight, egg production, egg weight, relative eggshell weight, internal egg quality, egg specific gravity and mortality were determined. Differential leukocyte count and antibody response were also measured. The results demonstrated that induced molting increased egg production according to pre-molt egg production. There was not a significant difference in the rate of egg production during the peak period of post molt production for treatments. No significant differences were detected in differential leukocyte counts and antibody response against Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC) between treatments at pre molt and post molt of the experiment. This study indicated that diets with high corn level (FF groups) are effective and simplified nonfood removal procedure for welfare molting hens.
  Marziyeh Ghafari , M. Shivazad , M. Zaghari and E. Seyfi
  In order to evaluate the effects of different levels of energy and methods of formulation of Amino Acid (AA) requirements of diets, this experiment was conducted using 392 broiler chicks. The experiment was carried out using a complete randomize block design with 7 levels of energy 3175, 3075, 2975, 2875, 2775, 2675 and 2575 kcal kg-1 for grower diet and 3225, 3125, 3025, 2925, 2825, 2725 and 2625 kcal kg-1 for finisher diet and two methods of formulation of diets AA requirements (total and digestible) as a factorial arrangement. Results showed that by increasing level of energy feed intake, body weight and FCR were promoted in grower diet (p<0.05). Effect of decreasing level of energy up to 2725 and 2825 kcal kg-1 was not significant on body weight and FCR in finisher diet, respectively. Formulating of diet based on total or digestible AA affected feed intake and FCR in finisher diet (p<0.05). Interaction effect of independent factors affected on body weight in grower diet (p<0.05). Decreasing level of energy increased gastrointestinal tract percentage weight (p<0.05). Formulation of diet based on digestible AA decreased gastrointestinal tract percentage weight (p<0.05). Abdominal fat decreased significantly as ME content of diets decreased. Results showed that it`s possible to reduce the level of energy up to 3175 kcal kg-1 in grower and 2725 kcal kg-1 in finisher diet for giving the best and economical performance response. Formulation of diet based on digestible AA in finisher diet resulted in promotion of performance.
  N. Ziaei , M. Shivazad , S.A. Mirhadi and A. Gerami
  The aim of this experiment was to examine the potential for reduced environmental impact by reducing dietary calcium and phosphorus content and phytase addition of laying hen diets. A randomized complete block design with a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement of 8 dietary treatments: 2 levels of phytase (0 and 300 FTU kg-1) and 2 mineral levels (Ca: 34/18 and NPP: 3.2/2.2 g kg-1, respectively). A total of 240 White Leghorn (WL) layers, 25 weeks of age were used. Considering birds in 12 cages as a replicate, 5 such replicates were randomly allotted to each dietary treatment. Individual body weight of the bird was recorded at the beginning and end of the experiment. Egg production on an individual basis was recorded daily and percentage hen day egg production was calculated. The cleaned eggshells were dried for 24 h, weighed and expressed as percentage of whole egg. One bird from each experimental unit were selected at random and killed by cervical dislocation at the end of the experiment and the left tibia was removed. Dried bone samples were ashed at 680° C for 12 h for estimation of bone ash. The results of this experiment showed that reducing Ca and NPP (Non-Phytate Phosphorus) without phytase decreased BWG (Body Weight Gain), feed intake, FCE (Feed Conversion Efficiency), egg production, egg shell weight and tibia ash. However, phytase addition to low mineral diets completely corrected the adverse effects associated with low dietary Ca and NPP. It can therefore be concluded that reducing levels of Ca and NPP below current standards and phytase supplementation can reduce pollution potential from laying hen production without adversely affecting bird performance or welfare.
  A. Nobakht , M. Shivazad , M. Chamany and A.R. Safameher
  This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB = Na+ + K+-Cl-) on the performance and eggshell quality of layers in their early laying period. Two hundred fifty six Hy-Line strain laying hens, 24 to 34 weeks of age, were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments. The DEB levels were 0, 120, 240 and 360 mEq kg-1 and were obtained by addition of NaCl, NaHCO3, KHCO3 and NH4Cl as needed. Egg production, feed intake, egg mass and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected by any of the treatments, whereas eggshell quality was significantly affected (p<0.05). The shell specific gravity, shell weight, shell thickness, shell ash and shell weight/surface area were increased with increasing DEB from 120 to 360 mEq kg-1 relative to the control diet. It was concluded that high rate DEB (360 mEq kg-1) can improve eggshell quality in the early laying period.
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