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Articles by M. Sharma
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. Sharma
  F. Imam , M.K. Anwer , M. Iqbal , S. Alam , K.U. Khayyam and M. Sharma
  Tuberculosis, or TB, is one of the most ancient infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. On the basis of site of tuberculosis it is mainly divided in to two categories: pulmonary and extra-pulmonary which is further divided into 5 and 7 different category, respectively. The TB is a highly contagious disease that is usually transmitted by coughing and sneezing. It is mainly diagnosed by detecting the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, abnormal chest x-ray and surgical biopsy in the patient. In 1998, World Health Organization has declared this disease a global emergency and established a new strategy for treating patients, called Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS). India is the highest TB burden country accounting for one fifth of the global incidence. There has been significant change in management of tuberculosis never since pre-chemotherapeutic era to the present day RNTCP protocol based on specific disease categories. Its initial management in an organized way was started in late 1930 when the main line of treatment was good food, open air and dry climate. Effective drugs against TB began available around the time India gained Independence and District Tuberculosis Programme (DTP) was started to reduce the TB problem across the country. But major problem raised was that of keeping the patients on continuous treatment as only 66% of the patients were taking drugs regularly. In seventies, availability of two highly effective drugs-rifampicin and pyrazimamide enabled to cut down the duration of treatment and Short Course Chemotherapy (SCC) policy was implemented. Inspite of the introduction of SCC, a high rate of defaulters and the disturbing trends of low compliance in SCC districts were reported. In 1992, the Government of India designed the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme based on DOTS strategy. Phase II of the RNTCP started from October 2005, which is a step towards achieving the TB-related targets of the Millennium Development Goals. By March 2006, the programme was implemented nationwide in 633 districts, covering 1114 million (100%) population. In 2008, 1.51 million patients have already been placed on treatment and NSP treatment success rate was 86%.
  K. Raj , M. Sharma and Namita Misra
  A novel terpenoid coumarin, clausmarin-C (1), has been isolated from Clausena pentaphylla. Its structure has been established by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR analysis and chemical transformation.
  M. Altamirano-Dimas , M. Sharma and J.B. Hudson
  Preparations of Echinacea (Asteraceae) are frequently consumed for the control and prevention of rhinovirus-induced colds and other respiratory disorders. Since it is now generally believed that the symptoms of rhinovirus colds are due to the enhanced secretion of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, we decided to analyze the effects of rhinovirus infection and Echinacea treatment [defined extracts of E. purpurea (L.) Moench] on cytokine/chemokine gene expression and protein secretion in a line of human tracheo- bronchial epithelial cells. Among the collection of more than 50 cytokines and chemokines present in the gene arrays, 12 showed significant induction of expression by the virus (> 2-fold), some of them by more than 5-fold. However, not all of these resulted in similar changes in the corresponding proteins, presumably as a consequence of post-transcriptional changes. A total of 16 cytokines, mostly chemokines, showed substantial protein increases, including several, such as the well known pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 (CXCL8), which were induced in the absence of additional transcription. These results support the concept that virus-induced multiple inflammatory cytokines are responsible for the cold symptoms. In most cases, one or both Echinacea preparations reversed the viral stimulation, thus providing a basis for the anti-inflammatory properties attributed to Echinacea.
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