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Articles by M. Saminathan
Total Records ( 7 ) for M. Saminathan
  K. Dhama , R.V.S. Pawaiya , S. Chakraborty , R. Tiwari , M. Saminathan and A.K. Verma
  Coronaviruses are positive-sense single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses causing a broad spectrum of diseases in domestic and wild animals including poultry and rodents. Based on antigenic and genetic similarities coronaviruses have been subdivided into 3 major antigenic groups. They infect and produce disease in multiple species of animals, human beings (group 1 and 2) and birds (group 3). Equine coronavirus (ECV) causes enteritis in foals. Complete genome of first ECV isolate NC99 strain has been recently sequenced. Cytolytic nature of the virus is responsible for occurrence of lesions in the small intestine, thereby causing diarrhea. Demonstration of Coronavirus antigens in clinical samples is test of choice for diagnosis. By electron microscopy (negative staining) Coronavirus like particles can be identified in fecal samples. Coronavirus antigen in fecal samples can be detected by antigen capture enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Molecular detection tool like reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has made the diagnosis more accurate. Virus characterization along with genogrouping has become easier these days with the advent of proteomics and phylogenetic studies. Currently, no vaccine is available for ECV. Biosecurity measures if adopted strictly prevent the disease. The present review highlights the salient features of the Coronavirus in general with special reference to ECV and the disease it causes in equines, its epidemiology, diagnosis and appropriate prevention and control measures to be adopted. The review would be helpful for understanding the virus/disease in a better way and alleviating economic losses to the equine/stud farm owners.
  D. Neeraja , B.M. Veeregowda , M. Sobha Rani , D. Rathnamma , H.D. Narayanaswamy , M.D. Venkatesha , G. Leena , R. Apsana , S.H. Somshekhar , M. Saminathan , K. Dhama and S. Chakraborty
  Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an economically important zoonotic disease (can spread to human through inhalation or ingestion) caused by Mycobacterium bovis which belongs to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Control and eradication of infection is difficult even in organized dairy farms. So combinations of tests like culturing and nucleic acid-based diagnostics are used for the isolation and identification of mycobacterial infections in cattle. Even though, there are many advances in diagnosis of bovine TB infection in cattle but till now, isolation identification of the etiological agent from clinical samples stands as a definitive and gold standard test. Nucleic acid based methods like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) which have advantages of speed, sensitivity and specificity can be used for diagnosis of tuberculosis along with isolation. In the present study, isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms was attempted from nasal swabs and milk of cattle using Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media without glycerol. Cattle which were positive for tuberculosis either by skin test or gamma interferon test were selected. Two of the twelve nasal swabs and none of the seven milk samples showed typical mycobacterial colonies on LJ media after 8 weeks of incubation. Ziehl-Neelsen staining of colonies showed slender, rod shaped acid fast organisms suggestive of Mycobacterium. Deoxy ribo nucleic acid (DNA) was extracted by boiling method and amplified by duplex PCR for 245 and 500 bp amplicons specific for MTC (IS6110) and M. bovis (RvD1Rv2031c), respectively. Electrophoresis revealed 245 bp product but not 500 bp which confirmed the identity and relatedness of the isolated mycobacterium to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.
  D. Neeraja , B.M. Veeregowda , M. Sobha Rani , D. Rathnamma , R. Bhaskaran , G. Leena , S.H. Somshekhar , M. Saminathan , K. Dhama and S. Chakraborty
  Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis which belongs to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), is a globally distributed zoonotic disease in cattle. The present study was conducted in a dairy herd with the history of prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. Two Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI) based tests, Single Intradermal Test (SID), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) assay and a serological test (enzyme linked immunosorbant assay, ELISA) were employed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in 45 animals. Of these, 8 (17.77%) were positive by SID test, 10 (22.22%) by interferon gamma assay and none of the animals were found positive by ELISA. Both the CMI tests performed were found better than the antibody detection. Between the CMI tests, IFN-γ assay showed better sensitivity than the SID test; combination of tests showed better detection of the bTB infection in animals. ELISA results indicated that animals were still in progressive stages of infection and the sensitivity of the tests depends on the stage of infection in the study subjects. As a whole, 26.67% of the animals tested in the farm were found to be positive and/or reactors to tuberculosis. It indicates that both the CMI tests were better than those targeting antibody detection. ELISA did not detect even a single animal as positive. These results indicate that no single test is able to detect all the infected animals and also not having 100 % sensitivity and specificity. So combination of tests always can be better employed for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.
  P.L. Lalruatfela , M. Saminathan , R.S. Ingole , K. Dhama and M.V. Joshi
  Paraquat (PQ) is commonly used in agriculture as a contact herbicide to control the growth of weeds and grasses and is easily accessible to farmers in developing countries. Paraquat is highly toxic to human and is associated with high mortality varying from 35-50%. The main causes for mortality are respiratory and multi organ failure. In this experimental study, twenty four female Wistar rats of 6-7 weeks age were divided into four equal groups. Group-I rats served as control whereas groups-II, III and IV rats were given daily paraquat solution at the dose rate of 10, 15 and 25 mg kg-1 b.wt, respectively, orally by gavage for 28 days. At end of the 2nd week of the experiment, mild diarrhoea, anorexia, polydipsia and reduced locomotional activities were noticed. Hematological observations showed significant decrease in Hb, PCV, TEC and TLC values and biochemical parameters revealed significant increase in AST, ALT and creatinine levels when compared to control group. Gross pathological observations of lungs from all treatment rats showed mild congestion and emphysema. An accidental finding of hydronephrosis was recorded in group-II and atrophy of left kidney and hypertrophy of right kidney was observed in group-III. Few animals from group-IV showed rounded flabby heart. Histopathologically, granular and vacuolar changes were observed in liver and kidneys. Lungs showed prominent congestion and oedema. From the present investigation it was concluded that paraquat toxicity adversely affects general performance, hematological and biochemical parameters in rats. Histopathological changes in liver and kidneys indicated its hepatoxic and nephrotoxic effects.
  M. Saminathan , R.B. Rai , K. Dhama , G.J. Ranganath , V. Murugesan , K. Kannan , S. Pavulraj , A. Gopalakrishnan and C. Suresh
  Mammary tumours rank second as the most common neoplasms in dogs after skin tumours, whereas in women the most common cause of cancer-related deaths is breast cancer. N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (NMU) is a highly specific mammary gland carcinogen which directly act and does not require metabolic activation. In the present study, NMU at the dose rate of 50 mg kg-1 body weight was used intra-peritoneally for the induction of mammary tumour. The first palpable tumour appeared on 70th day post carcinogen injection and subsequently, most of the tumours were developed around 18-20th week. During 28 weeks of experimental period, the tumour incidence was 82.86% (29/35). The tumour frequency was found to be 4.7±0.33 tumours and the average latency period was 107±4.1 days. The average tumour volume was found to be 69±8.8 cm3. Equally, 50% of mammary tumours appeared on the right (22/44) and left (22/44) mammary gland chain. Region wise, 81.82% (36/44) of the tumours appeared on abdominal-inguinal mammary glands and 18.18% (8/44) on the cervical thoracic mammary glands. A total of 44 mammary tumours were diagnosed in which 88.64% (39/44) were malignant and 11.36% (5/44) were benign. Among the malignant tumours, 33.33% (13/39) were non-invasive and 66.67% (26/39) were invasive. The average values of mitotic index, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (PECAM-1) in NMU induced mammary tumours were found to be 4.5±0.46/hpf, 77±2.6, 16.2±0.86 and 15±0.69, respectively. The present study for the first time demonstrated the expression of VEGF and PECAM-1/CD-31 proteins in NMU induced mammary tumours.
  M.A. Ravichandran , M. Saminathan , A. Arun Prince Milton , K. Dhama , C. Suresh , K. Jeeva and S.K. Misra
  Cytogenetic studies in domestic animals are gaining more importance because of their genetic implications to breeding programmes. The present study describes the chromosome profile and morphometric characteristics of Garole and Bonpala sheep and comparison of chromosomes between males, females and between breeds. The Karyotype revealed diploid chromosome number of 54 (2n) in both breeds and sexes. The first three pairs of autosomes were bi-armed, submetacentric and remaining 23 pairs were acrocentric. The X-chromosome was acrocentric and largest and Y-chromosome was the smallest, biarmed and metacentric. The morphometric analysis showed significant variation in mean relative length of 13th chromosome pair of Garole and Bonpala males and significant variation in the arm ratio of 2nd chromosome pair of females and variation also noticed in almost all the pairs of chromosomes but not up to the level of significance. The mean relative length of autosomes of Garole and Bonpala male ranged from 1.39±0.05 to 11.45±0.15 and 1.48±0.06 to 11.69±0.25 percentage, respectively. The mean relative length of X-chromosome of the males was 5.66±0.15 and 5.83±0.17, respectively while the Y-chromosome length was 1.20±0.02 and 1.27±0.06, respectively. The mean relative length of autosomes of the females ranged from 1.43±0.06 to 10.80±0.20 and 1.42±0.04 to 11.42±0.36, respectively. The mean relative length of X-chromosome of Garole and Bonpala female was 5.51±0.13 and 5.61±0.15, respectively. The mean arm ratio of first 2 pairs of autosomes of Garole male was higher than Bonpala male while the 3rd pair was higher in Bonpala males. The mean arm ratio of first 3 pairs of autosomes of Garole female was higher than Bonpala female. The present study for the first time compares the cytogenetic profile between Garole and Bonpala sheep breeds.
  A. Hansa , R.B. Rai , K. Dhama , M.Y. Wani , M. Saminathan and G.J. Ranganath
  Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) is widespread both in dairy and beef cattle throughout the world. The virus is one of the largest RNA virus and has specific tropism for intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cells. It is responsible for huge economic losses by causing winter dysentery in adult dairy cattle and respiratory and intestinal tract infections leading to pneumo-enteritis in young calves. Isolation of BCoV has been reported to be difficult. Studies regarding epidemiology, virus isolation and molecular detection from India are very few. In the present study Vero cell line was used for isolation of the BCoV from Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) positive samples. Direct florescent antibody technique (dFAT) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to confirm the isolated virus strains at antigenic and genomic levels, respectively. Out of the 15 positive fecal samples, virus from only seven was able to infect vero cell line. Subsequently BCoV got adapted to the vero cell line upto three passages, which was confirmed both at genomic and antigenic levels by dFAT and RT-PCR testing. It can be concluded that vero cell line can be used for isolation of BCoV, however due to the enormous stain diversity of the virus it is possible that many stains can’t grow and get adapt in this cell line. Further studies are required for isolation of different viral strains, finding the susceptible cell lines and also to confirm the variations among the BCoV isolates at antigenic/genomic levels.
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