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Articles by M. QADIR
Total Records ( 2 ) for M. QADIR
  Irrational irrigation practices in the Arys Turkestan Canal command area in the southern part of Kazakhstan have led to the formation of soils with poor physical and chemical properties. To study whether irrigation and leaching practices and/or groundwater rise have contributed to the accumulation of Mg2+ on the cation exchange complex of these soils, historical changes in soil and groundwater quality were used as source data and the Visual MINTEQ model was applied to analyze the chemical composition of water and soils in the study area. The imposed irrigation regime and the leaching of light sierosem soils led to the dissolution and subsequent leaching of inherent gypsum and organic matter from the soil profile. Further, the domination of bicarbonate in the irrigation water promoted weathering of the carbonate minerals present as calcite. The higher concentrations of Mg2+ in comparison to Ca2+ in the irrigation water resulted in the replacement of Na+ by Mg2+ on the cation exchange complex. In the lower part of the command area, shallow groundwater has contributed to the accumulation of Na+ and to a large extent of Mg2+ on the cation exchange sites.
  Raw sewage is widely used on agricultural soils in urban areas of developing countries to meet water shortages. Although it is a good source of plant nutrients, such sewage also increases the heavy metal load to soils, which may impact the food chain. Management options for sewage contaminated soils includes addition of nontoxic compounds such as lime, calcium sulfate and organic matter, which form insoluble metal complexes, thus reducing metal phytoavailability to plants. In this paper we review the variation in irrigation quality of sewage at different sites and its impact on the quality of soils and vegetables. Although quality of sewage was highly variable at source, yet the effluent from food industries was relatively safe for irrigation. In comparison effluent samples collected from textile, dyeing, calendaring, steel industry, hospitals and clinical laboratories, foundries and tanneries were hazardous with respect to soluble salts, sodium adsorption ratio and heavy metals like zinc, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, cobalt and cadmium. The sewage quality in main drains was better than that at the industry outlet, but was still not safe for irrigation. In general, higher accumulation of metals in fruits and vegetable roots was recorded compared to that in plant leaves. Edible parts of vegetables (fruits and/or leaves) accumulated metals more than the permissible limits despite the soils contained ammonium bicarbonate diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extractable metals within a safe range. In either case further scientific investigations are needed to ensure safe management strategies. Cadmium appeared to be the most threatening metal especially in leafy vegetables. It is advisable to avoid leafy vegetables cultivation in sewage irrigated areas everywhere to restrict its entry into food chain.
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