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Articles by M. Muthukumar
Total Records ( 9 ) for M. Muthukumar
  M. Muthukumar , P. Senthil Pandian and K. Karthikeyan
  In the current digital age, volume of data is getting increased by 59% on every year worldwide. According to research, it is estimated that 70-85% of data is unstructured and more than 20% performance degradation happens due to improper database design. There are many factors which may influence the performance of the database among the factors a data type plays an important role. Choosing the right data type for each column is most essential in either heavy transaction or less transaction tables. Proper database design provides multiple benefits like minimized disk usage, less consumptions of CPU and resources and improved query performance. The proper usage of data types in the database improves the performance of the whole system. These data types are of different types and should be used in an intelligent way to achieve the expected behavior. This study demonstrates how to choose the correct data types to design efficient database and also identifies which data type should be used or not to be used.
  Ramesh Chandra , Madhu Kamle , Anju Bajpai , M. Muthukumar and Shahina Kalim
  In vitro selection for disease resistance in fruit crops is a biological phenomenon involving interaction between host-pathogen and additive effects of abiotic factors favoring the disease development. Among several strategies developed for disease resistance breeding, which are long term methods especially for perennials, a comparatively simpler and easier method is tissue culture based technique of selection of somaclonal variants against specific pathogen or phytotoxin. In vitro selection of plantlets regenerated in a culture media amended or supplemented with varying concentration of the culture filtrate or fractionated toxin of the specific pathogen serves as an efficient technique because of easy screening and reducing breeding cycle for developing disease resistance lines. In the past few decades, several researchers have worked out the possibility of obtaining somaclonal variants resistant to specific pathogenic race causing disease. Hence, in vitro selection strategy is a candidate alternative for conventional breeding approach for disease resistance. This review study gives an overview on prospects of in vitro selection for disease resistance with special reference to fruit crops.
  A. Pandey , M. Kamle , L.P. Yadava , M. Muthukumar , P. Kumar , V. Gupta , M. Ashfaque and B.K. Pandey
  In the context of the GM food regulations crop improvement via transgenic technology is a new stage of introducing novel food which supercedes over the conventional breeding. It was analyzed that worlds hunger, malnutrition problems, environmental pollution and phytoremediation in agriculture are the challenges for scientist as well as governments those can be combated by application of genetic engineering in crops. Genetically modified microbes/plant/animals or GM microbes/plant/animals results from modification in the genetic make-up of microorganisms, plants and animals using recombinant DNA technology to improve the nutritional requirement, disease resistant traits, increased production and medicinal properties. In many instances, these modification processes represent faster, more efficient mechanisms for achieving changes than traditional breeding. However, a wide variety of modifications are possible through genetic manipulation and the potential for the introduction of toxic compounds, unexpected secondary effects and changes in nutritional and toxicological characteristics may give rise to safety concerns about GM crops. Thus, generation of GM food explores new vistas for future food requirement but the assessment of policy regarding environmental risks is also to be concerned.
  A. Pandey , M. Kamle , L.P. Yadava , M. Muthukumar , P. Kumar , V. Gupta , M. Ashfaque and B.K. Pandey
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  M. Muthukumar , S. Sivakumar , P. Viswanathamurthi , R. Karvembu , R. Prabhakaran and K. Natarajan
  New six-coordinate ruthenium(III) complexes [RuX(EPh3)2(L)] (X = Cl or Br; E = P or As; L = chalcone thiosemicarbazone) have been prepared by reacting [RuX3(EPh3)3] (X = Cl or Br; E = P or As) with chalcone thiosemicarbazones in benzene under reflux. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectroscopic (IR, electronic, mass, and EPR) data. The redox behavior of the complexes has also been studied. Based on the above data, an octahedral structure has been assigned for all the complexes. The new complexes exhibit catalytic activity for carbon-carbon coupling reactions.
  S. Gowri , M. Muthukumar , S. Krishnaraj , P. Viswanathamurthi , R. Prabhakaran and K. Natarajan
  A series of six-coordinate ruthenium(II) complexes [Ru(CO)(Lx)(B)] (B = PPh3, AsPh3 or Py; Lx= unsymmetrical tetradentate Schiff base, x = 5-8; L5= salen-2-hyna, L6= Cl-salen-2-hyna, L7= valen-2-hyna, L8= o-hyac-2-hyna) have been prepared by reacting [RuHCl(CO)(EPh3)2(B)] (E = P or As) with unsymmetrical Schiff bases in benzene under reflux. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectroscopic (infrared, electronic, 1H, 31P, and 13C NMR) data. An octahedral structure has been assigned for all the complexes. The new complexes are efficient catalysts for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones and also exhibit catalytic activity for the carbon-carbon coupling reactions.
  M. Muthukumar and P. Viswanathamurthi
  Reactions of [RuHCl(CO)(B)(EPh3)2] (B = EPh3 or Py; E = P or As) and chalcones in benzene with equal molar ratio led to the formation of new complexes of the type [RuCl(CO)(EPh3)(B)(L1-4)] (B = PPh3, AsPh3 or Py; E = P or As; L = chalcone). The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectroscopic (IR-, electronic, 1H-, 31P-, and 13C-NMR) data. Based on these data, an octahedral structure has been assigned for all the complexes. The chalcones are monobasic bidentate (O,O) donors and coordinate to ruthenium via phenolic and carbonyl oxygen. The new complexes exhibit efficient catalytic activity for the transfer hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds. Antifungal properties of the ligands and their complexes have been examined and compared with standard Bavistin.
  M. Muthukumar , P. Viswanathamurthi , R. Prabhakaran and K. Natarajan
  Ruthenium(III) complexes of the type [RuX(EPh3)(L)2] (X = Cl or Br; E = P or As; L = 2-hydroxychalcone) have been prepared by reacting [RuX3(EPh3)3] with 2-hydroxychalcones in benzene under reflux. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectroscopic (infrared, electronic, electron paramagnetic resonance, and mass) methods. Redox potential studies of the complexes have been carried out to elucidate the electronic structure, geometry, and electrochemical features. On the basis of data obtained, an octahedral structure has been assigned for all the complexes. The new complexes exhibit catalytic activity for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols into their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in the presence of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide as co-oxidant and they were also found to be efficient catalyst for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones.
  A. Pandey , B.K. Pandey , M. Muthukumar , L.P. Yadava and U.K. Chauhan
  Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a serious postharvest disease of mango. The histopathological studies on anatomy of naturally infected by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and artificially inoculated leaves and healthy leaves were performed to understand the infection process of anthracnose at various intervals after inoculation. Germination and penetration processes of the pathogen within the whole leaf were observed. The first evidence of penetration into the whole leaf was observed 48 h after invasion. It also revealed that mycelia were prominent after 120 h after invasion by the fungus (C. gloeosporioides). Subcuticular infection by hyphae was present in transverse leaf sections (T.S.) of the diseased sample after 72 h. Also, both inter and intra-cellular hyphal invasion were observed after 72 h. Mesophyll cells were highly affected by fungal invasion and rapidly collapsed. Swelling of epidermal cell walls was also observed. After 96 h almost all the cells became necrotized (Nc). Necrotized mycelial mats (M) of C. gloeosporioides was observed after 120 h and all the invaded cells became necrotized (Nc) forming a spot which eventually the cells ruptured leaving a shot hole symptom. All these observations pertained to the cells of mesophyll tissue indicating that these are the regions of fungal invasion and host tissue damage resulting in the disease symptoms. Naturally infected and artificially inoculated (in vitro) presented no significant differences suggesting that the pathogen invasion and symptom development process is similar in both the conditions.
 
 
 
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