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Articles by M. Mel
Total Records ( 4 ) for M. Mel
  N. Nadir , M. Mel , M.I.A. Karim and R.M. Yunus
  The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum and cassava were performed by commercially available α-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. For both sweet sorghum and cassava, the hydrolysis and fermentation were done in a 2 L stirred tank bioreactor, B-Braun fermenter, by using the same conditions. The amount of glucose obtained after hydrolysis process was greater in sweet sorghum compared to cassava, which are 50.07 and 40.00 g L-1, respectively. Also, sweet sorghum gave higher ethanol concentration than cassava at the 64 h of fermentation process, which are 40.11 and 34.07 g L-1, respectively.
  M. Mel , M.I.A. Karim and H.M. Salleh
  This study is focused on the evaluation of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) of E. coli fermentation producing β-glucuronidase enzyme in different bioreactor operating conditions. The operating conditions used were according to the Taguchi’s method design using three factors of fermentation viz., temperature, agitation speed and air flow rate at two concentration levels. From the four experiments conducted, experimental run number two with agitation of 300 rpm, airflow rate of 2 vvm and temperature 41°C generate the highest Optical Density (OD 660 nm) of 2.313 for cell count and also having an equivalent kLa value of 0.0281 min-1 or 1.686 h-1. This condition was found to be an effective point for upscaling in bigger bioreactor for E. coli fermentation to produce the enzyme.
  R. Ahmad-Raus , M. Mel , S.N. Mohd-Abdullah and K. Yusoff
  Cell rupture is one of the earlier steps in downstream processing which are required for the recovery of biological products that are located inside cells. Cells could be disrupted either by using chemicals or mechanical method. In this study, cell rupture was carried out by mechanical force using High Pressure Homogenizer (HPH). The aim of this study is to identify optimal conditions of HPH to disrupt the cell wall of recombinant Escherichia coli harboring nucleocapsid (NP) gene of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). The optimized conditions were achieved by manipulating the independent variables of HPH such as pressure, pump speed and number of cycles through an optimization process. The efficiency of the cell disruption was determined by estimating the percentage of cell rupture as well as the amount of NP protein released from the cell lysis. Through the means plot analysis of Minitab Software (Version 14.12), pressure was recognized as the main factor for achieving the highest cell rupture and the release of NP protein. The optimized conditions for obtaining the highest NP protein yield were by operating three cycles of cell rupture, homogenizer pressure of 800 bars and pump speed of 7 psi.
  B. Wiyarno , R.M. Yunus and M. Mel
  This study aims at describing the characteristics of the microalgae oil extraction from Nannochloropsis sp. using soxhlet and ultrasonic. There were two extraction processes that were investigated, Soxhlet-assisted Extraction (SE) and Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction (UE) and both used ethanol solvent. A combination of several criteria was selected to find the characteristics of each extraction. In the SE, a variety of ethanol concentration and time were used; whereas in the UE, a variety of ethanol volume, time and temperature were applied. The given frequency for all UE treatments was 40 kHz. The quality of algae oil proceeded by SE was shown by the level of FFA (Free Fatty Acid) and saponification number. In the SE study, the best combination was gained when the ethanol concentration was 70% and the given time was 200 min in which the FFA level was 9.4% and the saponification number was 286.8. While in the UE study, 51.6 min, 98% of ethanol concentration and 69.62°C were the best circumstance in which the quantity of the oil yield got its maximum. In SE, the higher solvent concentration, the higher FFA level and saponification number were gained. However, after reaching the peak at particular circumstance, the saponification number decreased gradually. Meanwhile, UE reduced the length of extraction time.
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