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Articles by M. Liu
Total Records ( 7 ) for M. Liu
  L.J. Hou , M. Liu , Y. Yang , D.N. Ou , X. Lin , H. Chen and S.Y. Xu
  In order to better understand P cycling and bioavailability in the intertidal system of the Yangtze Estuary, both surface (0–5 cm) and core (30 cm long) sediments were collected and sequentially extracted to analyze the solid-phase reservoirs of sedimentary P: loosely sorbed P; Fe-bound P; authigenic P; detrital P; and organic P. The total sedimentary P in surface and core sediments ranged from 14.58–36.81 μmol g−1 and 17.11–24.55 μmol g−1, respectively, and was dominated by inorganic P. The average percentage of each fraction of P in surface sediments followed the sequence: detrital P (54.9%) > Fe-bound P (23.7%) > organic P (14.3%) > authigenic P (6.3%) > loosely sorbed P (0.8%), whereas in core sediments it followed the sequence: detrital P (61.7%) > Fe-bound P (17.0%) > authigenic P (13.1%) > organic P (7.5%) > loosely sorbed P (0.7%). Post-depositional reorganization of P was observed in both surface and core sediments, converting organic P and Fe-bound P to authigenic P. The accumulation rates and burial efficiencies of the total P in the intertidal area ranged from 118.70–904.98 μmol cm−2 a−1 and 80.29–88.11%, respectively. High burial efficiency of the total P is likely related to the high percentage of detrital P and the high sediment accumulation rate. In addition, the bioavailable P represented a significant proportion of the sedimentary P pool, which on average accounted for 37.4% and 25.1% of the total P in surface and core sediments, respectively. This result indicates that the tidal sediment is a potential internal source of P for this P-limiting estuarine ecosystem.
  Y Dong , B Lu , X Zhang , J Zhang , L Lai , D Li , Y Wu , Y Song , J Luo , X Pang , Z Yi and M. Liu

Cucurbitacin E (CuE, -elaterin), a tetracyclic triterpenes compound from folk traditional Chinese medicine plants, has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth, inflammatory response and bilirubin–albumin binding. However, the effects of CuE on tumor angiogenesis and its potential molecular mechanism are still unknown. Here, we demonstrated that CuE significantly inhibited human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis in vitro and blocked angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay and mouse corneal angiogenesis model in vivo. Furthermore, we found that CuE remarkably induced HUVEC apoptosis, inhibited tumor angiogenesis and suppressed human prostate tumor growth in xenograft tumor model. Finally, we showed that CuE blocked vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2-mediated Janus kinase (Jak) 2–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 signaling pathway in endothelial cells and suppressed the downstream protein kinases, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Therefore, our studies provided the first evidence that CuE inhibited tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGFR2-mediated Jak–STAT3 and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways and CuE is a potential candidate in angiogenesis-related disease therapy.

  L. Moura , V. Vakharia , M. Liu and H. Song
  A recombinant attenuated vaccine against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was administered in ovo to 18-day-old embryos. The vaccine was genetically tailored to protect from challenges in the field against classic and variant strains of IBDV. The vaccine virus contains neutralizing epitopes from both classic (D78) and variant strain (GLS), and abrogates expression of the nonstructural protein, VP5 of IBDV. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and fertile broiler eggs obtained from a local poultry farm were vaccinated and used to evaluate protection against IBDV-STC challenge. A full dose of the vaccine consisting of 5.6x103 plaque forming units (pfu) was administered to SPF and broiler embryos. In addition, a half dose of the vaccine containing 2.3x103 pfu 21 pfu 21 was injected into SPF embryos. The vaccine had no effect on hatchability or first week survival in either broilers or SPF birds, even when high doses were administered. The vaccine generated high antibody titers in chickens with either dosage. All vaccinated groups were protected against mortality. The vaccine did not cause bursal damage and fully protected SPF chickens vaccinated in ovo with half dose of the vaccine and broiler chicks that received a full dose of the recombinant vaccine in ovo.
  L. Moura , M. Liu and V. N. Vakharia
  In ovo vaccination against Marek`s Disease Virus (MDV) is a common practice in more than 85% of broilers produced in the US. DNA vaccines represent a new tool to prevent infectious diseases in many species, including poultry. An in ovo delivery system for plasmid DNA vaccines is described in which we evaluate the route of delivery (air cell vs amniotic cavity), transfection reagent (IFA+DMSO vs polyethylenimine), dose of plasmid DNA (1 to 100 µg/egg) and the nature of humoral immune responses. A plasmid DNA (CMV-EGFP-BGH) construct expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) under cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early promoter was used to optimize the route of delivery and formulation for in ovo DNA vaccination. A plasmid expressing the hemmagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of Newcastle disease virus (pIRES-HN-EGFP) was used to evaluate five different dosages of DNA and the humoral immune responses after in ovo vaccination. Higher expression of EGFP and hatchability were obtained when 18-day-old embryos were inoculated through the amniotic cavity using a cationic lipid adjuvant containing polyethylenimine (PEI-ExGen®). Transgene expression was observed even when low amounts of plasmid DNA were used (1 µg/egg). A dose-dependent response was observed with plasmid DNA concentrations of 1, 10, 25, 60 and 100 µg/egg. Better responses were detected when embryos were inoculated with 60 µg of plasmid DNA. Detectable humoral responses were observed as measured by ELISA and isotope-ELISA assays.
  L. Moura , M. Liu and V. N. Vakharia
  Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) is a highly contagious disease of chickens, which is controlled by live and inactivated vaccines. In this study, we evaluated a novel approach to vaccinate chickens against IBDV using DNA vaccinology. Plasmid DNA was administered in ovo to 18-day-old embryos. The DNA vaccine expresses the polyprotein VP2-VP4-VP3 of IBDV. The VP2 gene expresses epitopes of D78 strain and variant strain of GLS. VP3 and VP4 genes are from D78. VP2-VP4-VP3 genes were inserted into a plasmid vector (pVAX1) and their expression verified by immunostaining assays. SPF and fertile broiler eggs with maternal antibodies were vaccinated and hatched chicks were challenged against IBDV-STC. Each embryo received 60 µg of the DNA vaccine delivered into the amniotic cavity. In addition, a control group was inoculated with plasmid DNA without insert. Two groups of birds (SPF and broilers) received a booster immunization with baculovirus expressed-proteins of IBDV. The DNA vaccine had no detrimental effect on hatchability or first week post-hatch survival. In ovo vaccination generated detectable humoral immune responses as measured by ELISA. Antibody response was significantly enhanced two weeks after the birds received the IBDV-protein boost. However, no significant protection was observed in all vaccinated groups. BF had severe microscopic lesions. Broilers vaccinated with plasmid DNA or IBDV-protein had partial protection possibly due to maternal antibodies.
  S. Zhang , M. Lynch , A.M. Gokhale and M. Liu

Microstructural characteristics of porous LSM/YSZ composite cathodes greatly influence the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. The triple phase boundaries, for example, account for a significant portion of the electrochemically active sites in these porous composite cathodes. Nonetheless, experimental characterization of the relevant microstructural attributes has been problematic due to lack of suitable microscopy techniques for simultaneous observations of all three phases (i.e., LSM, YSZ, and porosity) needed for identification and unbiased characterization of the triple phase boundaries. In this contribution it is shown that a combination of chemical etching and atomic force microscopy clearly reveals all three phases and the triple phase junctions in the microstructural sections. Further, stereological techniques based on the geometric probabilities of stochastic geometry enable unbiased statistical estimation of total triple phase boundary length per unit volume and other microstructural attributes from simple counting measurements performed on representative microstructural sections.

  X. Yua , B. Zhang , C. Xing , B. Sun , M. Liu , W. Zhang and M. Gu

Objective: To investigate the differential effects of cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus (TAC) on renal expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients.

Methods: We enrolled 78 cadaveric kidney transplant recipients recuring basal immunosuppressive protocol with prednisone + mycophenolate mofetil + calcineurin inhibitor (CsA or TAC).

Results: We performed a 3-year analysis of 60 patients. There was no difference in age, gender, or cold ischemic time between two groups, Serum creatinine, urine protein, and blood fat levels of the CsA group were significantly higher than the TAC group (P < .05), while the creatinine clearance was remarkably lower than the TAC group (P < .05). The incidence of tubular atrophy, arteriohyalinosis, and interstitial fibrosis and nephrotoxic lesions among the CsA group were higher than the TAC group, as well as the chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) Banff score (P < .05).® P-gp was predominantly present in the a tubular apical membrane, basal membrane, and cytoplasm. The intensity and extent of tubular staining score in the CsA group were lower compared with the TAC group (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively).

Conclusion: Less P-gp expression in the CsA group than the TAC group may be the molecular action pathway of the high incidence of CsA nephrotoxicity and CsA-induced CAN. This study perhaps unraveled a novel interpretation that the differences of CsA and TAC on long-term allograft survival were due to increases dynamic effects of CsA at the exposures employed in this study.
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