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Articles by M. King
Total Records ( 5 ) for M. King
  A Hassiotis , D Robotham , A Canagasabey , R Romeo , D Langridge , R Blizard , S Murad and M. King

OBJECTIVE: Community-based specialist behavior therapy teams may be helpful in managing challenging behavior, but evidence of their effectiveness is limited. This study was designed to examine the effectiveness and costs associated with treatment by a specialist behavior therapy team. METHOD: This was a parallel-group, randomized, single-blind controlled trial carried out in an intellectual disabilities service in England. Participants were 63 male and female service users with mild to severe intellectual disability who presented with challenging behavior. The interventions were standard treatment plus applied behavioral analysis (N=32) and standard treatment only (N=31). The primary outcome measure was challenging behavior, as measured by total and subscale scores on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist 3 and 6 months after randomization. Secondary outcome measures were psychiatric comorbidity assessed at 3 and 6 months using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults With a Developmental Disability Checklist (PAS-ADD) and total costs recorded at 6 months. Multilevel modeling was used to compare square root transformations of Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the transformed total scores on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (difference=–0.89, 95% CI=–1.74 to –0.04) and transformed lethargy and hyperactivity subscale scores (common intervention effect=–0.56, 95% CI=–0.97 to –0.15). Standard care participants fared worse on the PAS-ADD comorbid organic disorder subscale. There was a clear trend for lower overall costs of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a specialist behavior therapy team in addition to standard treatment appears to be more effective in improving challenging behavior and may have financial advantages over standard treatment.

  M. A Serfaty , D Haworth , M Blanchard , M Buszewicz , S Murad and M. King

Context  In older people, depressive symptoms are common, psychological adjustment to aging is complex, and associated chronic physical illness limits the use of antidepressants. Despite this, older people are rarely offered psychological interventions, and only 3 randomized controlled trials of individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in a primary care setting have been published.

Objective  To determine the clinical effectiveness of CBT delivered in primary care for older people with depression.

Design  A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial with 4- and 10-month follow-up visits.

Patients  A total of 204 people aged 65 years or older (mean [SD] age, 74.1 [7.0] years; 79.4% female; 20.6% male) with a Geriatric Mental State diagnosis of depression were recruited from primary care.

Interventions  Treatment as usual (TAU), TAU plus a talking control (TC), or TAU plus CBT. The TC and CBT were offered over 4 months.

Outcome Measures  Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores collected at baseline, end of therapy (4 months), and 10 months after the baseline visit. Subsidiary measures were the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Social Functioning Questionnaire, and Euroqol. Intent to treat using Generalized Estimating Equation and Compliance Average Causal Effect analyses were used.

Results  Eighty percent of participants were followed up. The mean number of sessions of TC or CBT was just greater than 7. Intent-to-treat analysis found improvements of –3.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], –5.73 to –0.42) and –3.65 (95% CI, –6.18 to –1.12) in BDI-II scores in favor of CBT vs TAU and TC, respectively. Compliance Average Causal Effect analysis compared CBT with TC. A significant benefit of CBT of 0.4 points (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.72) on the BDI-II per therapy session was observed. The cognitive therapy scale showed no difference for nonspecific, but significant differences for specific factors in therapy. Ratings for CBT were high (mean [SD], 54.2 [4.1]).

Conclusion  Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for older people with depressive disorder and appears to be associated with its specific effects.

Trial Registration Identifier: ISRCTN18271323

  E. L Sampson , M. R Blanchard , L Jones , A Tookman and M. King


Increasing numbers of people will die with dementia, many in the acute hospital. It is often not perceived to be a life-limiting illness.


To investigate the prevalence of dementia in older people undergoing emergency medical admission and its effect on outcomes.


Longitudinal cohort study of 617 people (aged over 70). The main outcome was mortality risk during admission.


Of the cohort, 42.4% had dementia (only half diagnosed prior to admission). In men aged 70–79, dementia prevalence was 16.4%, rising to 48.8% of those over 90. In women, 29.6% aged 70–79 had dementia, rising to 75.0% aged over 90. Urinary tract infection or pneumonia was the principal cause of admission in 41.3% of the people with dementia. These individuals had markedly higher mortality; 24.0% of those with severe cognitive impairment died during admission (adjusted mortality risk 4.02, 95% CI 2.24–7.36).


The rising prevalence of dementia will have an impact on acute hospitals. Extra resources will be required for intermediate and palliative care and mental health liaison services.

  H Killaspy , S Kingett , P Bebbington , R Blizard , S Johnson , F Nolan , S Pilling and M. King

The only randomised controlled trial to test high-fidelity assertive community treatment (ACT) in the UK (the Randomised Evaluation of Assertive Community Treatment (REACT) study) found no advantage over usual care from community mental health teams in reducing the need for in-patient care and in other clinical outcomes, but participants found ACT more acceptable and engaged better with it. One possible reason for the lack of efficacy of ACT might be the short period of follow-up (18 months in the REACT study). This paper reports on participants’ service contact, in-patient service use and adverse events 36 months after randomisation.

  C Bottomley , I Nazareth , F Torres Gonzalez , I Svab , H. I Maaroos , M. I Geerlings , M Xavier , S Saldivia and M. King


Factors associated with depression are usually identified from cross-sectional studies.


We explore the relative roles of onset and recovery in determining these associations.


Hazard ratios for onset and recovery were estimated for 39 risk factors from a cohort study of 10 045 general practice attendees whose depression status was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months.


Risk factors have a stronger relative effect on the rate of onset than recovery. The strongest risk factors for both onset and maintenance of depression tend to be time-dependent. With the exception of female gender the strength of a risk factor’s effect on onset is highly predictive of its impact on recovery.


Preventive measures will achieve a greater reduction in the prevalence of depression than measures designed to eliminate risk factors post onset. The strength of time-dependent risk factors suggests that it is more productive to focus on proximal rather than distal factors.

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