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Articles by M. Jalali
Total Records ( 2 ) for M. Jalali
  M. Jalali
  Multivariate statistical technique was used to determine the K+ status and to assess soil fertility and K leaching potential in some calcareous soils. Water-soluble K+ (H2O-K) and ammonium acetate-extractable K+ (NH4OAc-K) ranged from 0.019 to 0.59 (mean value 0.095) and 0.390 to 3.32 (mean value 0.954) cmolc kg-1, respectively. The nitric acid-extractable K+ (HNO3 -K) varied from 1.03 to 13.63 (mean value 5.37) cmolc kg-1. The proportion of H2O-K ranged from 0.34% to 14.8% of HNO3-K, and 2.2% to 53.2% of NH4OAc-K. The proportion of NH4OAc-K ranged from 5.8% to 80% of HNO3 -K (mean value 23% of HNO3-K). The tendency of the soil to lose K+ by leaching was examined by determining K+-Ca2+ exchange isotherms. The soils mostly had moderate to high values of K+ sorption capacity, ranging from 10% to 58% (mean value 28%) of added K+. The Gapon coefficient varied widely from 1.1 to 12.0 (L mol-1)-1/2. Clay minerals were dominated by illite, smectites and vermiculite with small amounts of kaolinite. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first four components accounted for 27.7%, 21.4.3%, 13.8%, and 8.9% of total variation, respectively. The non-hierarchical cluster analysis (k-means clustering) grouped 75 sampling sites into six clusters, based on the similarity of soil quality characteristics. The results suggested that such classes could form a basis for variable-rate application to maintain an adequate K+ status for crop production and to reduce potential K+ loss from soil by leaching.
  Zinc (Zn) is essential to plant growth and relatively mobile in soils. This study was conducted to assess the effect of common ions (Ca2+, K+, Na+, NH4+, Cl, NO3, and H2PO4) on sorption of Zn in surface samples of ten calcareous soils from western Iran using 10 mmol L−1 KCl, KNO3, KH2PO4, Ca(NO3)2, NaNO3, and NH4NO3 solutions as background electrolytes. The results indicated that both NH4+, K+, and Ca2+ equally decreased Zn sorption as compared to Na+. Zinc sorption was decreased by H2PO4 as compared to NO3 and Cl. The Langmuir and Freundlich equations fitted closely to the sorption data of all ions. The Langmuir maximum, bonding energy constant, and Freundlich distribution coefficient for Zn sorption differed among the various ionic background electrolytes. Langmuir sorption parameters showed that the presence of H2PO4 decreased the maximum Zn adsorbed, but increased the bonding energy. Although K+ and NH+ equally influenced maximum Zn adsorbed, they differed in their effect on the distribution coefficient of Zn in soils. Values of saturation index calculated using Visual MINTEQ indicated that at the low Zn concentration, Zn solubility was controlled by sorption reactions and at the high Zn concentration, it was mainly controlled by sorption and mineral precipitation reactions, such as precipitation of Zn3(PO4)24H2O, Zn5 (OH)6 (CO3)2, and ZnCO3. For most ionic background electrolytes, soil pH, CaCO3, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly correlated with sorption parameters.
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