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Articles by M. Iqbal
Total Records ( 5 ) for M. Iqbal
  M. Iqbal , Z.A. Zainal , M.M. Mahadzir and H. Suhaimi
  In respect to global issues of sustainable energy, biomass energy represent as a potential means for substituting conventional sources. This energy can be produced through the gasification process. In the study, a suction biomass gasifier is used to carry out the gasification experiments with the wood waste and connected to diesel engine-generator to generate electricity. The moisture content of the wood waste was measured and determined as 11.4% (dry basis) and the calorific value was found approximately 20.6 MJ kg-1. The proximate analysis shows that the wood contains 11.36% of fixed carbon, 78.12% of volatile matter and 0.22% of ash on dry basis. The producer gas from the gasification process is comprised of a combustible gaseous which can be used to generate electricity. The diesel displacement rate gains 53.4% at 3 kW as a function of electrical power. The dual fuel mode engine efficiency reduced to 13.9% compared to diesel alone mode 23.1% at 3 kW, respectively. The concentration of the pollutions such as carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) was carefully measured. Result shows that the emission level of CO increased, while the NOx decreased in dual fuel mode.
  M. Iqbal , K. Hayat , R.T. Ahmad and N.I. Khan
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of F2 hybrids by comparing them with parents, commercial varieties and F1, s for yield, yield components and fibre quality. The genetic design was half diallel, consisting of five parents and additional five direct crosses were attempted to study inbreeding depression (CIM-496, MNH-554, FH-901, FH-945, LRA-5166, 10 F1 and 10 F2). The difference among genotypes were determined. The highest yielding parent was CIM-496 with 3521 kg ha-1 followed by MNH-554 with 3268 kg ha-1. While the variety FH-901 with 2391 kg ha-1 showed minimum yield among the parents. The cross combinations MNH-786 x VH-144, MNH-554 x LRA-5166 and CIM-499 x LRA-5166 showed minimum inbreeding depression i.e., -39.72, -27.85 and -22.72 for seed cotton yield, yield components and fibre traits than expected inbreeding depression i.e., 50.0%. General combining ability mean squares were significant for all traits and specific combing ability mean squares were also significant for all traits. The GCA effects were higher than SCA effects for all traits, which indicates that additive gene action is prevailing with dominant gene action for expression of these traits. The variety FH-901 was the best general combiner for the yield and yield components. It is concluded that F2 can be used for availing the heterosis after evaluating the proper cross combinations, be reduced.
  F. Imam , M.K. Anwer , M. Iqbal , S. Alam , K.U. Khayyam and M. Sharma
  Tuberculosis, or TB, is one of the most ancient infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. On the basis of site of tuberculosis it is mainly divided in to two categories: pulmonary and extra-pulmonary which is further divided into 5 and 7 different category, respectively. The TB is a highly contagious disease that is usually transmitted by coughing and sneezing. It is mainly diagnosed by detecting the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, abnormal chest x-ray and surgical biopsy in the patient. In 1998, World Health Organization has declared this disease a global emergency and established a new strategy for treating patients, called Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS). India is the highest TB burden country accounting for one fifth of the global incidence. There has been significant change in management of tuberculosis never since pre-chemotherapeutic era to the present day RNTCP protocol based on specific disease categories. Its initial management in an organized way was started in late 1930 when the main line of treatment was good food, open air and dry climate. Effective drugs against TB began available around the time India gained Independence and District Tuberculosis Programme (DTP) was started to reduce the TB problem across the country. But major problem raised was that of keeping the patients on continuous treatment as only 66% of the patients were taking drugs regularly. In seventies, availability of two highly effective drugs-rifampicin and pyrazimamide enabled to cut down the duration of treatment and Short Course Chemotherapy (SCC) policy was implemented. Inspite of the introduction of SCC, a high rate of defaulters and the disturbing trends of low compliance in SCC districts were reported. In 1992, the Government of India designed the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme based on DOTS strategy. Phase II of the RNTCP started from October 2005, which is a step towards achieving the TB-related targets of the Millennium Development Goals. By March 2006, the programme was implemented nationwide in 633 districts, covering 1114 million (100%) population. In 2008, 1.51 million patients have already been placed on treatment and NSP treatment success rate was 86%.
  M.M. Mahadzir , Z.A. Zainal , M. Iqbal and S.N. Soid
  The interest in biomass technology has got a lot of attention due to the increase in fuel prices and issues like global warming. Producer gas as a alternative fuel, produced from biomass gasification process can be used to generate power and electricity. However, in air blown gasification, the producer gas produced has Low Calorific Value (LCV) about 4-6 MJ Nm-3 with CO2 content around 10-20% by volume. To increase the LCV, the used of calcium oxide, CaO as sorbent to absorb CO2 in the producer gas can make biomass technology more viable. In the present study, the aim is to study the fluidization of the bed in terms of the bed expansion and the pressure drop of the 1000 μm CaO-sand mixtures at different percentages, the air volume flow rate and pressurize air intake in the cold model experiment. The behaviors of 1000 μm CaO-sand mixtures have been conducted in a Small Bubbling Fluidized Bed (SBFB). The results show that the decrease of the CaO percentages from 70, 60, 50 to 40, will increase the pressure drop (ΔP) in the SBFB under constant pressure of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 bars. The bed expansion height also increased under all air pressures except at the low superficial flow velocity less than 0.06 m sec-1 at 2, 3, 4, 5 bars (70, 60% CaO mixture), when the air volume flow rate increased (in term of superficial flow velocities 0.020 to 0.215 m sec-1). The conclusion has been determined where the CaO percentages of 50 and 40 were found to have a good fluidization in the range of 15-55 L min-1 for all pressurize air compressors supply (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 bars) when tested in a SBFB.
  Rajwali Khan , Ghufranullah , Sajjad Ahmad , Bahkt Daraz Khan , M. Iqbal , Pervez , Kamran Farid and Hayazuddin
  The experiment was conducted in Livestock Research and Development Station Surezai Peshawar. Total 112 numbers of calves including 28 Nilli Ravi and 10 Azikheli buffalo, while cattle calves contained 31 achai and 41 crossed bred (HF and Sahiwal cross). Commercially available milk replacer was used for calves feeding in this experiment. After preparation milk replacer was offer for calves feeding according to the daily requirements. The birth weight was recorded soon after birth, weakly growth rate was recorded of all calves upto weaning weight. Effect of milk replacer on birth and weaning weight of different bovine breeds was significant (P<0.05). Average birth weight of Achai, Azikheli, Cross and Nili Ravi breed were 15.23±0.49, 28.70±1.00, 21.92±0.70 and 31.90±1.10 kg, respectively. Total mortality percentage was 18.75% (21Nos). Lowest percentage of mortality (0%) was found in Achai breed calves, followed by Azikheli breed calves 14%. The results showed that milk replacer is 117.39% less expensive than natural milk.
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