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Articles by M. Inoue
Total Records ( 7 ) for M. Inoue
  M. Inoue , B.A. Ould Ahmed , T. Saito and M. Irshad
  Recently the research on the determination of soil water content and electrical conductivity using automated technique has received tremendous attention. Selecting the type of system that should be used for soil water measurement under saline conditions depends on its precision. A laboratory study was carried out to measure the soil water content (θ) and soil solution electrical conductivity (ECw) using eight portable dielectric moisture probes namely ML1, ML2, MP4, WET, SK8, MIN, EC2 and SM2 and four profile probes namely ES, AG, P1 and P2. Air-dried Tottori sand dune soil was converted into saline by NaCl solutions of various concentrations. The out-put results of moisture probes showed that measurement accuracy was strongly dependent on the concentration of salt in the soil. Among the sensors WET, EC2 and ES exhibited higher sensitivity to the salts and over estimated water content by 0.04-0.08 cm3 cm-3 whereas MP4, WET, SM2, ES, AG and P1 sensors also over estimated the volumetric water content by 0.02-0.03 cm3 cm-3 at 3.83 dS m-1 soil salinity as compared to normal soil. Higher ECw increased the relative error of soil water measurement across the sensors. Among the moisture meters, commercially available ML1, ML2, SK8 and P2 gave sufficient accuracy in the presence of salts.
  A. Al-Busaidi , T. Yamamoto , M. Inoue , Y. Mori , M. Irshad and A. Zahoor
  Population growth and global warming would substantially impact the availability and quality of existing freshwater supplies. The utilization of marginal water resources for agriculture is getting considerable importance. The lands irrigated with saline water are required to reduce salts accumulations through leaching and/or drainage practices. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of saline irrigation and leaching fractions on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and salts accumulations in sand dune soil. For this purpose seawater was diluted to the salinity levels of 3 and 13 dS m-1 and applied by drip irrigation at 0.1 and 0.4 leaching fractions (LF). The results of the experiment showed that the saline water significantly impaired barley growth. Higher LF lowered the soil salinity and increased soil water contents. Both quantity and quality of water regulated salts distribution within the soil. The salts were found higher near or immediate below the soil surface. An enhanced LF carried more salts down the soil horizon. Low salts were accumulated in the vicinity of emitters as compared to distant wet area. Higher saline irrigation inhibited evaporation. Infiltration rate and hydraulic conductivity of soil were statistically unchanged across the treatments. Conjunctive use of marginal water at proportional LF could be effective to enhance the yield potential of crops in water scarce areas.
  T Tsukada , H Taniguchi , S Ootaki , Y Yamada and M. Inoue

This study aimed to describe the electromyographic (EMG) activity patterns of the genioglossus (GG) and suprahyoid (SHy) muscles during swallowing. The effects of changes in food texture/consistency and head posture on transport of the swallowed bolus were also investigated. Participants were 10 normal adults. Test foods consisted of a liquid, a syrup, or 4 ml of paste made from 0.5% or 1.0% agar. Each food was swallowed with the head in one of three positions, and EMGs and videofluorographic (VF) images were recorded. Mean values of onset, peak, and offset times, peak amplitude, area, and duration of the EMG burst were measured. The total swallowing time, oral ejection time, pharyngeal transit time, clearance time, fauces transit time, and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) transit time were measured. The GG muscle burst patterns showed two peaks (GG1 and GG2) during each swallowing. The offset time and duration of the GG1 burst and the onset, peak, and offset times and duration of both the GG2 and SHy bursts were significantly affected by food texture. There were no significant differences in bolus transit time among the different experimental conditions. Regression analyses demonstrated significant linear relationships between the tongue tip touching the palate and the peak of the GG1 burst, between passage of the bolus tail at the fauces and offset of the GG1 burst, between passage of the bolus tail at the UES and peak of the GG2 burst, and between passage of the bolus tail at the UES and offset of the SHy burst. These results demonstrate that the duration, but not the amplitude, of tongue and suprahyoid muscle activity were increased with increasing hardness of food during swallowing and that the bolus transit time can be fixed within a certain range of physical food properties.

  B.A. Ould Ahmed , T. Yamamoto and M. Inoue
  Saline-water drip irrigated sorghum varietal response to limited available soil water in dune sand was assessed using salinity response function. In a randomized complete block design three sorghum varieties (Local sorghum, BK 16 and EC 90) were grown with drip irrigated saline-water, at four salinity levels (5.47, 7.32, 9.38 and 12.50 dS m-1) and with quality water of 0.11 dS m-1 serving as the control. Four salinity response models were used to assess their ability to discriminate salinity-induced grain yield differences under limited available soil water. Response analysis indicated the four models were equally good in fitting that the grain yield data, but the modified discount model produced the consistently the best fit. Analysis of the data indicated that the impact of salinity stress on varieties was best discriminated by the parameters salinity threshold (Ct), Salinity Tolerance index (ST-index) and the salinity at which 50 % grain reduction (C50) occurred. The analysis indicated that the variety BK 16 was the most tolerance to salinity stress.
  H. Dehghanisanij , T. Yamamoto , M. Inoue and M. Akbari
  The scarcity of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions (ASAR) makes saline water a valuable alternative water source for irrigation of agriculture crops, if we can improve the management of saline water to avoid its deleterious effects. Variables affecting soil water content (θw) and soil solute salinity (ECw), including time after irrigation and crop growth stages; early (ES), mid (MS) and late (LS) stages, were investigated at different radius from the emitter (lateral pipe). The simultaneous distribution of water and solute under drip irrigation was measured using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. The results indicated that θw and ECw increased in the order ES < MS < LS. The maximum θw and minimum ECw coincided at 10 cm radius from emitter (r10) during ES, MS and LS. The same trend applied for 20 cm radius from emitter (r20) during ES and MS. The ECw increased significantly in the order r10 < r20 < r30 during all crop growth stages. Time elapsed since irrigation was terminated till θw increased to a maximum level at the r10, during ES, MS and LS was 4, 3 and 3 h, respectively. It is therefore suggested that irrigation should commence 3 h before noon to coincide the maximum θw (minimum ECw) with maximum crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Interaction between θw and ECw for a given radius and different crop growing stages showed that the influence of θw on ECw was restricted to a small radius of about 20 cm from the emitter, which decreased further to only 10 cm during LS. Beyond this range, increasing θw was not enough to significantly affect ECw. The information obtained from this research is essential for the design, operation and management of saline water use with drip irrigation system in sand dune fields.
  M. Irshad , M. Inoue , M. Ashraf , Faridullah , Hossain K.M. Delower and A. Tsunekawa
  The natural resource base of land, water and vegetation in arid and semi arid areas is highly fragile and greatly vulnerable to degradation. There is a serious problem of desertification in many parts of Pakistan. Population pressure along with the demand for more food, fodder and fuelwood has generated a chain of interrelated economic, social and environmental issues associated with the land degradation inside Pakistan. A variety of natural and human factors are contributing to desertification and severely impairs the biological productivity of lands across the country, including dwindling vegetation cover, overgrazing, flooding, over exploitation of water and land resources, over cultivation of marginal lands, deforestation, soil erosion, salinization, sodication and the use of inappropriate technologies. Unsustainable agricultural activities including inadequate soil conservation, cultivation of steep slopes, cultivation without adequate fallow periods, unbalanced fertilizer use and improper irrigation management coupled with the misuse of prime agricultural land for urbanization/industrialization had a devastating impact on land resources. The increased pressure on land with low productivity and environmental pollution through industrial wastes has further exacerbated the prevailing condition. In spite of the concerted national efforts to mitigate the effects of drought, combating desertification is still one of the major challenges to the people of the country. The action necessary to help avert desertification is to educate people as to the value of precious land and water resources. The present deserted situation is directly related to the failures of the unrealistic resource management policies. Various approaches are being applied to arrest the menace of desertification. The institutional set-up for formulation and implementation of programs and policies is being strengthened in the country. Numbers of land reclamation projects have been launched. The activities and efforts already underway by several public and private organizations, departments, NGOs and rural support programs to combat desertification are required to be strengthened, integrated and supplemented through a nationally supported, coordinated and monitored system. This study reviews some of the causes of desertification, identifies the patterns of land degradation and highlights the future prospects of combating desertification in Pakistan.
  K Harada , H Matsuoka , N Fujimoto , Y Endo , Y Hasegawa , A Matsuo , Y Kikuchi , T Matsumoto and M. Inoue

The localization of the type-2 angiotensin II receptor (AT2) in the adrenal glands of rats, guinea pigs, bovines, and humans was examined at the mRNA and protein levels. PCR products for AT2 were detected in the adrenal cortices and adrenal medullae of all the mammals examined with an RT-PCR technique. Three different anti-AT2 antibodies (Abs), whose specificity was confirmed in our hands, recognized a 50-kDa protein in the adrenal glands of the four mammals, and this recognition was abolished by the preabsorption of an Ab with an antigen. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that the 50-kDa protein was expressed consistently and variably in the adrenal cortices and medullae of various mammals, respectively. We conclude that the 50-kDa AT2 is consistently expressed in the adrenal cortex in a wide variety of mammals. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:585–593, 2010)

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