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Articles by M. Hayes
Total Records ( 2 ) for M. Hayes
  M. N. Munshi , M. Hayes , I. Iwata , Y. Lee and K. Weinger
  Aims  To examine whether different aspects of executive function as measured by different assessment tools are associated with glycaemic control and other clinical characteristics in older adults with Type 2 diabetes.

Methods  We performed a cross-sectional study of older adults aged ≥ 70 years with Type 2 diabetes at a tertiary care diabetes centre. The Dysexecutive Questionnaire was used to measure self-reported executive dysfunction. Objective tests of executive functions included a modified clock drawing test (Clock-in-a-Box), Trail Making Tests (parts A and B) and verbal fluency. Demographic and clinical information was collected using questionnaires and surveys. Glycaemic control was measured by HbA1c.

Results  We evaluated 145 patients [average age 77 ± 5 years, diabetes duration 15 ± 11 years, mean HbA1c 56 ± 11 mmol/mol (7.3 ± 1.1%)]. Poor performances on objective tests (low scores on Clock-in-a-Box and verbal fluency; and high scores on Trail Making Tests A and B) but not on the subjective test (the Dysexecutive Questionnaire), were associated with poor glycaemic control (r = −0.23, P < 0.005; r = −0.17, P < 0.04; r = 0.20, P < 0.01, r = 0.22, P < 0.008, r = −0.07, P < 0.42, respectively). In a multiple regression model (r2 = 0.39), high Dysexecutive Questionnaire scores were associated with higher diabetes-related distress (P < 0.0004), depressive symptoms (P < 0.004), number of falls (P < 0.009), fear of falling (P < 0.01), less years of education (P < 0.0007) and fewer medications (P < 0.001).

Conclusions  On the one hand, in older adults, executive dysfunction detected by objective tests is associated with poor glycaemic control and may be considered before prescribing complex treatment regimens. On the other hand, self-reported executive dysfunction is associated with risk and fear of falls, and more affective symptoms, which may indicate higher awareness of subtle deficits.

  R. Alvarez , J. Reading , D. F. L. King , M. Hayes , P. Easterbrook , F. Farzaneh , S. Ressler , F. Yang , D. Rowley and A. Vyakarnam
  Understanding why human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preferentially infects some CD4+ CD45RO+ memory T cells has implications for antiviral immunity and pathogenesis. We report that differential expression of a novel secreted factor, ps20, previously implicated in tissue remodeling, may underlie why some CD4 T cells are preferentially targeted. We show that (i) there is a significant positive correlation between endogenous ps20 mRNA in diverse CD4 T-cell populations and in vitro infection, (ii) a ps20+ permissive cell can be made less permissive by antibody blockade- or small-interference RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous ps20, and (iii) conversely, a ps20low cell can be more permissive by adding ps20 exogenously or engineering stable ps20 expression by retroviral transduction. ps20 expression is normally detectable in CD4 T cells after in vitro activation and interleukin-2 expansion, and such oligoclonal populations comprise ps20positive and ps20low/negative isogenic clones at an early differentiation stage (CD45RO+/CD25+/CD28+/CD57). This pattern is altered in chronic HIV infection, where ex vivo CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells express elevated ps20. ps20 promoted HIV entry via fusion and augmented CD54 integrin expression; both of these effects were reversed by anti-ps20 antibody. We therefore propose ps20 to be a novel signature of HIV-permissive CD4 T cells that promotes infection in an autocrine and paracrine manner and that HIV has coopted a fundamental role of ps20 in promoting cell adhesion for its benefit. Disrupting the ps20 pathway may therefore provide a novel anti-HIV strategy.
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