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Articles by M. Hair-Bejo
Total Records ( 4 ) for M. Hair-Bejo
  M. Hair-Bejo , K. K. Chan and C. C. Wong
  Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an important viral disease of chickens due to significant economic loses in the industry resulting from high mortality and immunosuppression. An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of an attenuated live "intermediate" strain IBD vaccine of Malaysian isolate given to broiler chickens via feed. One hundred and twenty day old broiler chicks were divided into 3 groups namely: group A (feed based IBD vaccination), group B (IBD vaccination via intraocular route) and group C (control). The chickens in groups A and B were vaccinated at day 14 with an attenuated live "intermediate" strain IBD vaccine of Malaysian isolate (104.5EID50/0.1ml) via feed (about 0.1ml/chick) and intraocular route (0.1ml/chick), respectively. Feed and water were given ad libitum, and the chickens were monitored for any clinical abnormalities throughout the trial. Eight chicks in the control group were sacrificed at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age. Eight chickens each from the groups A and B were sacrificed at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age. Body weights were taken and serum samples were collected for IBD antibody detection using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) prior to necropsy. On necropsy, the gross lesions were recorded and the bursa of Fabricius was weighed and fixed in 10 % buffered formalin for histopathology examination. The study showed that no clinical sign of IBD observed in all groups throughout the trial. The body weights in all groups were not significantly different (p<0.05). Gross lesions were confined to the bursa of Fabricius at day 21 of age in the group A, and at days 21 and 28 of age in the group B. The bursa weight and bursa to body weight ratio in groups A and B were generally lower than control group throughout the post vaccination period. The lesions scores in group A remained mild to moderate throughout post vaccination period and showed sign recovery at day 42. The lesions score in the group B was moderate at day 21 of age and reduced to mild to moderate thereafter. Both routes of vaccination were able to induce protective immunity against IBD infection at days 35 and 42 of age. It was concluded that the feed based IBD vaccination at 14-day-old broiler chickens using attenuated live "intermediate" strain IBD vaccine of Malaysian isolate is safe and successfully induce protective level of IBD antibody.
  S. Ahmad , M. Hair-Bejo , Z. Zunita and S. Khairani-Bejo
  Salmonella enteritidis (SE) has always been related to subclinical infection in the chickens infected after 2 weeks of hatching. However, few pathogenic phage types were proven for their ability to manifest systemic infection and cause the organism to be shed into the surrounding environment. It was the objective of the study to determine the pathogenicity of SE Phage Type (PT) 1 in Specific-Pathogen-Free (SPF) chickens. About 93, 21 day old SPF chickens where divided into 3 groups namely the Control, SE and Mortality groups. The chickens were raised separately in caging system and given free access to antibiotic-free ration and water. The SE and Mortality groups were inoculated orally (1.0 mL) with SE PT 1 (1x108 cfu mL-1). The chickens in the SE and Control groups were sacrificed at various intervals throughout the trial. Samples were collected for bacterial isolation and histological examination. The mortality percentage of the chickens in the Mortality group was recorded. The study showed that no mortality was recorded throughout the trial in the mortality as well as the SE group. Body weight was lower in the SE group when compared to the Control group throughout the trial except at days 2, 3 and 5 post inoculation (pi) reaching its peak at day 14 pi when the SE group body weight was 26% lower than the controls. Clinical signs observed in the SE and Mortality group were represented by diarrhoea, inappetance, ruffled feather and stunted chickens while no abnormal clinical signs where recorded in the Control group. Grossly mild airsacculitis, mild peritonitis and hepatic congestion where recorded in the SE group at day 2 pi until day 5 pi while no gross lesions where recorded in the Control group. SE was first isolated in the caecum (66%) at 12 h pi. At day 1 pi SE was isolated from the caecum and spleen (33%) whilst at day 2, SE was isolated from the caecum (100%) and caecal tonsil (66%). No SE was isolated from the cloacal swabs throughout the trial. The villi height was generally lower in the SE group when compared to the Controls, however it was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the duodenum at 12 h, days 1, 3, 5, 10, 14 and 21 pi; in the jejunum at 6 h, days 2, 14 and 21 pi while in the ileum at days 1, 3 and 5 pi. The crypts depth measurement was fluctuating however it ended up by being higher in the SE group, nevertheless it was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the SE group when compared to the Control group in the duodenum at 6 h and day 14 pi in the jejunum at day 10 pi; in the ileum at 12 h pi. Histopathological changes recorded included hepatitis, congestion and focal areas of necrosis; splenitis, congestion and oedema in the adenoid sheathed arteries; congestion and areas of necrosis in the lymphoi follicles of the bursa of Fabricius; enteritis, congestion and sloughing of necrotic enterocytes in the intestinal villi with presence of bacterial clusters in the villi surface and intestinal lumen. SE rods present in the caecal tonsils were seen to be engulfed by macrophages at days 1 and 2 pi, necrosis of the enterocytes on the villi surface and infiltration of the bacteria was recorded at day 2 pi while at days 5 pi the bacteria multiplication were seen and often located upon the M-like M cells however, no actual engulfment was recorded.
  M.S. Norfitriah , M. Hair-Bejo and A. Majdi
  Highly pathogenic Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV) is a causative agent of Inclusion Body Hepatitis (IBH) in poultry. It causes mortality and poor performance of the affected chickens. It was objectives of the study to determine pathogenicity of FAdV serotype 8b isolates of Malaysia in Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) chickens. The virus isolates namely, UPM11134 and UPM11142 were obtained from IBH outbreaks in broiler chicken farms and characterized as FAdV serotype 8b. The liver samples of affected chickens were prepared and inoculated into SPF embryonated chicken eggs via. Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) route. The liver of embryos was subsequently harvested for preparation of virus inoculum. The 36 days old SPF chicks were divided into 3 groups namely groups A-C. Each group was further divided into sacrificed and mortality groups. Chickens in groups A and B were inoculated with UPM11134 and UPM11142 FAdV isolates, respectively, via. intraperitoneal route at day old. All chicken in group C remained uninoculated and acted as the control group. The chicken were monitored for any clinical abnormalities throughout the trial. Gross lesions were recorded on necropsy and samples of liver and gizzard were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histological examination. The study showed 100 and 91% mortality of SPF chickens in groups A and B, respectively, at day 4 post inoculation (pi). Clinical signs of IBH such as depression, weakness, ruffled feathers and diarrhea were recorded within 12-24 h prior to death. On necropsy, hydropericadium with pale, friable and petechial haemorrhages of liver were recorded. Hepatitis with areas of hepatic necrosis and haemorrhages and presence of numerous basophilic Intranuclear Inclusion Bodies (INIB) in degenerated hepatocytes were recorded in all chickens in groups A and B, whilst INIB were also observed in glandular epithelium of gizzard in group A. All chicks in group C remained normal throughout the trial. It was concluded that Malaysian FAdV serotype 8b isolates are highly pathogenic in SPF chickens and acted as the primary agent of IBH.
  M.S. Norfitriah , M. Hair-Bejo and C.Z. Zhe
  Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV) is a non-enveloped DNA virus which is the primary pathogen of Inclusion Body Hepatitis (IBH) in chickens. IBH outbreaks were reported worldwide and was first reported in Malaysia in 2005 due to FAdV strain of serotype 8b infection. It was objective of the study to determine pathogenicity and immunogenicity of live attenuated and/or inactivated FAdV strain of serotype 8b (UPM1137) of Malaysian isolate in commercial broiler chickens. The 54, 1-day-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks were divided into four groups, namely groups A-D. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. The chicks in groups A-C were inoculated with inactivated FAdV (0.2 mL) with virus titer of 106.5 TCID50 /0.2 mL, live attenuated FAdV (0.1 mL) with virus titer of 105.2 TCID50 /0.1 mL and the combination of the inactivated (0.2 mL) and live attenuated (0.1 mL) FAdV, respectively at day old and day 14 post-inoculation (pi). Body weight and blood samples were collected prior to necropsy at days 14 and 28 pi, except sampling was also conducted at day 0 pi in the group D (control). On necropsy, the gross lesions and liver weight were recorded and samples of liver were collected for histological examination. The study showed that neither clinical signs nor gross and histological lesions were recorded in all group of chickens throughout the trial. The body weight of chickens at days 14 and 28 pi were not significantly different (p>0.05) among all the groups. The liver to body weight ratio of group C was significantly higher (p<0.05) than groups A and D at day 28 pi. The FAdV antibody titer in group D (control) was 938±1596 on day old and was not detected at days 14 and 28 pi. However, the FAdV antibody was induced at high titer in all the inoculated groups at days 14 and 28 pi. The FAdV antibody titer of group C was significantly (p<0.05) higher than groups A and B at day 28 pi. It was concluded that the live attenuated and inactivated FAdV are safe and able to induce FAdV antibody titer in broiler chickens with moderate level of maternally derived antibody at day old of age. The combination of live attenuated and inactivated FAdV was able to induce higher antibody titer when compared to sole use of live attenuated or inactivated FAdV. It has high potential to be used as vaccination strategy against IBH outbreaks.
 
 
 
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