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Articles by M. Ghorbani
Total Records ( 16 ) for M. Ghorbani
  M. Ghorbani
  This study examined factors influencing on minimum offer price of farmers for producing greenhouse organic cucumber in Khorasan Razavi Province by using linear regression and cross sectional data of 60 greenhouse cucumber producers in 2008. Results showed that 80% of farmers believed price of organic products must be 10% more than conventional products. Minimum offer price of organic cucumber is 6348.6 rial kg-1. Also, relationship between age, of farmers, cucumber insurance, average current yield of conventional cucumber, information about organic cucumber, cultivated area that allocate to organic cucumber and minimum offer price for producing greenhouse organic cucumber is positive. Relationship between farmer`s job, using of agricultural advisory, agricultural experience, organic market information, participation in extension classes and minimum offer price of greenhouse organic cucumber is negative. Regard to results, creating organic products market information systems, extension and education of organic cucumber, more activate of agricultural advisory, balancing expansion of organic cucumber cultivated area and conduct of insurance toward effectiveness on decreasing of risk and increasing of production suggested.
  M. Ghorbani and A. Darijani
  This study investigated marketing process and structure of raisin in North Khorasan Province. Survey data were collected from 187 producers, 12 middleman, 2 processing factories and one rural cooperative society in 2003. The results showed that the share of producer, marketing margin and marketing cost in export price in main channel of marketing (producer, middleman, manufactory, export) are 55.3, 44.6 and 26.9%, respectively. Also, the marketing efficiency of main channel (with high market share) is less than the second channel (producer, cooperative, manufactory, export). Regard to results, establishment rural purchasing center with guarantee price, improving efficiency of extension service, training for better processing so as to improve quality of product, constructing marketing data banks as well as undertaking marketing research can increase total profit and social welfare through reducing marketing costs.
  H. Bevrani , M. Ghorbani and M.K. Sadaghiani
  In this study, we construct the optimal estimator for sample size, which were sufficient for maintenance the demanded accuracy and reliability. The goal of this paper is presenting three estimators such as follow. The first one which is traditional approach and rough enough is based on the Chebyshev`s inequality. The second one is based on the central limit theorem, but it doesn`t take into account the accuracy of the normal approximation. The third estimator is based on Berry-Esseen`s inequality that takes into account the accuracy of the normal approximation and is guaranteed.
  G. Chabokrow , L. Farahani and M. Ghorbani
  The general objective of this study is to develop an appropriate dynamic model of third generation for analyzing investment and adjustment costs in agriculture sector of Iran. In this study, input demand functions are estimated for agriculture sector during 1979-2004 using 3SLS method. An improved dynamic model was built on the basis of the cost of adjustment theory to estimate the impacts of production inputs on agricultural investment. The results indicate that the energy price has positive and significant impacts on agricultural investment while war and the ratio of investment to production in previous period have negative impacts. Furthermore, the results indicate that technology is labor intensive. Based on the results, the estimated coefficient for is the adjustment costs is equal to 315 for Iranian agriculture. It means that increasing investment to reach the equilibrium after a shock needs adjustment costs where the amount of this cost is at a rate of 157.54 which is high and so in case of a shock to the sector, farmers have to pay high costs to reach the previous position. The results also indicate that material input is complement with investment, energy and labor.
  M. Ghorbani , A.R. Koocheki and M. Motallebi
  In this study, the amount of greenhouse gases emission of some important factors was calculated using life cycle assessment. Sample was 85 dairy farms that were selected by simple random sampling method in 2007. Results showed that electricity and diesel used are the most effective parameters on greenhouse gases emissions in dairy farms, respectively and the other effective parameters are the number of other cattle, the distance of food transferring, cows manure, the No. of calves and dairy cows. It is recommended that the policy makers use some methods like environmental taxes, improving management and carbon sequestration to reduce these kinds of costs. This study results could help policy makers to decide better with considering to effective factors.
  M. Ghorbani and H. Mansoori
  The general objective of this study is to estimate the supply and demand gap of export credit and determining the factors influencing on it in Iran. Results showed that average gap of supply-demand of export credit payment in 2005 were 60%. Also, credit gap for export to Asian, European and Arabic countries are 56.7, 66 and 53.3%, respectively. Credit gap is 62.6% for industry sector and 57.4% for agriculture sector. Also it is 50.5% for land collateral and 71.4 if promissory note is used as collateral. Considering some factors such as nature of customer`s activity, selling capability, importance of good in country`s economy for determining the amount of credit as suggestion has introduced.
  S. Hosseini , M. Ghorbani , M. Torshizi and N. Zargham
  This study investigated how the appropriate environmental policy may change during a long-term macroeconomic planning and under different policy weights. For this purpose, a simple general equilibrium model has been established. Results showed that choosing the appropriate policy is depend on preferences of government; so that when weight of environmental factors in policy making is less than 40% (weight of economic factors is more than 60%), lowland food production subsidies policy is preferable policy and when weight of environmental factors is more than 40%, upland food production tax policy is appropriate policy. Base on results of this study, as the weight of environmental and economic factors changed in this study, one can think about changing the weight of any of economic factors. For example, if PPI doesn`t have any importance in policy making, it can be eliminated and if government wants to give more attention to consumer prices than producer prices, policy maker can set the weight of CPI more than that of PPI in ranking.
  G. Chabokrow , R. Gray and M. Ghorbani
  This research tries to study a dynamic Ex ante input demand model with application to western Canadian agriculture. The dynamic Ex ante input demand model combines the cost of capital adjustment and Ex ante output choice to create a dynamic model that is theoretically and empirically appealing. The four input empirical model provided a tractable means of estimating a dynamic Ex ante input demand system combined with an Ex ante supply function. The application to Western Canadian agriculture resulted in model that was dynamically stable and consistent with profit maximization. The results show that agricultural capital (machinery and buildings) is a quasi-fixed input, with significant adjustment costs and a slow rate of adjustment. Technological change and machinery investment are energy and material-using for western Canadian agriculture. There is some indication that agricultural wealth lowers the discount rate within the sector has a positive effect on capital investment.
  M. Ghorbani and N. Khajehroshanaee
  In this study surveyed the consumers demand for qualitative factors of honey by using the Hedonic Pricing (HP) model and a cross section data of 360 consumer in Mashhad. Results showed that the kind (without wax), packing, color (dark), scent (scented) and protraction of honey have direct effect on honey price and sweetness (much) and existence of remains (dust and so on) have negative effect on it. This study has recommended the applied research for making honey without wax, with suitable and interesting packing, dark color, scented, less and normal sweetness, much protraction and any pollution (like dust and remains).
  M. Ghorbani and M. Motallebi
  In this study, import demand function of Iran has been analyzed with Pesaran and Shin method for 1960-2005. The results showed import demand is elastic related to increasing in gross domestic income. Thus, increasing in economic growth and national income increase balance of trade deficit and government could decrease balance of trade deficit with economic growth, simultaneously, so that imposes suitable fiscal polices like reducing in expenditure. Import growth because of increasing in gross domestic income showed Iran is going to open economy but it wouldn`t be cause of decreasing in production and competition power of domestic firms and producers.
  M.R. Kohansal , M. Ghorbani and H. Mansoori
  The aim of this study is investigating the effect of credit accessibility of farmers on agricultural investment and policy options in Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran. This study was done on 133 farmers of credit used group from totally 177 farmers of study that received loan from agricultural bank by Logit model. Results of estimated Logit model showed that the number of installments has the most importance in investment of received credit by farmers and then farm land and previous investment have more importance. In addition, effect of policy changes on investment indicated that applying three options of number of installment, cultivated land area and previous investment, simultaneously have the most effect on investment probability. According to results, attention to policy variables in investment for increasing productivity and decreasing of poverty in agricultural sector suggested.
  M. Ghorbani
  In this study, effects of agricultural advisory services on input and output of sugar beet are examined by means compare and estimating the transcendental engineering production function. The empirical results based on the farm level data from 453 sugar beet producers of the main region of sugar beet production (Razavi Khorasan province) in 2008 suggested that agricultural advisory services has a positive and significant effect on sugar beet yield and negative effect on N, P, K fertilizer and pesticide inputs. Sugar beet output in group with advisory services was 0.0637 higher of alternative group. The results also implied that advisory of agricultural engineering had a positive and significant impact on utilization of herbicide, cultivated area, labour, number of irrigation and agricultural machinery rather than alternative group. These results call for more investment in agricultural advisory services through agricultural engineering in rural area and to organize the agricultural graduate students in this context for accelerating the agricultural growth.
  M. Ghorbani , H. Mansoori and S. Hamraz
  In this study attempted to investigation the relationship between energy consumption in economic sectors and macroeconomic indexes of Iran for 1970-2000 by using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). Result showed that a long run relationship existence between total energy consumption, price index and gross national product. With respect to results stabilization energy price policy in economical growth conditions will encourage energy demand dimension. So, government must change energy price policy towards variable pricing based on amount of consumption especially in peak and load duration.
  S.S. Hosseini , M. Ghorbani and M. Ghahremanzadeh

This study attempts to measure the effects of soil conservation practices on soil quality in dry-farmed wheat in Iran(Zanjan province) using a bio-economic production function. Because of the nature of data(panel data) and information used in this study, error components approach (REM method) was used for estimating the production functions. The results indicate that the shadow price increases with soil depth and its magnitude is greater 72% in average - in conserved soils compared to non-conserved ones. In fact the results support the effectiveness of soil conservation in improving physical, chemical and biochemical properties of soil which contributes to sustainable agriculture. Finally, soil conservation benefits were estimated to be about 29.98 dollar pre hectare. That may be use for extension, payment of green subsidy, investment and adoption of new technologies for soil conservation. In this way, it will increase the real value of farm and farmer`s welfare.

  M. Ghorbani and M. Motallebi
  The aim of this study was estimation of environmental costs of agricultural greenhouse gases emissions in dairy farms. The sample was 85 dairy farms which were selected by simple random sampling method in 2006. The methodology was output distance function to derive estimates of greenhouse gases’ shadow prices. In this study dairy farms’ share in environmental costs in Mashhad and Iran was estimated 10688 and 67910300 million rials, respectively. Thus, it is recommended that policy makers use some methods like environmental taxes, improving management and carbon sequestration to reduce these kinds of costs. Results can help policy makers to decide more appropriate with considering the externality costs.
  M. Ghorbani and M.R. Kohansal
  This study was carried out to study factors influencing on potential demand of credit for soil conservation using a cross sectional data of 350 wheat producers of Khorasan Razavi Province in 2008 and applying linear regression model. Results showed that offer interest rate of needed credit, age and income of farmers and short run conservation practices diversity have negative effect on potential demand of credit and investment in soil conservation and awareness index of farmers have positive effect on it. Also, potential of needed credit for using of soil conservation practices in rain-fed wheat lands of Khorasan Razavi Province is 14 million rial ha-1. Average offer interest rate of farmers for receiving of soil conservation credit is 4.7%. Regard to results, considering to local experiences of farmers in soil conservation, potential demand of needed credit for soil conservation and low-priced interest rate, increasing the income and financial ability of farmers in indigenous development planning of investment in soil suggested.
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