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Articles by M. Gbeassor
Total Records ( 19 ) for M. Gbeassor
  K. Tona , K. Agbo , B. Kamers , N. Everaert , H. Willemsen , E. Decuypere and M. Gbeassor
  Chicken post-hatch performance is known to be related to embryonic developmental parameters. However, strain or genotype differences with regard to embryo physiological parameters have received little attention. A total of 1,200 hatching eggs produced by Lohmann Brown (LB) and Lohman White (LW) breeders of the same age were studied. Between 62 and 150 h of incubation, eggs Resonance Frequency (RF) was measured as indicator of early embryonic development. Also, albumen pH was measured between setting and d 8 of incubation. From d 10 to 18 of incubation, remaining albumen and embryos were weighed. During the last days of incubation, hatching occurrences were monitored after every four hours and hatched chicks were recorded. Results indicate that RF of LW eggs were lower than that of LB eggs (p<0.01) and starting time point of RF decrease occurred earlier in LB eggs than in LW eggs. Albumen pH of LB eggs was lower than that of LW eggs at day 8 of incubation. Remaining albumen weight at 14 and 16 d of incubation was lower in LB than in LW (p<0.05) while embryo weights increased more rapidly in LB strain than in LW strain. It is concluded that LB and LW embryos have different growth trajectories and should be incubated at different conditions.
  K.E. Nouboukpo , K. Tona , B. Kamers , N. Everaert , H. Willemsen , O.M. Onagbesan , M. Gbeassor and E. Decuypere
  The effects of in ovo injection of L-carnitine on hatchability and juvenile performance of 360 layer-type chicks were investigated. Fertilized eggs were injected in air chamber with L-carnitine (500 and 1000 μmol) dissolved in 0.9% of Saline (NaCl) at d 18 of incubation. Two control groups (non-injected and injected with 0.9% of Saline were also included. Hatched chicks was recorded after every 4 h, beginning at 490 h of incubation and ending at 514 h, for incubation length and hatching spread determination. At the end of incubation, hatched chicks were recorded according to treatment for determination of hatchability. At 3, 7 and 14 d post-hatch, chick body weight (BW) and morbidity were recorded. Also, at d 3 and 7 post-hatch, 14 birds from each of 2 replicate groups within each treatment were used for intestine and yolk sac weight determination. Results indicate that BW, hatchability, or relative intestine weights were not affected by treatment. However, incubation length was longer while hatching spread was shorter in L-carnitine groups compared to control groups. Yolk sac relative weight was decreased by treatment with L-carnitine (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of chicks showing morbidity sign was lower in L-carnitine treated groups from d 7 onwards. The results of the present study suggest that in ovo injection of L-carnitine at d 18 of incubation delayed hatching time but resulted in narrower hatching spread, faster utilization of yolk sac content and improved morbidity.
  A. Teteh , , K. Aklikokou , M. Gbeassor , J. Buyse and E. Decuypere
  Effects of feed nutritive values on broiler performance are widely investigated. But, relationship between feed macronutrients’ levels and layer-type chicks (male and female) retains little attention. However, as for all developmental stages, starter diet composition may affect layer-type chick juvenile growth as well as physiological parameters. A total of 684 Hisex Brown layer-type chicks were studied. Chicks were divided, at random, into 3 groups with equal number of males and females: control, Low-Protein Diet (LP) and High Metabolisable Energy Diet (HME). During rearing period, feed intakes were recorded and chicks were weighed individually at the end of each week. Also, sample of chicks were used to weigh liver, at hatch and at 7, 14 and 56 day-old and to collect blood for glucose, total protein and triglyceride levels determination. Results indicate that layer-type chick growth rate, liver weight and feed efficiency were in following order HME > control > LP. With regard to chick sex, male chicks of HME and control diets grew better than female chicks from d 7 onward. But, in LP group, the weights of male and female chicks were comparable up to 49 d-old. At 7 d post-hatch, serum total protein and triglyceride levels of control chicks were higher than those of chicks of LP group while the levels of HME group were comparable to those of the two other groups. For total protein levels this trend lasted until 56 d of age. It can be concluded that low protein level of starter diet affects negatively feed efficiency and layer-type chick juvenile growth while high level of metabolisable energy improve feed efficiency and growth rate.
  K. Tona , K. Bahe , B. Kamers , K. Mertens , B. Kemps , O.M. Onagbesan , E. Decuypere and M. Gbeassor
  Increasing egg storage duration affects egg internal quality, especially albumen quality by increasing pH and decreasing Haugh Unit (HU). But, in most of African contexts, egg producers, sellers and consumers store the eggs in different conditions regardless of quality deterioration. In this study, 1920 eggs produced by Lohmann layer flocks of 48 weeks and 58 weeks of age were investigated. The eggs were divided randomly and equally in 4 groups and stored at 3 different conditions for 21 days at: 1) Room Conditions (RoC); 2) Super Market Conditions (SmC) and 3) Refrigerator Conditions (RfC). During storage, all the eggs were weighed and Resonant Frequency (RF) were measured at day 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 according to flock age and storage condition. Then at the same days, sample of 30 eggs per flock and per storage condition were used to measure albumen pH and HU. The results indicate that eggs weight decreased significantly with storage duration (P<0.001). But, egg relative weight loss was lower (P<0.01) for eggs of RfC group than that of SmC and RoC groups. There was a positive linear relationship between RF and storage duration. But, daily increase in RF was affected by layer flock age. The highest daily increase was obtained in RoC group or SmC group, respectively for flock of 48 weeks of age or flock of 58 weeks of age. Eggs of RfC groups had the highest albumen HU and the lowest albumen pH (P<0.001). It is concluded that detrimental effects of storage duration are more or less pronounced depending on storage conditions especially storage environmental temperature. It is recommended that, in African countries, consumption eggs can be stored at room or super market conditions not longer than 6 days but in the refrigerator up to 21 days.
  A. Teteh , E. Lawson , K. Tona , E. Decuypere and M. Gbeassor
  After the ban in 2006 of the use of antibiotic growth promoter, the search of an alternative led to the utilization of plants like Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves of this plant are known to have an important component of macronutrients (protein, energy, amino acids), of micronutrients (vitamins, minerals...) and of anti-nutritive factors such as polysaccharides, tannins, saponins, phytates etc. In the aim to give more knowledge about it, leaves are collected from Akoumapé (Vo district in Togo), dried, pulverized and soaked in ethanol-water (50/50). The mixing obtained is homogenized, filtered and evaporated to obtain hydro alcoholic extract. This extract was used to determine its contents in some chemical groups such as total phenols (4.2%), tannin (2.38%), total flavonoids (0.2%) and polysaccharides (21.1%). In addition, a total of 615 day-old broilers (Ross) were divided at random into 3 groups (M0, M1 and M2) fed, respectively with diet 1 (0%), diet 2 (1%) and diet 3 (2%). During the assay, witch lasted for 4 weeks, 15 chicks of each group were slaughtered weekly to collect and weight liver, pancreas, spleen, bursa and thymus. At the same moment, body weight, feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were determined. At 28th day, chicks of groups M1 and M2 grew better and have better feed conversion than chicks of groups M0. The same trend is followed by relative organ weights. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leaves incorporated at 1 and 2% in feed can improve growth and the lack of significant difference between 1 and 2% could be attributed to the high content of diet 3 in anti-nutrients especially saponins that impair the digestion and absorption of nutrients especially lipids.
  K. Tona , A. Agbonon , K. Eklu-Gadegbeku , A. Teteh , P. Simons , J. Buyse , N. Everaert , B. Kemp , E. Decuypere and M. Gbeassor
  In commercial poultry husbandry practice, the hatchery takes over the incubation of bird eggs in order to provide as many day-old chicks as needed at any time to farmers. The main bottleneck for poultry industry development in Togo is the lack of day-old chick supply. Indeed, there is no proficient hatchery which can cover the needs of the farmers because of lack of information about hatchery management or people trained as hatchery managers. Also, there is lack of information about management practice aspects, etc. With the aim to promote poultry industry in Togo, an interuniversity project [Catholic University of Leuven (KUL) and University of Lome (UL)] as a model of poultry industry development was implemented. Specific objectives of the current project are to implement research and development activities on better conditions of incubation and adapted management practices focusing mainly on (1) Effect of early transferring of layer breeders hatching eggs on embryo parameters and hatchability, (2) Comparison of different chicken genotypes in Embryo Physiology, (3) Effects of heat conditioning at d 16 to 18 of incubation or during early broiler rearing on embryo physiology, post-hatch growth performance and heat tolerance, (4) Effect of low albumen quantity on chick embryo and post-hatch parameters, (5) Effects of In ovo-administration of L-carnitine on hatching events and juvenile performance of layer-type chick, (6) Interaction effects of mixing hatching eggs of differential embryo growth trajectory and incubator CO2concentration on embryo physiological parameters, (7) Effect of delayed feed access on production and blood parameters of layer-type chicks and (8) Induced moulting of layer chickens.
  A. Teteh , M. Gbeassor , E. Decuypere and K. Tona
  Protein sources diversification and antibiotic growth promoter ban have led to the use of plants. Through production improving, leaves such as Moringa oleifera leaves were often used to ameliorate broilers and layers growth. Attempt to improve egg production led us to undertake this study with 600 day-old ISA Brown chicks (layer-type) divided into three groups (M0, M1 and M2) of 200 birds each. They were reared up to 40 weeks. Daily egg and feed intake were collected to determine laying rate and conversion ratio. Weekly, 30 eggs per group were weighed and broken to determine egg components ratio. At 20 and 40 weeks, 40 birds per group were slaughtered to collect blood, ovarian grape and oviduct. So, total protein, glucose and triglycerides concentrations, ovarian grape weight, oviduct weight and follicles number were determined. Data collected showed higher egg production, heavier eggs and higher triglycerides concentration in M1 compared to M2. High level of triglycerides can be linked to oestrogens synthesis from sterols contained in Moringa oleifera leaves in M1 while high intake of oestrogen substances by hens of M2 reduces their production although antinutritive substances effect on them cannot be excluded.
  T. Bouassi , Y. Ameyapoh , V. Van Hamme , K. Anani , Y. Adjrah , E. Decuypere , M. Gbeassor and K. Tona
  Background: The ban of antibiotics use as growth factors since 2006 affects animal performance and economical viability of farms. Several alternatives including incorporation of organic acids in feed or drinking water in order to improve productivity were studied. Objective: The objective of this study is to mix ACIDAL with drinking water of hens in order to improve productivity. Methodology: The experiment was carried out with 360 ISA Brown hens (22-44 weeks of age), allocated to 3 groups (control, Aci 1 and Aci 2) of 120 birds each. The three groups received, respectively in drinking water 0, 1 and 2 mL of ACIDAL L–1. Prior to start, every 4 weeks and at the end of the treatments, samples of chicken droppings according to each group were collected and used to determine total Streptococcus and Escherichia coli and to check the presence of Salmonella. During treatments, amount of water consumption, feed intake, body weight, egg weight and egg component weights were recorded weekly. Results: Eggs produced were collected daily and every 2 weeks, the litter quality was assessed. Mixing of ACIDAL with drinking water of laying hens reduced significantly the number of total bacteria, eliminated completely Salmonella in the droppings, decreased feed intake and improved egg weights and body weight compared to control group witch litter was significantly wetter and more tendentiously crusty compared to those of treated groups. Conclusion: In opposite, there is no effect on water consumption, mortality rate, egg laying rate and ratios of albumen, yolk and shell.
  D. Nideou , O. N`nanle , A. Teteh , E. Decuypere , M. Gbeassor and K. Tona
  Background and Objective: A major challenge in broiler breeder management is the nutritional requirement and the effect of feed formulation on breeder performance. Metabolizable energy and crude protein levels are two important nutritional parameters for evaluating poultry feed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-protein and low-energy diets on the performance of Sasso breeders. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed with 120 Sasso breeders divided into 3 groups (control group, low-protein group and low-energy group) of 40 birds each. Feed intake, body weight, egg weight and egg component weights were recorded weekly. At 35 weeks of age, a total of 600 settable eggs were collected in 7 days and stored at 15°C before incubation. Prior to setting for incubation, eggs were numbered, weighed and assigned to 4 replications of 50 eggs each diet/treatment. Results: Results indicate that breeders of the control diet group exhibited increased body weight (p<0.05) with heavier eggs (p<0.05) and an increased ratio of albumen weight to egg weight (p<0.01) as compared with the groups with the low-energy diet and the low-protein diet (p<0.05). In addition, day-old chicks from eggs of the control group were heavier (p<0.05) than those from eggs of both the low-energy and low-protein diet groups. Conclusion: Low-protein and low-energy diets during the laying period negatively affect the feed intake and feed conversion ratio. These diets also affect the egg weight and ratios of albumen, yolk, shell and chick weight. No significant differences were observed regarding hatchability and blood serum concentration levels of total protein, triglycerides and glucose.
  K. Voemesse , A. Teteh , D. Nideou , O. N`nanle , M. Gbeassor , E. Decuypere and K. Tona
  Background and Objective: Medicinal plants are currently used as alternative to antibiotics growth promoters. However, their positive effect on livestock growth performance, particularly on poultry, depends on the rearing conditions and the birds’ lines. This study investigated the effect of different levels of Moringa oleifera leave meal (MOLM) on performance and serum biochemical parameters of egg-type chicken from one day old to 8 weeks of age. Methodology: A total of 450 days old chicken were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (M0, M1 and M3), 150 birds per treatment group and were respectively fed with diets containing 0, 1 and 3% of Moringa leaf. During experimental period, feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. At 5 weeks of age, 12 birds per group were slaughtered to collect blood, gizzard, pancreas, heart and liver. Blood serum concentrations in total protein, albumin, uric acid, calcium, magnesium and iron were also determined. Results: Results showed similarity between feed intake, liver relative weight while significant differences (p<0.05) between treated groups and the control one were observed on body weight, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and gizzard relative weight. In addition, total protein, albumin, calcium, magnesium and iron levels were significantly increased (p<0.05) in chickens fed MOLM as compared to control. The results also indicate that chickens of control diet group had higher blood uric acid level (p<0.05). However, no significant difference in phosphorus concentration was found between groups. Conclusion: During juvenile growth, MOLM did not affect feed intake, liver relative weight and phosphorus level. The leaves affect body weight, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and gizzard relative weight. Significantly differences were observed on total protein, albumin, calcium, iron and magnesium levels.
  D. Nideou , O. N`nanle , Y.A.E. Kouame , C. Chrysostome , M. Gbeassor , E. Decuypere and K. Tona
  Background and Objective: High incubation temperatures accelerate embryonic growth or increase embryonic mortality depending on incubation stage, duration of exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of high incubation temperature on layer chicken embryo. Materials and Methods: A total of 1200 hatching eggs were studied in two different experiments and divided into two groups, control and high temperature group. Eggs of control group were incubated at standard incubation temperature of 37.6°C. Eggs of high temperature groups were incubated at 38.6°C during the first 10 days for experiment 1 or 18 days for experiment 2. During incubation samples of eggs were used to determine the weights of remaining albumen, embryo and yolk sac. Also, hatching events and hatch were monitored every two hours between 19 and 21 day of incubation. Blood samples were collected at 18 day-old embryo, internal pipping stage and at hatch for tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine and corticosterone level determinations. Results: Results suggested that, the embryos incubated at high temperature during the first 10 days used albumen more rapidly with no effect on hatchability. On contrary, embryos incubated at high temperature during the first 18 days reduced significantly albumen utilization after days 13 of incubation with negative effect on hatchability (p<0.05). In addition, high incubation temperature decreased yolk sac weight compared to control groups (p<0.05). In experiment 1, the highest T3 and T4 levels were obtained at internal pipping stage. Conclusion: A temperature increased by 1°C of the standard during the 18 days of incubation is detrimental for embryo development and hatching performance.
  O. Ngueda Djeuta , K. Voemesse , A. Teteh , M. Gbeassor , E. Decuypere and K. Tona
  Background and Objective: The scarcity and seasonal fluctuation of conventional feedstuff srequire alternative sources in order to ensure optimum performance of poultry birds. This study investigated the effect of Manihot esculenta leaf meal (MELM) on blood parameters and productive performance of laying hens from 50-62 weeks of age. Materials and Methods: A total of two hundred Is a Brown layers of 50 weeks of age were assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 10 birds each. Treatment diets were: 0% MELM (ME0), 2.5% MELM (ME2.5), 5% MELM (ME5%) and 7.5% MELM (ME7.5). During the experimental period, feed intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio as well as egg quality parameters were recorded weekly. The blood samples were collected from 16 birds (4/replicate) at 61th weeks of age for the determination of total protein, albumin and uric acid. Results: Results showed that feed intake (FI) and egg production were higher (p<0.05) in the birds of ME5 and ME7.5 than those of the other treatment. The birds in ME5 and ME7.5 also had the lowest (p<0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). Total proteins and albumin were significantly higher (p<0.05) in birds fed 5 and 7.5 % of MELM while layers in ME 7.5 group had the highest (p<0.05) uric acid concentration. Most external and internal egg quality parameters were not significantly affected except for yolk color score which was improved with increased levels of MELM. Conclusion: In conclusion, Manihot esculenta leaf meal (MELM) can be used up to 7.5% as feed ingredients in laying hens to improve performance.
  A. Teteh , G. Abbey , Y. Beblemegna , O.E. Oke , E. Decuypere , M. Gbeassor and K. Tona

Background and Objective: The use of antibiotics is associated with problems such as the presence of residues in eggs and meat and the development of bacterial resistance. These concerns have resulted in the search for phytochemical from plants such as Moringa oleifera leaf. The leaves of Moringa oleifera have been regularly incorporated into feed to improve poultry production but the profitability of this, in modern poultry production, has not been evaluated. This study, therefore, evaluated the financial implications of the use of Moringa oleifera leaves in poultry feed. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 day-old Isa brown chicks were assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of M0 (0% of Moringa oleifera leaves), M1 (1% of Moringa oleifera leaves) and M2 (2% of Moringa oleifera leaves) from day-old to 280 day of age. Production and financial data were subjected to financial analyses using feed conversion ratio, margin approach, return on investment and break-even yield methods. Results: The study showed that there was a better profitability in the birds fed with the diet containing 1% leaves having 11.04% more income and 14% return on investment than those of M0. This improved performance was associated to the better feed conversion ratio and high egg production of the birds fed diet containing 1% leaves when compared with those fed 2% Moringa leaves. Conclusion: It was concluded that the use of Moringa oleifera leaf as a prebiotic in a poultry diet improved production performance and profit margin of hens.

  Etou Mongo Antoine , A.A. Abena , M. Gbeassor and H. Chaveron


(Case No. 12082011)

Dr. Jinnie M. Garrett, Hamilton College, New York, USA pointed out a plagiarism in a paper published in Journal of Applied Sciences Volume 7 Issue 4: 472-477, 2007.

On the receipt of the letter from Dr. Jinnie M. Garrett, the case forwarded to the Ethics Committee of the Science Alert. As per the report of the Ethics Committee, article entitled "Effects of Glucides on Thermal Denaturation and Coagulation of Whey Proteins Studied by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy" published in Journal of Applied Sciences Volume 7 Issue 4 : 472-477, 2007 authored by E.M. Antoine, A.A. Abena, M.Gbeassor and H.Chaveron" contains substantial sections of methods to indicate a different source of the materials, Article including tables and figures has been taken verbatim from earlier publication without clear and unambiguous attribution.

Science Alert considers misappropriation of intellectual property and duplication of text, tables or figures from other authors or publications without clear and unambiguous attribution totally unacceptable.

Plagiarism is a violation of copyright and a serious breach of scientific ethics. The Editors and Publisher have agreed to officially retract this article.

Science Alert is highly thankful to Dr. Jinnie M.Garrett, for pointing out this plagiarism.

Detail of Article from which text, figures and tables have been copied by E.M. Antoine, A.A. Abena, M. Gbeassor and H.Chaveron is as under:

J.m. Garrett, R.A. Stairs and R.G. Annett" Thermal Denaturation and Coagulation of Whey of Proteins: Effect of Sugars" from J. Dairy Science 71:10-16, 1988.

  J-R. Ibara , R.D.G. Elion Itou , J.M. Ouamba , M. Diatewa , M. Gbeassor and A.A. Abena
  The aqueous extracts of Ceiba pentandra and Helicrysum mechowianum were evaluated for their antiulcerogenic effects by using indometacin-induced gastric lesions in rats. The both aqueous extracts are well tolerated by animals. Until the dose of 3200 mg kg-1 per os, no mortality was observed. At the dose of 400 mg kg-1 per os, the two preparations (as the reference substance, ranitidine 50 mg kg-1) reduced significantly the decrease of pH and the formation of lesions induced by indometacin, compared to control group. These results which could support the folk use of these plants in Congo required further investigations for their confirmation.
  A. Diallo , K. Eklu-Gadegkeku , T. Mobio , S. Moukha , A. Agbonon , K. Aklikokou , E.E. Creppy and M. Gbeassor
  The present study had evaluated the protective effect of hydroalcoholic (50-50: v/v) and aqueous extracts of L. kerstingii and M. oleifera against lipid peroxidation induced in vivo and in vitro by either cadmium or ethanol. In a first series of experiments, lipid peroxidation induced in vitro by cadmium (5 μg mL-1) is decreased by hydroalcoholic extracts of M. oleifera and L. kerstingii (100 μg mL-1) by 94% and 50% (p<0.001) respectively whereas their aqueous extracts (100 μg mL-1) reduced the cadmium induced lipid peroxidation by 94% (p<0.001) and 44% (p<0.001) respectively. In vivo, the pretreatment with hydroalcoholic extracts of M. oleifera and L. kerstingii at 1 g kg-1 b.wt. reduced significantly ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation, in liver, by 53 and 50% (p<0.001), respectively. Similar results were found in the kidney even though lipid peroxidation is slightly increased by ethanol in this organ.
  A. Diallo , K. Eklu-Gadegkeku , A. Agbonon , K. Aklikokou , E.E. Creppy and M. Gbeassor
  In this study we investigated the acute and subchronic toxicity of hydroalcoholic (50-50: v/v) extract of Lannea kerstingii Engl. and K. Krause (Anacardiaceae) stem bark in Wistar rats. In the acute test, the dose of 5.000 mg kg-1 was used for the test limit. Animals were then observed individually 1 h post dosing and at least once daily for 14 days. The subchronic toxicity was evaluated through biochemical, haematological, body and relative organ weight of rats using daily oral doses of 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 b.wt., during 28 days. The limit dose of 5.000 mg kg-1 did not cause mortality or any sign of acute toxicity in any of the rats tested in the observatory period. In the subchronic test, L. kerstingii at 1000 mg kg-1 decreased significantly (p<0.05) the increment of body weight of rats from the 2nd to the 4th week. The decrease of the increment was 11, 11 and 10% on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th week, respectively. The relative weight of the spleen in the group treated with 1000 mg kg-1 b.wt. (0.19±0.01) showed a significant increase (p<0.05) as compared to control group (0.15±0.01). Biochemical and haematological parameters measured were similar between the control and treated groups.
  A. Missebukpo , K. Metowogo , A. Agbonon , K. Eklu-Gadegbeku , K. Aklikokou and M. Gbeassor
  Ixora coccinea L. (Rubiaceae) possess anti-inflammatory and antitussive properties. It is traditionally used for various respiratory ailments including catarrhal bronchitis cough and asthma. In the present study we investigated anti-asthmatic properties of an hydroalcoholic leaf extract of I. coccinea in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic rat model. We also evaluated the anti-allergic property of the extract by Abdominal Wall (AW) method and histamine-induced cutaneous reaction. Rats were sensitized with intraperitoneal (i.p.) ovalbumin and challenged by OVA intranasally to induce chronic airway inflammation. Randomized treatment groups of sensitized rats received I. coccinea extract or distilled water. I. coccinea extract at doses of 1000 and 1500 mg kg-1 suppressed eosinophilia and significantly inhibited AHR in rat with OVA-induced asthma. Based on lung histopathological study using hematoxylin and eosin I. coccinea reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and repaired epithelial cells damaged. In addition the extract at the same doses significantly decreased the diameter of the blue spot (16 and 55%, respectively) compared with the controls and inhibited the skin reactions induced by histamine (23.55 and 53.36%, respectively). In conclusion our results provide evidence that I. coccinea has anti-asthmatic properties and then can support its use in folk medicine to treat asthma.
  T.S. Kagone , H. Hien , N. Meda , P.S. Diagbouga , A. Sawadogo , J. Drabo , M. Peeters , L. Vergne , E. Delaporte , C. De Souza , M. Gbeassor and J. Simpore
  The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe the genetic variability of HIV strains found in Burkina Faso, (2) to characterize non-B HIV strains mutation profiles selected by ARVs and (3) to detect possible resistances induced by ARV drugs. From 30 October 2002 to 20 November 2003, 132 HIV1-positive patients taking Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) for more than one year in Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouagadougou were included. T-CD4+ lymphocytes count was done using Dynabeads technique while genotypic test and ARV-resistance tests were conducted using Pol sequencing that codes for reverse transcriptase reverse, integrase and protease. Due to undetectable viremia, 86 samples out of 132 could not be characterized. Whereas in the 46 others that had a viral load exceeding 1000 copies mL-1, the following HIV-1 subtypes were identified: CRF06 (54,55%); CRF02(38,63%); CRF01 (4,55%) and subtype A (2,27%). In addition, several mutations related to PI, NRTI and NNRTI resistance were isolated in 27 samples. This study found a huge genetic HIV-1 polymorphism in Burkina Faso. The level of acquired resistance to ARV after one year of treatment amounted 20.4%. These results clearly show that there is imperative need to set up an ARV resistance surveillance network in Burkina Faso to guide treatment strategies and follow the extension of the phenomenon in the country.
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