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Articles by M. Frenneaux
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. Frenneaux
  L. K Williams , S Ellery , K Patel , F Leyva , R. A Bleasdale , T. T Phan , B Stegemann , V Paul , P Steendijk and M. Frenneaux
 

Background— Cardiac resynchronization therapy produces both short-term hemodynamic and long-term symptomatic/mortality benefits in symptomatic heart failure patients with a QRS duration >120 ms. This is conventionally believed to be due principally to relief of dyssynchrony, although we recently showed that relief of external constraint to left ventricular filling may also play a role. In this study, we evaluated the short-term hemodynamic effects in symptomatic patients with a QRS duration <120 ms and no evidence of dyssynchrony on conventional criteria and assessed the effects on contractility and external constraint.

Methods and Results— Thirty heart failure patients (New York Heart Association class III/IV) with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% who were in sinus rhythm underwent pressure-volume studies at the time of pacemaker implantation. External constraint, left ventricular stroke work, dP/dtmax, and the slope of the preload recruitable stroke work relation were measured from the end-diastolic pressure-volume relation before and during delivery of biventricular and left ventricular pacing. The following changes were observed during delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy: Cardiac output increased by 25±5% (P<0.05), absolute left ventricular stroke work increased by 26±5% (P<0.05), the slope of the preload recruitable stroke work relation increased by 51±15% (P<0.05), and dP/dtmax increased by 9±2% (P<0.05). External constraint was present in 15 patients and was completely abolished by both biventricular and left ventricular pacing (P<0.05).

Conclusion— Cardiac resynchronization therapy results in an improvement in short-term hemodynamic variables in patients with a QRS <120 ms related to both contractile improvement and relief of external constraint. These findings provide a potential physiological basis for cardiac resynchronization therapy in this patient population.

  K Abozguia , P Elliott , W McKenna , T. T Phan , G Nallur Shivu , I Ahmed , A. R Maher , K Kaur , J Taylor , A Henning , H Ashrafian , H Watkins and M. Frenneaux
  Background—

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients exhibit myocardial energetic impairment, but a causative role for this energy deficiency in the pathophysiology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy remains unproven. We hypothesized that the metabolic modulator perhexiline would ameliorate myocardial energy deficiency and thereby improve diastolic function and exercise capacity.

Methods and Results—

Forty-six consecutive patients with symptomatic exercise limitation (peak Vo2 <75% of predicted) caused by nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (mean age, 55±0.26 years) were randomized to perhexiline 100 mg (n=24) or placebo (n=22). Myocardial ratio of phosphocreatine to adenosine triphosphate, an established marker of cardiac energetic status, as measured by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, left ventricular diastolic filling (heart rate normalized time to peak filling) at rest and during exercise using radionuclide ventriculography, peak Vo2, symptoms, quality of life, and serum metabolites were assessed at baseline and study end (4.6±1.8 months). Perhexiline improved myocardial ratios of phosphocreatine to adenosine triphosphate (from 1.27±0.02 to 1.73±0.02 versus 1.29±0.01 to 1.23±0.01; P=0.003) and normalized the abnormal prolongation of heart rate normalized time to peak filling between rest and exercise (0.11±0.008 to –0.01±0.005 versus 0.15±0.007 to 0.11±0.008 second; P=0.03). These changes were accompanied by an improvement in primary end point (peak Vo2) (22.2±0.2 to 24.3±0.2 versus 23.6±0.3 to 22.3±0.2 mL · kg–1 · min–1; P=0.003) and New York Heart Association class (P<0.001) (all P values ANCOVA, perhexiline versus placebo).

Conclusions—

In symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, perhexiline, a modulator of substrate metabolism, ameliorates cardiac energetic impairment, corrects diastolic dysfunction, and increases exercise capacity. This study supports the hypothesis that energy deficiency contributes to the pathophysiology and provides a rationale for further consideration of metabolic therapies in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00500552.

  T. T Phan , G. N Shivu , K Abozguia , C Davies , M Nassimizadeh , D Jimenez , R Weaver , I Ahmed and M. Frenneaux
 

Background— This study assessed the chronotropic response to exercise and heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise in a carefully phenotyped group of patients with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HfpEF) and a control group of similar age and gender distribution.

Methods and Results— We studied 41 patients with HfpEF, 41 healthy controls, and 16 hypertensive controls. None were taking HR-limiting medications. All study participants had clinical examination, 12-lead ECG, pulmonary function test, echocardiogram, and metabolic exercise test with HR monitoring throughout exercise. Chronotropic response was measured by the percentage of the HR reserve used during maximal exercise and the peak exercise HR as a percentage of predicted maximal HR. Patients with HfpEF were generally women (70%), overweight, aged 69±8 years. Controls were of similar gender (63%) and age (67±6 years). Patients with HfpEF had significantly reduced peak VO2 compared with controls (20±4 mL · kg–1 · min–1 versus 31±6 mL · kg–1 · min–1, P<0.001) and greater minute ventilation-carbon dioxide production relationship (Ve/Vco2 slope) (33±6 versus 29±4, P<0.001). Chronotropic incompetence was significantly more common in patients with HfpEF compared with matched healthy controls as measured by the percentage of the HR reserve used during maximal exercise (63% versus 2%, <0.001) and percentage of predicted maximal HR (34% versus 2%, <0.001). In addition, abnormal HR recovery 1-minute after exercise (defined as the reduction in the HR from peak exercise 1-minute after exercise) was also significantly more common in patients with HfpEF compared with controls (23% versus 2%, P=0.01). Hypertensive controls showed similar chronotropic response to peak exercise and HR recovery after exercise as healthy controls.

Conclusions— Patients with HfpEF have impaired chronotropic incompetence during maximal exercise and abnormal HR recovery after exercise.

 
 
 
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