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Articles by M. Farnell
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. Farnell
  S. Dunn-Horrocks , M. Pichardo-Fuchs , J. Lee , C. Ruiz-Feria , C. Creger , D. Hyatt , K. Stringfellow , M. Sanchez and M. Farnell
  Human consumption of omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (n-3 PUFA) has increased due to reported health benefits. Despite the benefits of n-3 PUFA eggs, the addition of omega-3 enriched feedstuffs like flaxseed and fish oil may reduce egg quality. A standard n-PUFA diet containing flaxseed and fish oil (Diet A), a standard n-PUFA diet supplemented with vitamin B6 (Diet B), a standard n-PUFA diet without fish oil (Diet C) and a conventional milo ration (Diet D) were fed to four separate groups of laying hens to evaluate the effect of these diets on egg quality. Three individual shipments of eggs collected from hens fed these diets were received from a commercial layer operation, where these hens were reared. The eggs were stored for three weeks in a refrigerator to simulate consumer storage conditions. The eggs were evaluated for quality by determining whole egg weight, yolk weight, albumen thickness and Vitelline Membrane Strength (VMS). Significant increases in egg weights were observed in Diet B samples in the first egg shipment and Diets B, C and D in the third egg shipment. Yolk weights were significantly increased with Diet B samples from the third collection. No differences were observed in albumen thickness in any of the three shipments of eggs. Numerical increases in VMS were observed in Diets B, C and D in each of the three shipments, but only the third shipment had significant differences with these treatments. These data suggests that the addition of flaxseed and fish oil may negatively affect egg quality. The addition of vitamin B6 or the removal of fish oil to a standard n-PUFA diet may be comparable to a conventional layer ration’s effect on egg quality.
  C.A. Ruiz- Feria , E. Larrison , M. Davis , M. Farnell , J. Carey , J.L. Grimes and J. Pitts
  The effects of Sodium Bisulfate (SB) supplementation on growth, intestinal integrity, blood gas chemistry and litter microbiology of broiler chickens were evaluated. Birds were fed a corn-soybean meal diet meeting all of the NRC (1994) requirements. In Exp. 1 birds were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control diet, CTL), 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75% (w/w) of feed-grade SB (SB25, SB50 and SB75, respectively); in Exp. 2 and 3 only the CTL, SB25 and SB75 diets were evaluated. In Exp. 4 the chicks (n = 920) were placed in 20 pens and fed the CTL diet, or the SB25 diet offered during the first 21, 35, or 49 d (21D, 35D and 49D, respectively); the CTL diet was offered until the end of experiment (d 49) for treatments 21D and 35D. The data was analyzed as a two way ANOVA (diet and gender as main effects). In Exp. 1 birds fed diets with SB had lower FC than birds fed the CTL diet, but BW was not different among treatments. In Exp. 2 females fed the SB25 diet were heavier (p<0.05) at d 21 than females fed the CTL or the SB75 diet; the FC was similar among groups. In Exp. 3 chickens fed the SB25 or SB75 diets were consistently heavier and had a lower FC (p<0.05) than birds fed the CTL diet. In Exp. 4 birds fed the SB25 diet had lower BW than birds fed the CTL diet; however birds in the 35D or 49D treatments had a better FC than birds fed the CTL diet. The litter of birds fed the SB25 diet had lower levels of Salmonella at wk 4 and 6 in Experiment 3 and at wk 4 in Exp. 4. Neither the duodenum villus height nor the blood gas composition was affected by the dietary treatments. Our results show that SB supplementation improves productive performance and reduces the environmental levels of Salmonella, with variable efficacy, perhaps due to seasonal conditions.
  J.R. Moyle , F. Solis de los Santos , G.R. Huff , W.E. Huff , N.C. Rath , M. Farnell , A.C. Fanatico , S.C. Ricke , C. Enders , U. Sonnenborn , D.J. Donoghue and A.M. Donoghue
  Concerns over the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry production has led to interest in finding alternative growth promoters such as natural compounds and probiotics. Supplementing feed with probiotics has shown to enhance the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) development of chickens and turkeys. The human probiotic, E. coli Nissle 1917 (EC Nissle) has been shown to stimulate innate immunity in mammals and to increase body weight in poultry. However, the effect of this probiotic on GIT development has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of EC Nissle in the maturation of the GIT of young turkey poults. Fifty-four day of hatch turkey poults were housed in battery brooders and fed either a standard diet or the same diet containing of 108cfu EC Nissle /bird/day for 21 days. For GIT morphometric analysis, birds were euthanized on days 4, 7 or 21 and samples collected to evaluate villus height, villus surface area, lamina propria thickness, crypt depth and the number of neutral goblet cells. GIT morphometric analysis was conducted on duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum on days 4 and 7 and the duodenum on day 21. Villus height and villus surface of the GIT were higher in the EC Nissle treatments compared to control (p<0.05) on all sampling days with the exception of the jejunum and ileum on day 4. Lamina propria thickness and crypt depth were also increased in the EC Nissle treatment in all sections of the GIT except on day 4 in the jejunum. These data suggest that this human E. coli isolate enhanced the maturation of the GIT in young turkey poults and may have potential as an alternative to growth promoting antibiotics.
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