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Articles by M. Chaudhary
Total Records ( 19 ) for M. Chaudhary
  V.K. Dwivedi , M. Chaudhary , A. Soni and S.M. Shrivastava
  Free radicals are causative factors for aminoglycoside induced renal toxicity. The aim of present study was to evaluate effect of fixed dose combination of cefepime+amikacin (Potentox) as well as ceftazidime+tobramycin (Tobracef) antibiotics on antioxidant enzymes (Super oxide dismutase, Catalase and Glutathione reductase) along with (free radical mediated damage) malonaldialdehyde levels and extracellular antioxidant enzymes (creatinine, total bilirubin and uric acid enzymes ) in kidney tissue of Mus musculus mice. Present findings showed that the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly lowered along with increase in MDA (malonaldialdehyde) levels and extracellular antioxidants after single treatment of aminoglycosides (amikacin and tobramycin) as compared to control group. A significant improvement in antioxidant enzymes along with significant decrease in creatinine, total bilirubin, uric acid and malonaldialdehyde (MDA) levels were observed in fixed dose combination of cefepime plus amikacin as well as ceftazidime+tobramycin treated groups compared to amikacin and tobramycin alone treated group. These results indicate that a fixed dose combination of cephalosporins with aminoglycosides using chemical vector mediated technology acts as an antioxidant and prevents nephrotoxicity induced by aminoglycosides.
  A. Ahmad , M. Chaudhary , A. Soni , A. Payasi and V.K. Dwivedi
  In the present study, the researchers have tried to determine the toxicity of a novel fixed dose combination of ofloxacin plus ornidazole (mebatic) vs. ofloxacin, ornidazole and metronidazole alone drugs in the plasma of Wister rats. Total thirty Wister rats were randomly selected and divided into five groups of six rats each. Group I was control normal saline (0.9% NaCl) treated group where as rest of four groups were treated with respective drugs. The drugs were given to animals intravenously for 24 days and blood samples were collected on 12th and 24th day after treatment for the measurement of biochemical parameters. Present results showed that there was insignificant increase in hemoglobin level on 12th and 24th day in mebatic treated group as compared with other treated groups. The levels of uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, bilirubin and hepatic enzymes were found to be lowered but insignificant in mebatic treated group on 12th and 24th day treatment in comparison to ofloxacin, ornidazole as well as metronidazole alone treated groups. These levels were found to be almost near to normal level in mebatic treated group. When ofloxacin, ornidazole as well as metronidazole alone treated groups were compared to control group, these hepatic and renal parameters were significantly increased except in mebatic treated group. The level of free radical mediated damage was also significantly decreased in mebatic treated group in comparison to other treated groups. Therefore, these findings concluded that mebatic drug is less toxic and most effective than ofloxacin, ornidazole and metronidazole alone which improved hepatic and renal enzymes and free radical mediated damage.
  M. Chaudhary , R. Sehgal , P. Arora and N. Kharb
  The present study was conducted to evaluate effect of sub-acute intravenous injection of ETB receptor agonist IRL-1620 in mice. Swiss albino mice (n = 24, weighing 20-25 g) were divided into two groups (12 animal each), control group (0 μg kg-1) and IRL-1620 treated group (1 μg/kg/min, i.v., for 30 days). Each group was further subdivided into two groups depending on sex of mice having 6 animals each. No significant change in animal body weight, hemogram, liver function test and renal function tests was observed on treatment with IRL-1620. Histological examination of liver was normal and Kidneys showed mild congestion. In conclusion, sub-acute dose (1 μg/kg/min, i.v.,) of endothelin receptor agonist ETB IRL-1620 did not cause toxic effect on liver and kidney.
  A. Soni , V.K. Dwivedi , M. Chaudhary , S.M. Shrivastava and V. Naithani
  This study was designed to determine the efficacy of ampucare against oxidative organ damage distant from the original burn wound. Under brief ketamine anesthesia, the shaved dorsum of the rats was exposed to 80°C (burn group) by hot wax for 5 min. The rats were fed standard pelleted diet and water ad libitum. The test room was air conditioned with temperature 23±2°C, humidity 65±5% and with artificial fluorescent light (10-14 h of light and dark), respectively. Rats were left for 24 h after burn injury and blood were taken for the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activity, malonaldialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and total protein level. Present findings showed that activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased along with increased level of MDA, MPO and XO in untreated group at 7th and 14th day of study. Similarly, the level of total protein was also found to be significantly lowered in untreated group at 7th and 14th day. These antioxidant enzymes (SOD, Catalase) along with MDA, MPO and XO were improved and come back to normal level. In conclusion, ampucare scavenges free oxygen radicals, decreases MDA or MPO level in blood and increase the antioxidant enzyme activity by preventing its inhibition. Considering our results, ampucare would be a beneficial for humans who suffer from thermal injury.
  M.R. Siddiqui , A. Tariq , A. Ahmad , M. Chaudhary , S.M. Shrivastava and R.K. Singh
  Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the determination of milrinone in pharmaceutical formulations. The first method is based on the charge transfer complexation reaction of milrinone with 2, 3-Dichloro-5, 6-Dicyanobenzoquinone, DDQ while the second method is based on charge transfer reaction of milrinone with p-Chloranilic Acid (pCA). Under the optimized experimental conditions Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 2-40 μg mL-1 for method A and 5-100, 2-40 μg mL-1 for method B. The recovery ranged from 100.06 -100.11 for method A and from 99.34 -99.97 for method B. The coefficient of correlation was found to be 0.9998 for A and 0.9999 for B and the detection limit for method A and method B was found to be 0.765 and 3.35, respectively. Both the methods have been applied to determination of milrinone in the pharmaceutical formulation. Results of the analysis are validated statistically.
  S.M. Shrivastava and M. Chaudhary
  In present study, comparative Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (AST) of combination of cefepime and sulbactam in with cefepime was carried out using susceptibility discs of supime (CPS) and cefepime (CPM). In all organisms under study, lytic zone produced by CPS was bigger than that of CPM. In case of P. aeruginosa more than 48% and A. baumanii more than 78% increase in lytic zone size was reported in CPS in comparison to CPM. It is evident that the combination of cefepime and sulbactam has better microbial efficacy when compared with cefepime alone. Use of Supime, the combination of cefepime and sulbactam, in clinical condition, may be preferred over cefepime alone after of successful clinical studies.
  V.K. Dwivedi , A. Soni , A. Payasi , A. Ahmad , Shambhu P. Singh and M. Chaudhary
  The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of levofloxacin and potentox drugs in osteomyelitis -induced rat model. Staphylococcus aureus 100 μL (1x106 CFU mL-1) was inoculated into the proximal metaphysis of the tibia for induction of osteomyelitis. Body weight and temperature of osteomyelitis-induced rats were monitored every 4th day for three weeks before and after treatment with levofloxacin and potentox. Levofloxacin and potentox were given to animals by intravenously for 21 days. To determine the biochemical parameters (Protein, CRP, Na, Phosphorus, Calcium levels), hepatic enzymes as well as renal function test along with cytokines and malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the serum of osteomyelitis-induced untreated and treated groups. Our results showed that the levels of biochemical parameters as well as renal function test along with malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase levels were significantly altered in the untreated group as compared to levofloxacin and potentox treated groups. When levofloxacin treated group was compared to potentox-treated group, the renal function test and levels of biochemical parameters along with malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase levels and cytokines were significantly improved in the serum of potentox-treated group. The hepatic enzyme activity was found to be higher in levofloxacin treated group in comparison to potentox-treated group. These study concluded that potentox act as an antioxidant by improving free radical mediated damage and prevents osteomyelitis infection and hepatoxicity in comparison to levofloxacin, caused by Staphylococcus aureus microorganism.
  V.K. Dwivedi , M. Chaudhary , A. Soni , J. Yadav , A. Tariq , M.R. Siddiqui , A. Ahmad and P.S. Negi
  The present study was to investigate the comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone and a fixed dose combination of ceftriaxone plus sulbactam along with VRP1034 (Sulbactomax) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of meningitis induced rat model. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups of six rats each. Meningitis were induced by MRSA strain (log 106 cfu mL-1). Group I was infected group; whereas group II and III were ceftriaxone and sulbactomax treated groups. Drugs were analyzed in CSF by high performance liquid chromatography. Some biochemical parameters were studied in infected and treated groups. Present results showed that the mean level of ceftriaxone drug concentration was increased significantly in sulbactomax treated group in comparison to ceftriaxone alone treated group. Glucose level was increased in sulbactomax treated group as compared to ceftriaxone alone treated group. The levels of protein, calcium and phosphorus were significantly lowered in both treated group as compared to infected group. These biochemical parameters were decreased along with increased glucose level in sulbactomax treated group in comparison to ceftriaxone alone treated group. Present findings concluded that sulbactomax enhanced the penetration rate in CSF than ceftriaxone alone due to VRP1034. It plays a therapeutic role in crossing blood brain barrier and helps in prevention of bacterial meningitis infection.
  A. Tamta , M. Chaudhary and R. Sehgal
  The objective of current study was to evaluate deleterious effects of a potential combination of cefpirome, a member of the latest class of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, in combination of β-lactamase inhibitor, sulbactum. To assess the toxicity profile of fixed dose regimen Pirotum (Cefpirome+Sulbactum in 2:1 ratio), a repeated dose subacute toxicity study was conducted on Swiss albino mice and Wistar rat (male and female). Three different dose levels (30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1) of combination were administered for twenty eight days. Physical parameters, hematological parameters and biochemical parameters related to liver toxicity and nephrotoxicity were evaluated as end point parameters. Findings of present study were also supported by hematological as well as histopathology parameters. Data of current study indicated that Pirotum exerted no deleterious effect on blood, liver and kidney function as no alteration was observed in biochemical parameters at any dose level.
  M.R. Siddiqui , A. Tariq , K.D. Reddy , P.S. Negi , J. Yadav , A. Bhatnagar , M. Chaudhary and R. Singh
  A simple and sensitive assay method was developed for simultaneous determination of cefepime and sulbactam sodium in Supime (a fixed dose combined formulation of cefepime and sulbactam manufactured by Venus Remedies limited, India) with UV detection at 230 nm. Chromatographic separation of two drugs was achieved on a Hypersil ODS C-18 column using a binary mixture of acetonitrile and tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide as a mobile phase adjusted to pH 5.0 with orthophosphoric acid in ratio 20:80 v/v ratio. The developed liquid chromatographic method offers good linearity, accuracy and precision over the concentration range of 125-750 ppm for cefepime and 62.5-375 ppm for sulbactam sodium. This method was successfully applied for the quality control of formulated products and plasma samples containing Cefepime and sulbactam. Since, Supime, a fixed dose combination of cefepime and sulbactam is a research product of Venus Remedies limited the literature lacks any method of analysis for such combination, the main motive behind this experiment was to develop and validate a method which could be used for the quality control of cefepime and sulbactam in combined dosage form.
  V. Gupta , S.K. Shukla , S.M. Shrivastava , S. Shukla , K. Kumar , D.P. Saxena , B. Shrivastava and M. Chaudhary
  The aim of this research was to study the influence of formulation parameters in the preparation of sustained release aceclofenac loaded PLGA microspheres by emulsion solvent diffusion technique. The methods used in this components and their concentration necessary for organogels formation were evaluated using phase diagram Solubility of aceclofenac was determined, Characterization of Poly (DL-lactide)-co-glycolide (PLGA) polymer, solubility assessment of aceclofenac, drug-excipients compatibility studies, in vitro analytical method development , preparation of aceclofenac-loaded PLGA microspheres, characterization of the formulations. Prepared microspheres were optimized and evaluated for different parameters and best formulation was subjected to in vitro drug release studies. The prepared microspheres were white, free-flowing and almost spherical in shape. In vitro drug release studies were carried out up to 24 h in three different pH media, i.e., 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2), phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The drug-polymer concentration of dispersed phase influences the particle size and drug release properties. In nut shell it may be concluded that sustained release aceclofenac microspheres can be successfully prepared and used parenterally with increased therapeutic value and reduced side effects.
  A. Soni , V.K. Dwivedi and M. Chaudhary
  The study was planned to monitor antioxidant and extracellular parameters on different days of interval in blood of infected and treated groups of mice during abdominal infection by treatment of ceftriaxone plus vancomycin (vancoplus). Fifty-four young Mus musculus mice were divided into three groups as follows: control group (n = 6), infected group (n = 24) and treated with CV group (n = 24). Intraperitonial injection of Escherichia coli (1x106cfu) was given for intra abdominal infection. FDC of CV was administered intravenously in the dosage of 42.8 mg kg-1 body twice daily for 7 days. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase as well as the concentration of malonaldialdehyde, as an indicator of lipid peroxidation were measured to evaluate oxidative stress in blood. A significant increased in malonaldialdehyde, creatinine and uric acid levels (p<0.001) were found in infected group when compared to control and treated groups. Superoxide dismutase (p<0.01) and catalase (p<0.001) activities were found to be decreased in infected group as compared to control and treated groups. It can be concluded that ceftriaxone-vancomycin shows broad spectrum against E. coli and prevent oxidative damage of tissue injury by reducing reactive oxygen species. These finding suggests that, based on their anti-oxidative capability, these agents could provide benefit in anti-infective therapy and reduces safely relief against intra-abdominal infection.
  A. Soni , V.K. Dwivedi , M. Chaudhary and S.M. Shrivastava
  The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of ceftriaxone, vancomycin and its fixed dose combination of ceftriaxone plus vancomycin (Vancoplus) for the treatment of meningitis induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in rat model. The MRSA strain ATCC 43300 was used to induce meningitis in rat model. The rats were fed standard pelleted diet and water ad libitum. Thirty rats were divided into five groups containing six rats in each group. The vancomycin group received 14.2 mg kg-1 b.wt./day, the ceftriaxone group received 28.57 mg kg-1 b.wt./day, the vancoplus group received 42.8 mg kg-1 b.w./day, control and infected group received normal saline. Present findings showed that activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly increased (p<0.001) along with decreased (p<0.001) in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) level in vancoplus treated group as compared to ceftriaxone and vancomycin. The level of adenylate kinase and xanthine oxidase enzymes also become lowered in vancoplus treated group as compared to ceftriaxone and vancomycin. The levels of total protein, calcium and phosphorus were also increased significantly (p<0.001) along with decreased (p<0.001) in glucose level in cerebral spinal fluid of infected group as compared to control group. After treatment with vancoplus, levels of total protein, calcium and phosphorous become reduced along with raised in glucose level as compared to ceftriaxone and vancomycin group. These findings indicate that vancoplus is more effective than ceftriaxone and vancomycin alone for improvement of oxidant and antioxidant levels, it also crosses the blood brain barrier more faster than ceftriaxone and vancomycin alone and cure bacterial meningitis.
  S.M. Shrivastava and M. Chaudhary
  Present study was undertaken to evaluate antimicrobial response of potentox against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Antibiotic Susceptibility Test (AST) of potentox was performed on test organisms in comparison with cefepime and amikacin individually. In case of P. vulgaris, E. coli, B. subtilis, MIC were found to be 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg L-1, for potentox, respectively. In cefepime alone the MIC was found to be 1, 2 and 8 mg L-1, respectively and in amikacin alone the MIC was found to be 2, 2 and 4 mg L-1. The AST result shows that potentox is having more lytic zone than cefepime and amikacin alone. In organisms under study, antimicrobial response of Potentox was found to be better than any of it's components.
  A. Tamta and M. Chaudhary
  The present study investigated safety/toxicity profile of Sulbactomax (Ceftriaxone-Sulbactam for injection), a fixed dose combination, in Mus musculus mice and SD rats at three dose levels, 10, 50 and 150 mg kg-1 ranging from asymptomatic to high dose. Sulbactomax was introduced in order to enhance the antimicrobial efficacy and to combat resistance towards beta-lactamase producing bacteria. The combination has been reported to be highly effective as well as synergistic for many resistant strains and carry the potential for its usage in empirical therapy for various bacterial infections. To establish the safety profile of combination, 28 days repeated dose sub-acute toxicity study was conducted on mice and rat (male and female). Various hematological parameters were studied in addition to physiological and biochemical parameters in order to study toxicity profile of Sulbactomax. There were no signs of toxicity observed at any of the dose levels used in this study. Animals from control and different treated groups exhibited normal body weight gain throughout the dosing period of 28 days. No mortality was observed in any of the treatment groups during the course of whole study. Hematological as well as biochemical parameters were unaltered at all three dose levels in Sulbactomax treated rat and mice. From the present study, it can be concluded that Sulbactomax (the fixed dose combination of Ceftriaxone -Sulbactam) is safe even at the dose level which is several folds of the intended human dose.
  S.M. Shrivastava , S. Kumar and M. Chaudhary
  Present study attempts to determine antimicrobial efficacy of Ampucare stored at different conditions by time kill curve studies against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. In all storage conditions, a rapid killing time was achieved by Ampucare. Bacterial count was less than 3 Log10 cfu mL-1 after 6 h of study in all organisms under study. No deviation in pattern of bacterial inhibition was found in all conditions of storage of Ampucare. There was no re growth reported even after exposure for longer time under influence of Ampucare. In conclusion, Ampucare has good antimicrobial activity under all storage conditions of study against E. coli, S. aureus, P. vulgaris and K. pneumoniae.
  A. Soni , M. Chaudhary , A. Tamta , R. Sehgal , S.M. Shrivastava and V.K. Dwivedi
  This study investigated to comapre the efficacy of ofloxacin, ornidazole and mebatic (Fixed dose combination ornidazole plus ofloxacin). Various parameters related to blood, liver and kidney were studied in the monotherapy as well as in the combination therapy. To further explore the mechanisms of better efficacy showed by combination, antioxidant defense status was also explored. The mice were fed standard pelleted diet and water ad libitum. The test room was air conditioned with temperature 22±2°C, humidity 60.5% and with artificial fluorescent light 10-12 h of light and dark, respectively. Twenty four mice were divided into four groups containing six mice in each group. Ofloxacin treated group recieved 3.3 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1, ornidazole treated group received 8.3 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1 and mebatic treated group received 11.6 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1 whereas control group received normal saline. The findings of present study suggested that the combination formulation showed no signs of toxicity when tested for liver and kidney related parameters. The combination formulation also attenuated the oxidative stress and also preserved the antioxidant enzyme levels (catalase and superoxide dismutase) in treated group. From the results of our study it can be concluded that the combination was safe as compared to treatment of the individual agents. It was also infer that the normalized antioxidant defense status might be responsible for decrease in hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in the combination group as compared with monotherapies using either agent.
  S.M. Shrivastava , S. Kumar and M. Chaudhary
  The present study is undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of a new Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) of Ofloxacin Ornidazole for infusion against some aerobic bacteria in comparison with Ofloxacin and Ornidazole individually. Antibiotic Susceptibility Test (AST) and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of FDC of Ofloxacin Ornidazole, Ofloxacin and Ornidazole for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. epidermis and MRSA were determined by disc method and broth micro dilution method. In Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test, lytic zone of combination was found to be more than Ofloxacin or Ornidazole alone in all microbial strains under study. The MIC value of FDC of Ofloxacin Ornidazole was found to be higher than both Ofloxacin and Ornidazole. The data suggests that fixed dose combination of Ofloxacin and Ornidazole can be a good option for use in mixed microbial infection of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria and pathogenic protozoans.
  A. Soni , M. Chaudhary , V.K. Dwivedi , S.M. Shrivastava and R. Sehgal
  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various treatment of glycerol, mannitol, neurotol and neurotol plus on xanthine oxidase, adenylate kinase activities and MDA levels in alcohol induced ischemic rat model. Twenty Wistar rats (weighing 100- 200 g) were divided into four groups, glycerol treated group (20%), mannitol treated group (10%), fixed dose combination of glycerol (10%)+ mannitol (20%) (Neurotol) treated group and neurotol plus treated group (glycerol (10%)+mannitol (10%)). A significant decrease in xanthine oxidase activity, adenylate kinase activity and MDA levels were observed on treatments but decrease was maximum in neurotol plus treated groups suggesting that it has better free radical scavenging activity than glycerol, mannitol and neurotol.
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